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                      1. 拉斯克基础医学奖成果性质变迁探析

                        杨中楷,王雪莹,高霞 (大连理工大学科学学与科技管理研究所暨WISE实验室,辽宁大连116023) 摘要:以2016年拉斯克奖的“颠倒”现象作为研究缘起,梳理70年来拉斯克基础医学奖得主的专利数据,基于统计结果进行解读,探索拉斯克基础医学奖成果性质的变迁轨迹。研究发
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                          YANGZHONGKAI,WANGXUEYING,GAOXIA


                        决战棋牌  (DALIANLIGONGDAXUEKEXUEXUEYUKEJIGUANLIYANJIUSUOJIWISESHIYANSHI,LIAONINGDALIAN116023)


                          摘要:以2016年拉斯克奖的“颠倒”现象作为研究缘起,梳理70年来拉斯克基础医学奖得主的专利数据,基于统计结果进行解读,探索拉斯克基础医学奖成果性质的变迁轨迹。研究发现拉斯克基础医学奖得主中专利持有者的比例越来越大,这意味着他们所开展的科学研究已不再是纯基础研究,是居于基础向应用端转化中间阶段的成果形式。这一变迁与转化医学的发展轨迹有着一致性,是技术科学中介与桥梁作用的体现。基于此,我国应尽快在科研经费投入和人才培养、学科建设等方面做出调整。


                          GUANJIANCI:LASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANG;ZHUANHUAYIXUE;JISHUKEXUE


                          1YANJIUBEIJING


                          2016年的拉斯克基础医学奖,颁给了3位临床医生(WilliamKaelinJr、PeterRatcliffe和GreggLSemenaz)。他们的研究揭示了人体和大多数动物的细胞对氧耐受的感应机制,使得人类可以清楚地了解了人和生物依赖氧气的基本原理。临床医学奖则分别颁给了3位基础科学家(RalfF.w.Bartenschlager、CharlerIce和MichaelSofia)。他们的突出贡献是揭示了丙肝病毒的致病机理,并以此开发特效药,治愈了丙肝患者。


                          LINCHUANGYISHENGHUODEJICHUYIXUEJIANG,CONGSHIJICHUKEXUEYANJIUDEKEXUEJIAHUODELINCHUANGYIXUEJIANG。ZHENDUICIQINGKUANG,MEIGUOHUOHUADEYIXUEYANJIUYUANFUYUANZHANGKALUOER(SeanB.Carroll)QUEDINGDIZHICHU:LASIKEYIXUEJIANGDEZONGZHIJIUSHIJIANGLINEIXIEZHUANHUAYIXUEYANJIUDECHENGGONGANLI。ZHEIZHANXIANCHUXIANDAIYIXUETUFEIMENGJINDEYIGEJIBENJIZHI:JICHUHELINCHUANGYANJIUDESHUIRUJIAORONG[1]。LINCHUANGWENTIJIJICHUYANJIUTICHULEFANGXIANG,JICHUYANJIUJILINCHUANGLIAOXIAOZHURULEHUOLI,JICHUYANJIUYULINCHUANGYANJIUZHIJIANDEJIEXIANZHENGZAIMOHU。YIJICHUYIXUEJIANGWEILI,3WEIDEZHUDEYANJIUCHENGGUOSUIRANBEIGUIRUDAOLEJICHUYIXUEJIANGDEFANCHOU,DANTAMENZAOZAI2000NIANZUOYOUJIUYIJINGSHENQINGBINGHUODELEFAMINGZHUANLI,ZAIJIESHIYANGNAISHOUJIZHIDEJICHUSHANGTIGONGLEYONGYUYUFANGHEZHILIAOQUEYANGXIANGGUANBINGZHENGDEFANGFA。CONGZHEIGEJIAODUKAN,TAMENDEYANJIUCHENGGUOYIJINGTUIJINDAOJICHUYIXUEHELINCHUANGYANJIUDEZHONGJIANJIEDUAN,HENNANZAIJIANGQIGUIRUCHUNJICHUYANJIUDEFANCHOU,SUOYI,GENBENWENTIBINGBUSHIDEJIANGZHESHENFENDE“DIANDAO”,BENZHISHANGSHIHUOJIANGCHENGGUODEXINGZHIFASHENGLEGAIBIAN。


                          对于上述现象,除了在科学网等网络媒体上有所讨论之外,并未更多地引起对其中所蕴含的科技发展规律的关注。普赖斯曾经指出:科学学就是“科学、技术、医学等等的历史、哲学社会学、心理学经济学、运筹学及其他”[2]。20世纪80年代有学者指出“医学学”(以“基础医学”、“临床医学”等为分支学科)应作为科学学的一个大的分支[3]。可见,医学本来是科学学的重要研究领域,医学科学发展中的重要现象也应该成为科学学的主要研究对象。但几十年过去,科学学界对医学的研究多数集中在医学领域的文献计量分析等外围研究层面,较少地能够站在科学学的高度,探寻医学领域的历史发展规律和动因,这是科学学研究中对医学科学研究的缺位和不足。


                        决战棋牌  JIYUSHANGSHULILUNYUXIANSHIDEXUQIU,BENWENYIYUCONGKEXUEXUEDEYANJIUSHIJIAOCHUFA,JIYUDUILASIKEHUOJIANGCHENGGUODEXINGZHIKAOCHA,TANXUNJICHU—LINCHUANG“SHUIRUJIAORONG”XIANXIANGDELISHIYUANYUAN,FAXIANQIBEIHOUDEYANHUADONGLI,JIESHIHEYUCEQIWEILAIDEFAZHANQUSHI,WEIWOGUO“ZHUANHUAYIXUE”DEFAZHANTIGONGJUECECANKAOHEDUICEJIANYI。


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                          SHOUCIQIFA,WOMENKEYIDUILASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGDEDEZHUSUOHUODEDEZHUANLIQINGKUANGJINXINGKAOCHA,CONGCHENGGUOXINGZHIBIANHUADEJIAODUKAOCHAJICHUYIXUEXIANGLINCHUANGYIXUEZHUANHUADEQUSHI。WOMENJIASHEJICHUYIXUEDEZHUYAOCHENGGUOYINGGAISHIKEXUELUNWENWEIZHU,DANRUGUOYIDUANSHIJIANNEIJICHUYIXUEJIANGDEZHUDEZHUANLIHUOQULIANGDADAOYIDINGCHENGDU,ZEKEYIJIEHEJUTIQINGKUANGDUIJIANGXIANGCHENGGUODEXINGZHIJINXINGPANDUANFENXI[5]。


                          2.2SHUJULAIYUANYUCHULIFANGFA


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                          3LASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGDEZHUDEZHUANLISHUJU


                          LASIKEJIANGCONG1946NIANSHELIZHIJINYIYU70NIAN,HUOJIANGZHEZHONGDUO,WEIBIANYUFENXI,WOMENFENSANGEJIEDUANZHANXIANJICHUYIXUEJIANGDEZHUDEZHUANLIQINGKUANG。BIAO1WEI1946—1966NIANJIANHUOJIANGZHEDEZHUANLIQINGKUANG,GONGYOU44WEIHUOJIANGZHE,QIZHONGYOU9WEIKEJIANSUODAOZHUANLI,YUEZHANGAIJIEDUANZONGHUOJIANGRENSHUDE20%。1948NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEDIWEINIAO(VincentduVigneaud)HEWAKESIMAN(SelmanA.Waksman)FENBIEYU1951NIANHE1945NIANQUDEGUANYUQINGMEIANHEFANGSHEJUNSUDEZHUANLI;1954NIANHUOJIANGDEAIBOTE(AlbertSzent-Gyorgyi)YU1957NIANHUODEZHUANLI“HEGANDUOLINSUANDEHECHENG”;1955NIANHUOJIANGDELINKEYU1949NIANHUOQUZHUANLI“4-QIANGJIXIANGDOUSUDEHECHENG”,WEIXUEYENINGGU、XUESHUANZHILIAOZUOCHULEGONGXIAN;1958NIANHUOJIANGDEPUKE(TheodorePuck)YU1993NIANHUODEZHUANLI“QUFENZHENGCHANGXIBAOYUAIXIBAODEFANGFA”,SIKERANMU(GerhardSchramm)YU1961NIANHUODESHOUXIANGGUANYUHEGANSUANZHIBEIDEZHUANLI,BINGYU1967NIANHUODEMEIGUOZHUANLI;1960NIANDEHUOJIANGZHELUSIKA(ErnstRuska)HEHELIER(JamesHillier)FENBIEYU1942NIANHE1943NIANHUODEXIANWEIJINGXIANGGUANDEMEIGUOZHUANLI;1964NIANYINYANJIUDNAYUAIZHENGBINGDUJIANLIANXIHUOJIANGDEDUERBEIKE,YU1986NIANHUODELEMINGWEI“JUYOUZHONGZUBIAOMIANDANBAIDEBINGDU”DEZHUANLI。


                        决战棋牌  BIAO11946—1966NIANHUOJIANGZHEZHUANLIQINGKUANG


                          pagenumber_ebook=260,pagenumber_book=253


                          BIAO2WEI1967—1996NIANJIANHUOJIANGZHEDEZHUANLIQINGKUANG,ZAIZHEI30NIANJIANGONGYOU65MINGHUOJIANGZHE,QIZHONG32WEIKEJIANSUODAOZHUANLI,YUEZHANGAIJIEDUANZONGHUOJIANGRENSHUDE49%。1968NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEKELANA(H.GobindKhorana)YU1957NIANQUDEZHUANLI“HEGANDUOLINSUANDEHECHENG”;1971NIANYOUYUDUIYICHUANXUEDEZHUOYUEGONGXIANHUOJIANGDEBENZEER(SeymourBenzer)HEBULEINEI(SydneyBrenner)FENBIEYU1997NIANHE2002NIANHUODEZHUANLI;1974NIANHUOJIANGDESIPIGEERMAN(SolSpiegelman)YU1983NIANHUODEZHUANLI,TEMING(HowardM.Temin)YU1987NIANQUDEZHUANLI;1975NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEJIERMAN(RogerC.L.Guillemin)HESHALI(AndrewV.Schally)FENBIEYU1981NIANHE2008NIANHUODEYOUGUANSHENGZHANGYISUDEZHUANLI,TONGNIANYOUYUDUICHUANGLIMIANYIBINGDUXUEDEZHUOYUEGONGXIANERHUOJIANGDEDIKESEN(FrankJ.Dixon)ZAI1982NIANHUODELEZHUANLI;1977NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEBEILISITELUOMU(K.SuneD.Bergstr?m)、SAMIERSONG(BengtSamuelsson)HEWEN(JohnR.Vane)FENBIEYU1962NIAN、2002NIANHE1980NIANHUOQULEYUQIANLIEXIANSUXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;1979NIANHUOJIANGDEJIERBOTE(WalterGilbert)ZAI1982NIANHUOQULEGUANYUDNAKUAISUCEXUDESHOUXIANGMEIGUOZHUANLI;1980NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEBOYE(HerbertW.Boyer)HEKEEN(StanleyN.Cohen)ZAITONGNIANQUDELEGUANYUZHONGZUDNAFANGFADEZHUANLI;1982NIANYINJIANDINGBINGCHANMINGLEAIJIYINDANBAICHANWUDEGONGNENGTEXINGHUOJIANGDEAIRUIKESEN(RaymondL.Erikson)YU2002NIANHUODESHOUXIANGXIANGGUANMEIGUOZHUANLI,TONGNIANHUOJIANGDEHUAFANG(HidesaburoHanafusa)HEGAOLU(RobertC.Gallo)FENBIEYU1995NIANHE1997NIANQUDEZHUANLI;1983NIANHUOJIANGZHEKANDEER(EricR.Kandel)YU2000NIANHUODELEGUANYUYIZHONGCELIANGSHENJINGYUANTUIHUAFANGFADEZHUANLI;1984NIANMIERSITAN(CesarMilstein)YU2012NIANQUDEYUHUOJIANGYANJIUXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;1985NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEBULANG(MichaelS.Brown)HEGEERSITAN(JosephL.Goldstein),YU1988NIANGONGTONGHUODEZHUANLI“DUIJIAZUXINGGAODANGUCHUNXUEZHENGDEJIANCEDEFANGFAHEZUHEWU”;1986NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEKEEN(StanleyCohen)YU1976NIANQUDESHOUXIANGGUANYUBIAOPISHENGZHANGYINZIDEZHUANLI;1987NIANDEHUOJIANGZHELIDE(PhilipLeder)HELIGENCHUANJIN(SusumuTonegawa)FENBIEYU1985NIANYU1987NIANQUDEZHUANLI;1988NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEQIEHE(ThomasR.Cech)YU1993NIANQUDEZHUANLI“DANLIANDNADEWEIDIANTEYIXINGLIEJIE”,XIAPU(PhillipA.Sharp)YU1987NIANQUDEZHUANLI;***NIANHUOJIANGZHEKELEIBUSI(EdwinG.Krebs)HEXIZHONGTAIFU(YasutomiNishizuka)FENBIEYU1997NIANHE1993NIANHUODEGUANYUDANBAIJIMEIDEZHUANLI;1994NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEPULUXINA(StanleyB.Prusiner)YU1996NIANQUDEGUANYUCEDINGZHUANJIYINDONGWURUANBINGDUFANGFADEZHUANLI;1995NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEYOUNAN(EmilR.Unanue)YU1991NIANQUDELEGUANYUZENGQIANGTAIMIANYIYUANXINGDEZHUANLI,TONGNIANSICHUMINGE(JackL.Strominger)YEQUDELEXIANGGUANZHUANLI;1996NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEMULADE(FeridMurad)YU1995NIANHUODEZHUANLI,CHANSHULEEDRFHENODEGUANXI。


                          BIAO21967—1996NIANHUOJIANGZHEZHUANLIQINGKUANG


                        决战棋牌  pagenumber_ebook=261,pagenumber_book=254


                        决战棋牌  BIAO3WEI1997—2016NIANJIANHUOJIANGZHEZHUANLIQINGKUANG,ZAIZHEI20NIANJIANGONGYOU45MINGHUOJIANGZHE,QIZHONG32MINGKEJIANSUODAOZHUANLI,YUEZHANGAIJIEDUANZONGHUOJIANGRENSHUDE73%。1997NIANTASHEN(MarkPtashne)YINFAXIANLEDIAOJIEDANBAIKONGZHIJIYINZHUANLUDEJILIHUOJIANG,YU***NIANQUDEZHUANLI;1999NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEMAIKEKAINONG(RoderickMacKinnon)YU2003NIANQUDEYOUGUANTONGDAODANBAIDEZHUANLI,XIER(BertilHille)YU2014NIANQUDEZHUANLI;2000NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEXIKANNUOWA(AaronCiechanover)、HESHENKE(AvramHershko)HEWASHASIJI(AlexanderVarshavsky)FENBIEYU1995NIAN、2001NIANHE1996NIANQUDEYUFANSUDANBAIXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;2001NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEKAPAIKE(MarioCapecchi)、YIWENSI(MartinEvans)HESHIMISI(OliverSmithies)FENBIEYU1995NIAN、2002NIANHE1995NIANQUDEZHUANLI;2002NIANDEHUOJIANGZHELUSIMAN(JamesRothman)YU2003NIANQUDEZHUANLI;2003NIANDEHUOJIANGZHELUODE(RobertRoeder)YU2001NIANQUDEZHUANLI;2004NIANHUOJIANGZHEPIAIER·SHANGBANG(PierreChambon)、LUONADE·YIWANSI(RonaldEvans)FENBIEYU2003NIANHE2002NIANQUDELEGUANYUHEJISUSHOUTIDEZHUANLI;2006NIANHUOJIANGZHEYILISHABAI·BULAIKEBEN(ElizabethBlackburn)HEKALUOER·GELEIDE(CarolGreider)FENBIEYU1997NIANHE1999NIANQUDEYOUGUANDUANLIMEIYANJIUDEZHUANLI;2007NIANHUOJIANGZHELAFUER·SITANMANYU1997NIANHUODEGUANYUSHUTUZHUANGXIBAOYANJIUDEZHUANLI;2008NIANYINmicroRNAHUOJIANGDEBULUSI.Ruvkun(GaryB.Ruvkun)HEBAOERKU(DavidC.Baulcombe)FENBIEYU2006NIANHE2002NIANQUDEZHUANLI;2009NIANDEHUOJIANGZHESHANZHONGSHENMIYU2005NIANQUDEYOUGUANXIBAOHEZHONGBIANCHENGDEZHUANLI;2010NIANYINFAXIANSHOUSUHUOJIANGDEKEERMAN(DouglasColeman)HEFULIDEMAN(JeffreyM.Friedman)FENBIEYU1985NIANHE2006NIANQUDEYUGAIYANJIUXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;2011NIANDEHUOJIANGZHEHATEER(FranzUlrichHartl)HEYASE(ArthurL.Horwich)FENBIEYU1998NIANHE1995NIANQUDESHOUXIANGYUDANBAIZHIZHEDIEJIZHIYANJIUXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;2012NIANDEHUOJIANGZHESIPUDIHE(JamesSpudich)HEWEIER(RonaldVale)FENBIEYU2007NIANHE2002NIANHUODEYUXIBAOGUJIAMADADANBAIYANJIUXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;2013NIANDEHUOJIANGZHESHILE(RichardH.Scheller)YU1997NIANQUDEYUHUOJIANGYANJIUYOUGUANLIANDEZHUANLI;2013NIANDEHUOJIANGZHETUOMASI(ThomasC.Sudhof)YU2008NIANQUDEYUSHENJINGDIZHIXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;2014NIANHUOJIANGZHEHEJUNSEN(KazutoshiMori)HEBIDEWOERTE(PeterWalter)FENBIEYU2003NIANHE2014NIANQUDEYUWEIZHEDIEDANBAIFANYINGXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI;2015NIANYINFAXIANDNASUNSHANGFANYINGHUOJIANGDEAILIQI(StephenJ.Elledge)TONGNIANQUDEZHUANLI;2016NIANDEHUOJIANGZHELEIKELIFU(PeterJ.Ratcliffe)HEXIMENZHA(GreggL.Semenza)FENBIEYU2004NIANHE1999NIANQUDEZHUANLI,TONGNIANHUOJIANGDEWEILIAN.KAILIN(WilliamG.Kaelin,Jr.)YU2005NIANHUODEZHUANLI。


                        决战棋牌  BIAO31997—2016NIANHUOJIANGZHEZHUANLIQINGKUANG


                        决战棋牌  pagenumber_ebook=262,pagenumber_book=255


                          4ZHUANLISHUJUDEJIEDUYUQISHI


                          4.1ZHUANLISHUJUDELISHIQUSHI


                          CONGZONGLIANGSHANGKAN,ZAI1946—2016DE71NIANJIAN,LASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGGONGYOU154WEIHUOJIANGZHE,QIZHONGYOU73WEIHUOJIANGZHEKEJIANSUODAOYUHUOJIANGYANJIUXIANGGUANDEZHUANLI,KEJIANSUODAOZHUANLIDERENSHUJIHUZHANJULEZONGHUOJIANGRENSHUDEYIBAN。CONGHUOJIANGCHENGGUODEJIAODULAIKAN,JINYOU24NIANDEHUOJIANGCHENGGUOWEIXINGCHENGZHUANLI。ZAIZHEI73MINGKEJIANSUODAOZHUANLIDEHUOJIANGZHEZHONG,YOU29MINGWEI2000NIANYIHOUDEHUOJIANGZHE,ZHEIYIWEIZHEJINNIANLAIDABUFENJICHUYIXUEJIANGHUODEZHEDOUYONGYOUXIANGGUANZHUANLI。


                        决战棋牌  WEIQINGXIGUANCHAQIJIAN,HUIZHILASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGDEZHU70NIANJIANDEZHUANLICHIYOUFENBUTU。TU1WEI1946—2016NIANJIANYONGYOUZHUANLIDELASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGHUODEZHEZHANBIQINGKUANG。HENGZHOUWEISHIJIANZHOU,YI10NIANWEIYIGEQUJIAN。ZONGZHOUWEIZHANBISHUJU,TONGJIDANWEISHIJIANQUJIANNEIYONGYOUZHUANLIZHEZHANGAIQUJIANNEIHUOJIANGZHEZONGSHUBILV。


                        决战棋牌  pagenumber_ebook=262,pagenumber_book=255


                        决战棋牌  TU1YONGYOUZHUANLIDEHUOJIANGZHEZHANBIQINGKUANG


                          CONGTU1KEYIKANCHU,YONGYOUZHUANLIDEHUOJIANGZHEBILVCHENGZENGZHANGQUSHI,ZAI1946—1956NIANJIANJINYOUSIMINGHUOJIANGZHEYONGYOUZHUANLI,ZHI1957—1966NIANJIAN,ZHEIGEBILIZENGJIADAO23%。JIZHI1967NIANQIANHOU,ZHUANLIYONGYOUZHEBILIYUESHENG,ZHIHOUJIAOWEIPINGHUANFAZHAN,YIZHICHIXUDAO1996NIANQIANHOU。ZI1997NIANZUOYOUKAISHI,ZHUANLIYONGYOUZHEBILIZAICIYOUYIGEYUESHENG,2007—2016ZHEISHINIANJIANYONGYOUZHUANLIDEHUOJIANGZHEBILIYIDA77%。KEYIPANDING,YUELAIYUEDUODELASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGHUODEZHEYONGYOUZHUANLI,QIEGAIQUSHIZHENGZAIBUDUANXIANXIAN。


                        决战棋牌  4.2ZHUANLISHUJUDEFENQIJIEDU


                          CONGTU1LAIKAN,CONGZHUANLISHUJUKEYIJIANGJICHUYIXUEJIANGCHENGGUODAZHIHUAFENWEISANGELISHISHIQI:


                        决战棋牌  DIYIJIEDUANSHI1946—1966NIANJIAN,JICHUYANJIUYUYINGYONGYANJIU(LINCHUANGYANJIU)JIBENSHIFENLIDE。JICHUYANJIUKEXUEJIAZUOCHUKEXUEFAXIAN,YIKEXUELUNWENDEXINGSHIJINXINGFABIAO。CONGSHIYINGYONGYANJIUDEJIEXUJICHUYANJIUDEGONGZUO,ZAIJICHUYANJIUSUOCHANCHUDEFAXIANHELILUNDEJICHUSHANGKAIZHANGONGZUO,JIANGJICHUYANJIUCHENGGUOXIANGYINGYONGDUANTUIJIN。RU1960NIANHUOJIANGDEWEIERJINSI、WOSENHEKELIKE,TAMENZUOCHULEHUASHIDAIDEFAXIAN-DNASHUANGLUOXUANJIEGOU,CONGERYINFALEFENZISHENGWUXUEDEGEMING,JIDADITUIDONGLELINCHUANGYIXUEDEFAZHAN。


                        决战棋牌  DIERJIEDUANSHI1967—1996NIANJIAN,JICHUYANJIUYUYINGYONGYANJIUCHUXIANLEJIEHEDEQUSHI。JICHUYANJIUKEXUEJIAZUOCHUKEXUEFAXIANHOU,BUZAIMANZUYUYIKEXUELUNWENDEXINGSHIJINXINGFABIAO,ERSHIJIXUXIANGQIANTUIJIN,TANSUOJIANGJICHUKEXUECHENGGUOXIANGLINCHUANGDUANZHUANHUADETUJING。ZHEISHIHOUTAMENDECHENGGUOYIJINGBUNENGZAIGUIYUCHUNJICHUYANJIUDEFANCHOU,ERSHIJUYUJICHUYANJIUXIANGLINCHUANGYANJIUGUODUDEZHONGJIANJIEDUAN。RU1994NIANDEDEJIANGZHEPULUXINAHETADETONGSHICHENGGONGCONGHUANBINGDECANGSHUNAOZHONGJIANDINGCHU“WANBINGDU”,JINJIEZHEJIUFAMINGCHUCEDINGZHUANJIYINDONGWU“WANBINGDU”DEFANGFABINGXUNSUHUODELEFAMINGZHUANLI。


                          DISANJIEDUANSHI1976—2016NIANJIAN,JICHUYANJIUYUYINGYONGYANJIUDEJIEXIANZHUJIANMOHU。CONGSHIJICHUYANJIUDEBUZAIDANCHUNSHIJICHUKEXUEJIA,XUDUOYUANBENCONGSHILINCHUANGYANJIUDEKEYANGONGZUOZHECONGSHIJIGONGZUOZHONGYUDAODEWENTIRUSHOU,JIANGSHIYETUIJINDAOJICHUYANJIUDUAN,CONGYUANTOUSHANGTANSUOJIEJUESHIJIWENTIDEFANGFA,2016NIANDESANWEIDEZHUJIUSHIDIANXINGDEDAIBIAORENWU。DADUOSHUDEJIANGZHEZESHIJIXUCONGKEXUEFAXIANHEKEXUELILUNCHUFA,BUDUANXIANGLINCHUANGSHIYANTUIJIN,ZHENGRUSHANZHONGSHENMIYIZHISUOZUODENEIYANG。


                          4.3ZHUANHUAYIXUESHIJIAODEJIESHI


                          ZHUANHUAYIXUE(translationalmedicine)YUANZI20SHIJI90NIANDAIDEZHUANHUAYANJIU(translationalresearch)YICI。1968NIANYOUXUEZHETICHULE“bench-bedsideinterface”[6](SHIYANSHIYULINCHUANGXIANGJIAOHUDEYANJIUMOSHI)DEGAINIAN,1992NIAN,MEIGUOHUASHENGDUNDAXUEYIXUEYUANSHENJINGKEYISHENGChoiZAICIYINCHU“benchtobedside”DEGAINIAN,JICONGSHIYANSHIYANJIUDAOLINCHUANGYINGYONG,1994NIANMEIGUOLUOCHESITEDAXUEYIXUEYUANDEMorrowZHENGSHITICHU“translationalresearch”[7],SUIHOU1996NIANGeraghtySHOUCIZAILIUYEDAOZAZHITICHU“translationalmedicine”DEGAINIAN,2003NIANMEIGUOGUOLIWEISHENGYANJIUYUAN(NIH)DEElias.ZerhouniZAIScienceZAZHISHANGQUANMIANCHANSHULEZHUANHUAYIXUEDEGAINIAN,QIDIANXINGHANYISHIJIANGJICHUYANJIUCHENGGUOZHUANHUAWEIYOUXIAODELINCHUANGZHILIAOSHOUDUAN,QIANGDIAOYOUSHIYANSHIDAOBINGCHUANGPANGDELIANJIE,TONGCHANGCHENGZHIWEI“CONGSHIYANTAIDAOBINGCHUANGPANG”[8]。


                          ZHUANHUAYIXUEDETICHUYIFANGMIANYUANYUDANGNIANNIHSUOMIANLINDESHEHUIYALI,20SHIJIMONIHMEINIANDEYANJIUJINGFEIGAODA200DUOYIMEIYUAN,RANER,DALIANGGAOSHUIPINGLUNWENDEFABIAOHEXINJISHUDEFAMINGBINGMEIYOUSHIRENMENDEJIANKANGZHUANGKUANGDEDAOXIANZHUGAISHAN;LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZI1990NIANRENLEIJIYINZUJIHUAQIDONGZHI2003NIANCEXUWANCHENG,JINGUANSHENGWUYIXUELINGYUJILEILEDALIANGDEYICHUANXINXISHUJU,DANCEXUJIEGUOBINGBUNENGHENKUAIYINGYONGYUYILIAOSHIJIAN,YINCI,NIHZHENGSHITICHULEZHUANHUAYIXUEDEGAINIAN,ZHIZAIRANGJICHUZHISHIXIANGLINCHUANGZHILIAOZHUANHUA,CUJINJIANKANGSHUIPINGDETISHENG,ZHEIYEQIAQIAYULASIKEJIANGDEZONGZHIBUMOUERHE。


                        决战棋牌  ZHENGRUQIANWENSUOSHU,LASIKEJIANGDEZONGZHIJIUSHIJIANGLINEIXIECHENGGONGZHUANHUADEANLI。JIYUCIGUANDIAN,WEILEGENGZHIGUANDELEJIEZHUANHUAYIXUEDEFAZHAN,YI10NIANWEIYIGEQUJIAN,HUIZHIZHUANHUAYIXUEBIANDONGQUSHITU(JIANTU2),BINGJIANGZHUANHUAYIXUEDEFAZHANLICHENGDAIRUDAO(JIANTU1)ZHUANLISHUJUDEBIANDONGQUSHIZHONG,HUIZHITU3,CONGTUZHONGKEJIAN,ZI1996NIANQILIANGZHEJUNCHUYUKUAISUSHANGSHENGTAISHI,1968NIANYOUXUEZHESHOUCITICHU“bench-bedsideinterface”DEGAINIAN,1994NIAN“translationalresearch”BEIZHENGSHITICHU(Morrow),SUIHOUKAISHIZHUJIANDEDAOGUANZHU,CONGZHUANLIZHANBIDEQUXIANZHONGKEYIKANCHU,ZHUANLICHIYOUZHEBILIFENBIEZAI1966NIANHE1996NIANCHENGXIANCHUJIEDUANXINGZENGZHANG,YUZHUANHUAYIXUEDEFAZHANQUSHIJINSIYIZHI,ZHEIYIWEIZHE,ZHUANHUAYIXUEDESIXIANGBUDANDEDAOLEKEXUEJIAMENDEKENDING,ERQIEZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGZHIJIEHEJIANJIEDIYINGXIANGLEKEXUEJIADEXINGWEI。KEXUEJIAMENBUZAIMANZUYUJUYUCHUANGXINLIANDEMOUYIJIEDIAN,ERSHILIQIUCONGYIDUANDAOLINGYIDUAN,DATONGCONGJICHUYANJIUDAOLINCHUANGYANJIUDEZHENGGELIANTIAO。KEYIDUANDING,LASIKEJIANGRENTONGBINGCAIYONGLEZHUANHUAYIXUEDEPINGJIAFANSHI,ERZHEIZHONGRENTONGYEYUZHENGGEYIXUEFAZHANDECHAOLIUSHIWENHEDE。


                          pagenumber_ebook=263,pagenumber_book=256


                          TU2ZHUANHUAYIXUELINGYULUNWENFENBU


                        决战棋牌  pagenumber_ebook=264,pagenumber_book=257


                          TU3ZHUANHUAYIXUEFAZHANLICHENGYUZHUANLISHUJUBIANDONGQUSHIDEYIZHIXINGJIANYAN


                          4.4JISHUKEXUESHIJIAODEJIESHI


                        决战棋牌  ZHUANHUAYIXUEJIKAOLVJIBENDEYIXUERENSHIHEJILI,YOUGUANZHUDUIYIBANYIXUEJIZHIDELINCHUANGYINGYONG,JIANJUJICHUXINGHEYINGYONGXING。KAOLVLINCHUANGYINGYONGDEJICHUYIXUE,SHUYUDIANXINGDEBASIDEXIANGXIAN[9],SHIYINGYONGYINQIDEJICHUYANJIU,JIANGUJIBENSHENGMINGJILIDELINCHUANGYANJIU,JILILUNDAOXIANGDEYINGYONGYANJIU,ERJICHUYANJIUYUYINGYONGYANJIUDEBINGCUN、JIEHE、HUDONG,ZHENGSHIJISHUKEXUEDESHIZHI[10],ZHEIYIWEIZHE,ZUOWEIJICHUYIXUEYULINCHUANGYIXUEQIAOLIANGDEZHUANHUAYIXUE,JUYOUYIDINGDEJISHUKEXUESHUXING,HUOZHESHUOZHUANHUAYIXUESHIJISHUKEXUEZAIYIXUELINGYUDEZHIJIETIXIAN。YIXUETIXIYUYIBANKEXUETIXIDEDUIYINGGUANXIJIANTU4。


                          pagenumber_ebook=264,pagenumber_book=257


                        决战棋牌  TU4YIXUETIXIYUYIBANKEXUETIXIDEDUIYINGGUANXI


                        决战棋牌  ZHUANHUAYIXUEDEJISHUKEXUESHUXINGYIWEIZHELASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGCHENGGUOXINGZHIDEBIANQIANBINGFEIYIXUELINGYUTEYOUDEXIANXIANG。YANGZHONGKAIDENG[5]ZAIKAOCHANUOBEIERJIANGZIRANKEXUEJIANGCHENGGUOSHIRENWEINUOJIANGZHENGCHENGXIANCHUJISHUKEXUEDEQUXIANG,TONGSHIGAIWENZHICHU,JICHUKEXUEDECHENGGUOXINGSHIYIBANYILUNWENDEXINGSHIZHANXIAN,QINEIRONGWEIKEXUEFAXIANHEKEXUELILUNWEIZHU,ERJISHUKEXUEDECHENGGUOXINGSHIZHIYIJIUSHIJISHUYUANLIYIJIGENJUCIYUANLISUOXINGCHENGDEFAMINGZHUANLI(JIANBIAO5)。


                        决战棋牌  BIAO4JICHUKEXUE、JISHUKEXUE、GONGCHENGKEXUEDEQUBIE[5]


                          pagenumber_ebook=264,pagenumber_book=257


                          ANZHAOCILUOJI,ZAIDANGJINSHIDAI,LINCHUANGYISHENGKAISHITANJIUSHENGMINGJILIDEJIBENWENTI;YUCITONGSHI,JICHUYIXUEKEXUEJIAYEBINGBUZHIBUYUFAXIANBINGDUZHIBINGJILI,YICIZUOWEIJISHIZHUBUSHENRUDAORUHEYUFANGHEZHILIAOJIBING。TAMENSUOCONGSHIDEYANJIU,DOUBUZAISHIYUANLAICHUANTONGFENLIDEJICHUHELINCHUANGYANJIU。YIZHONGSHIYINGYONGYINFADEJICHUYANJIU,LINGYIZHONGZESHIYILILUNWEIBEIJINGDEYINGYONGYANJIU,CILIANGZHONGYANJIUBEIGUIYUXINBASIDEXIANGXIAN(JISHUKEXUEXIANGXIAN)。CONGCI,LINCHUANGYISHENGHEJICHUKEXUEJIASHENFENDEJIEXIANYESHIBIHUIYUELAIYUEMOHU,“KUAJIE”DEJIANGDEXIANXIANGYEHUIYUJIAPUBIAN。BIJINGSHIFOUDEJIANGZHISHITONGGUOCHENGGUODESHUIZHUNHEXINGZHILAIJINXINGPANDUAN,ERBINGFEISHITONGGUOHOUXUANZHEDESHENFENJINXINGLINXUANFENLEI。


                          4.5JICHUKEXUEJIANGCHENGGUOXINGZHIBIANQIANDEQISHI


                          LASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGCHENGGUOZAI70NIANJIANFASHENGLEXINGSHIHENEIRONGSHANGDEBIANQIAN。SHOUXIAN,DALIANGDEJICHUYANJIUCHENGGUOZAIBUDUANDIZHUANLIHUA,ERQIECHENGGUODEXINGZHIYUELAIYUENANYIJINXINGYANGEQUFEN。QICI,ZHEIZHONGQUSHIYUZHUANHUAYIXUEDEXINGQIYUFAZHANCUNZAIYIZHIXING,BINGQIEBUDANCHUNZAIYIXUEJIECUNZAI,SHENZHICUNZAIYUZIRANKEXUEDEGEGELINGYUZHONG,TIXIANCHUJISHUKEXUEZAIYUANSHICHUANGXINZHONGDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。JIANYUCILEIYANJIUDEZHONGJIEXINGHEQIAOLIANGXING,YINGZAIKEYANTIZHIHERENCAIPEIYANGFANGMIANYOUSUODIAOZHENG:


                          (1)GUOJIATONGYIGUIHUA。NIHYU2006NIANTUIXINGLELINCHUANGZHUANHUAYIXUEJIANGLIJIHUA(CTSA),YIZAI30DUOSUODAXUEHEYIXUEYUANJIANLILEZHUANHUAYIXUEZHONGXINHUOLINCHUANGZHUANHUAKEXUEZHONGXIN,BINGYU2011NIANCHENGLIGUOLIZHUANHUAKEXUECUJINZHONGXIN(NCATS);YINGGUOYU2007NIANCHENGLIJIANKANGYANJIUZHANLVEXIEDIAOBANGONGSHI(OSCHR),TONGSHICHENGLIZHUANHUAYIXUEWEIYUANHUI[11]。ERWOGUOYU2014NIANCAIZAISHANGHAICHENGLISHOUGEZHUANHUAYIXUEYANJIUZHONGXIN,XIANGDUIERYAN,QUEFAGUOJIACENGMIANDETONGYIGUIHUA,YINGZAIDINGCENGSHEJISHANGJIAYIZHONGSHI。(2)CUJINJICHUYANJIUJIGOUYULINCHUANGYANJIUTUANDUIDEJIAOLIUHEZUO。GULIYUAN、XIDEYANJIUTUANDUIYUYIYUANJIANDEHEZUO,DAPOBUMENBILEI,KAIZHAN“DAKEXUE”YANJIUMOSHI,CAIQUKUAXUEKETUANDUILIANHEXIANGMUGONGGUANFANGSHIJINXINGYIXUEYANJIU[12]。(3)KUODAKEYANJINGFEITOURU。NIHMEINIANZIZHUDEZHUANHUAYIXUEYANJIUJINGFEIDA5YIMEIYUAN[13],YUJI2017NIANNIHGUOLIZHUANHUAKEXUECUJINZHONGXINDEYUSUANDA68YIMEIYUAN[14],MUQIANWOGUOZHENGZAISHISHIDEZHUANHUAYIXUEGUOJIAZHONGDAKEJIJICHUSHESHI(SHANGHAI)XIANGMUTOUZIDA10YIYUAN(YUEHE1.63YIMEIYUAN),JINGFEITOURURENGYOUDAIJIAQIANG。(4)JIAQIANGZHUANHUAYIXUEXUEKEJIANSHE。MUQIANGUONEIZAIZHUANHUAYIXUEXUEKEJIANSHEFANGMIANGENGWEIQIANQUE,MEIGUOZAIZHUANHUAYIXUEXIANGMUJIJINTOURUZHONG,NACHU16%DEJIJINYONGYUPEIYANGZHUANHUAYIXUEYANJIUSHENG,YIPIZHUANHUAYIXUEBOSHIJIJIANG“CHULU”。WOGUOYIXUEYUANXIAORENGTINGLIUZAILINCHUANGYIXUEHEJICHUYIXUEDEHUAFENSHANG,YINGDAPOXUEKEBILEI,PEIYANGYIPIJUYOUJICHUYANJIUJINENGHELINCHUANGSHIJIANJINGYANDESHUANGXIANGRENCAI。


                          5JIELUNYUZHANWANG


                        决战棋牌  BENWENJIYULASIKEJICHUKEXUEJIANGDEZHUDEZHUANLIHUODEQINGKUANG,KAOCHALE70NIANJIANLASIKEJICHUKEXUEJIANGHUOJIANGCHENGGUODEXINGZHIBIANQIAN,JIESHICHUJICHUKEXUEJIANGCHENGGUOCONGCHUNJICHUYANJIUCHENGGUOYANBIANCHENGWEIYINGYONGDAOXIANGDEJICHUYANJIUCHENGGUODEBIANHUAQUSHI,ZHANXIANCHUJICHUKEXUEJIAZAICHENGGUOZHUANHUAGUOCHENGZHONGSHENFENHEJIAOSEDEBIANHUA,ZHICHUZHUANHUAYIXUEHEJISHUKEXUEDEFAZHANZAIZHENGGEKEJIZHANLVETIXIZHONGDEZHONGYAOXINGHEBIYAOXING。


                          BUZUDESHI,BENWENYOUYUPIANFUHESHOUDUANXIANZHI,ZHIXUANQULASIKEJICHUYIXUEJIANGDESHUJUJINXINGLEDANXIANGYANJIU,BUZUYIFANYINGZHUANHUAYIXUESHUANGXIANGZHUANHUANAIZHIDUOXIANGZHUANHUADEZHENGTITEZHENG。XIWANGNENGGOUZAIYIHOUDEYANJIUZHONG,CONGLASIKELINCHUANGYIXUEJIANGCHUFA,LIYONGKEXUELUNWENSHUJUFANXIANGTANQIUQIYUANYUJICHUKEXUEDEBEIJINGYULISHIYUANYUAN,GENGHAODIWEIWOGUOZHUANHUAYIXUEDEFAZHANTIGONGSHUJUHEJUECEZHICHI。


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