决战棋牌

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                    2. 规范性行政文件合法性审查问题与策略

                      摘 要: 行政机关制定涉及公民、法人和社会组织权利义务的行政规范性文件和重大行政政策应当取得法律的授权,行政规范性文件和政策一经实施势必影响公民、法人和社会组织的权利义务。行政规范性文件的制定与拟定的行政管理措施需要于法有据。制定程序合法正当是保障内容
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                        摘 要: 行政机关制定涉及公民、法人和社会组织权利义务的行政规范性文件和重大行政政策应当取得法律的授权,行政规范性文件和政策一经实施势必影响公民、法人和社会组织的权利义务。行政规范性文件的制定与拟定的行政管理措施需要于法有据。制定程序合法正当是保障内容合法的基础,通过公开征求意见等程序可保障权利与权力的博弈平衡,有效制约公权力,维护公众利益。通过合法性审核,确保主体、权限、程序、内容、形式合法,使行政规范性文件内容存在的违法问题消灭在萌芽状态。

                        关键词:决战棋牌 规范性文件; 合法性审核; 运行机制;

                        习近平总书记指出,“要坚持以实践基础上的理论创新推动制度创新,坚持和完善现有制度,从实际出发,及时制定一些新的制度,构建系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟、更加定型,为夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利提供更加有效的制度保障。”[1]关于规范性文件的法律治理,党的十九届四中全会决定中,指出要加强备案审查制度和能力建设,将违法的规范性文件依法予以纠正。加强行政规范性文件合法性审核,是全面推进法治建设的重要手段,通过合法性审核前置过滤违法问题,保障行政机关制定的规范性文件合法有效可行,助推行政机关或者经法律、法规授权的具有管理公共事务职能的组织,能够依法履行职能。规范行政规范性文件合法性审核机制的运行,对于推进依法行政、建设法治政府非常必要,而且其致力于维护国家法制统一、政令统一,从源头上防止行政管理的依据违法,促进行政机关严格规范公正文明执法,进而全面维护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益。

                        一、行政规范性文件合法性审核的法律定位

                      决战棋牌   XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEBENZHISHANGWEIXINGZHENGJIGUANDENEIBUJIANDU,MUDEZAIYUGUIFANYIFAXINGZHENGZHIDUTIXIJIANSHE,QUEBAOYIFAXINGZHENGZHIDUZAICHUTAIQIANDADAOZHUTIQUANXIAN,NEIRONGCHENGXUDENGHEFADEBIAOZHUN,BAOZHANGYIFAXINGZHENGDEZHIDUYUANYUANHEXINGZHENGGUANLIYIJUHEFA。

                        (一)行政规范性文件的特性

                      决战棋牌   LIFAFA、XINGZHENGCHUFAFA、XINGZHENGXUKEFA、XINGZHENGQIANGZHIFA、XINGZHENGSUSONGFAZHONGJUNYOUGUIFANXINGWENJIANYICIDEBIAOSHU。LIFAFAJIANGGUIFANXINGWENJIANNARUBEIANSHENCHADEFANWEI。XINGZHENGCHUFAFA、XINGZHENGXUKEFA、XINGZHENGQIANGZHIFAGUIDINGGUIFANXINGWENJIANBUDESHEDINGXINGZHENGCHUFA、XINGZHENGXUKE、XINGZHENGQIANGZHIDENG。XINGZHENGSUSONGFAZHONGDEGUIDINGBIAOMINGGUIFANXINGWENJIANKEYIZUOWEIXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEYIJU。“TUIJINZHENGFUZHILINENGLIXIANDAIHUABIRANYAOYONGDAOXIANGYINGHESHIDEZHENGCEGONGJU。”[2]“XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,ZUOWEISHEJIGONGMIN、FARENHESHEHUIZUZHIQUANLIYIWU,FANFUSHIYONGDEGONGWEN,YIJINGFABUSHISHI,JIUJUYOUFALVXIAOLI”,[3]FALVDIWEIHEXIAOLIDIYUGUIZHANG,BUBEIRENWEISHIFALVTIXIDEZUCHENGBUFEN,DANSHIFAZHITIXIDEYIBUFEN,YIFAXINGZHENGZHIDUTIXIDEZUCHENGBUFEN,KEYIZUOWEIXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEYIJU。“FAZHIDEHEXINSHIZHIQUAN,GUIFANHEYUESHUGONGQUANLIYOUQISHIGUIFANHEYUESHUZHENGFUQUANLI”,[4]GUIFANXINGWENJIANBUDESHEDINGXINGZHENGCHUFA、XINGZHENGXUKE、XINGZHENGQIANGZHI。BUFENWENJIANXINGZHIKEYIDINGWEIWEIXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEGONGZUOLIUCHENG,NIDINGDEXINGZHENGGUANLICUOSHIXIXINGZHENGGUANLIXINGGUIDING,BUJUYOUXINGZHENGQIANGZHILI。

                        (二)合法性审核参与主体

                        TUIJINYIFAXINGZHENG,SHIBIZUODAOGUOJIAJUECEBUSHUZAIDIFANGSHUNLILUODI,ZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,YINGDANGYANGEGUANCHESHISHIFALVFAGUIHEGUOJIAZHENGCE,YIGUOJIAFAZHITONGYI、ZHENGLINGTONGYIWEIZHIDUSHEJIYUANZE。XINGZHENGJIGUANGUANLIDIFANGSHIWUYAOYANGEZHIXINGFALVFAGUIHEGUOJIAZHENGCE,YANGEGUIFANGONGZHENGWENMINGZHIFA,XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHIDINGYAOLUOSHIFALVZHENGCE,QIZUOWEIXINGZHENGGUANLIHEXINGZHENGZHIFADEYUANTOUYIJU,ZHIDINGCHENGXUNEIRONGDENGYINGDANGHEFA,WEIBAOZHANGGONGMIN、FARENHEQITAZUZHIDEHEFAQUANYI,YOUBIYAODUIXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHE。XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHIDINGZHUTIWEIXINGZHENGJIGUANHUOZHEJINGFALV、FAGUISHOUQUANDEJUYOUGUANLIGONGGONGSHIWUZHINENGDEZUZHI,HEFAXINGSHENHEZHUTIWEIZHIDINGJIGUANDECHENGDANHEFAXINGSHENHEDEBUMENHUOZHENEISHEJIGOU,QICAOBUMENJIANGWENJIANGAOQICAOWANBIHOUSONGCHENGDANHEFAXINGSHENHEDEBUMENHUOZHENEISHEJIGOUJINXINGSHENHE。

                        (三)行政机关内部监督

                        立法法规定,地方人大有权对地方政府制定的行政规范性文件进行备案审查,有的地方政府规章规定,上级政府对下级政府的行政规范性文件进行备案审查,以上监督可以认为,均是行政规范性文件制定主体之外的,其他主体对规范性文件进行的外部监督。行政规范性文件合法性审核的性质,更偏向于行政机关内部监督,一定程度上可以认为行政规范性文件合法性审核的属性为行政机关的内部监督。行政规范性文件制定机关的组成部门或者内设机构,依法对行政规范性文件的制定主体权限、制定过程程序、内容和形式等,进行合法性审核监督,制定机关组成部门或者内设机构对制定机关负责,保障依法行政的制度源头合法。

                      规范性行政文件合法性审查问题与策略

                        二、行政规范性文件的合法性审核标准

                      决战棋牌   XINGZHENGJIGUANZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANYINGDANGYUFAYOUJU,QUDEFALVFAGUISHOUQUAN,FUHEHEFAXINGBIAOZHUNHEFAYINGDANGZUODAOZHIDINGCHENGXUHEFA、NEIRONGHEFA、XINGSHIHEFA、TILIJIEGOUSHIDANG。

                        (一)制定主体应当合法、权限应当合法

                      决战棋牌   “YIFAXINGZHENGSHIGEJIZHENGFUHUODONGDEJIBENYUANZE”,[5]ZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANDEJIGUAN,YINGDANGSHIXINGZHENGJIGUAN。GUANLIGONGGONGSHIWUZHINENGDEZUZHI,JINGFALV、FAGUISHOUQUANYEKEZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,XINGZHENGJIGUANDENEISHEJIGOU、BANSHIJIGOU、PAICHUJIGOU、YISHIXIEDIAOJIGOUBUDEZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN。“JIAKUAIJIANSHEFAZHIZHENGFU,XINGZHENGJIGUANYAOJIANCHIFADINGZHIZEBIXUWEI、FAWUSHOUQUANBUKEWEI,ZHIDINGSHISHIZHENGFUQUANZEQINGDANZHIDU,TUIJINGEJIZHENGFUSHIQUANGUIFANHUA、FALVHUA。”[6]ZHIDINGXIANGYINGWENJIAN,XINGZHENGJIGUANYINGDANGJUYOUXIANGGUANLINGYUDEGUANLIQUANXIAN,DIFANGZHINENGZHIDINGDIFANGSHIQUANFANWEINEIDEWENJIAN。“XINGZHENGJIGUANZHIDINGGUIFANXINGWENJIANYINGDANGZAIQIQUANXIANFANWEINEI,YUEQUANWUXIAO。”[7]DIFANGBUDEYUEQUANFAWEN,BUDENIDINGYOUGUANSHANGJIHEDINGCENGZHIDUSHEJIFANWEINEIDESHIWU,BUDETUPOFALVFAGUIDESHOUQUANQUANXIAN,BUDEZHIDINGFALVFAGUISHOUQUANFANWEIWAIDEWENJIAN,ZHINENGZAIFALVFAGUISHOUQUANDEXINGZHENGGUANLILINGYUFANWEINEIZHIDINGXIANGYINGWENJIAN。

                        (二)制定程序应当合法

                        “程序化是行政法治的本质要求。程序作为重要的形式规则,对政府决策的结果和具体政策的执行都起着决定性的作用。”[8]制定规范性文件,起草部门应公开征求意见,文件草案、起草说明等公开征求意见可在互联网站公示或者采取其他方式,面向社会公开征求意见,制作听取意见记录,组织听证程序的制作听证记录,不以会签代替公开征求意见。制定政府规范性文件,规范性文件起草单位组织合法性初审,起草单位业务科室应将文件草案报送起草单位的法制机构进行合法性初审,形成记录,起草单位的法制机构出具合法性初审意见。组织集体研究,起草单位办公会议应集体讨论研究文件草案,并形成书面记录。组织会签汇报,起草单位应向政府分管领导汇报文件草案内容,并在起草说明中予以记录。文件草案报送政府法制机构审查前,起草单位向政府分管领导汇报文件草案内容时,如需合法性审查,起草单位请分管理领导批转。涉及部门职责分工的,应当组织会签,文件草案报送审查前,应完成会签工作。未完成会签的,材料不齐的,程序不完善的,内容不成熟的,不应送审。文件草案报送政府法制机构审查,不应在政府会议召开前一天送审。未完成会签的、材料不齐的、程序不完善的,依照规定不应登记接审。起草部门应坚决避免在政府会议召开前一天送审,保障接审部门充足利用十五个工作日的审查时间。

                        (三)内容应当合法

                        XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,BUSHEDINGFALVZEREN,BUSHEDINGXINGZHENGXUKE、SHENPI、BEIAN、CHUFA、QIANGZHIDENG。BUDEWUFALVYIJU,ZENGSHEGONGMIN、FARENHEZUZHIYIWUDEGUIDING,BUDEJIANSUNQUANLI。BUDEYINGXIANGSHICHANGGONGPINGJINGZHENG。BUDEWUFALVYIJU,KUOZHANGBUMENQUANLI,JIANSUNBUMENZHIZE。GUIFANXINGWENJIANYIBANBUZUOWEIXINGZHENGZHIFAYIJU,BUZUOWEIXINGZHENGXUKE、SHENPI、BEIAN、CHUFA、QIANGZHIDENGYIJU。“SHEHUIZHUYIDEFALVGUIFANYINGDANGFUWUYUKEGUANFAZHANQUSHIDESHIXIAN”,[9]JIANCHIWENTIDAOXIANG,JIEJUEDIFANGWENTI,JINERNIDINGXINGZHENGGUANLICUOSHI。YIFALIFA、YIFAZHIDINGWENJIAN,ZHIDUSHEJIYUFAYINGDANGYOUYIJU,XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANNEIRONGBUDEYUFALVFAGUICHONGTU,BUDEYUSHANGJIZHENGCE、GUIFANXINGWENJIANNEIRONGCHONGTUDENG。LUOSHISHANGJIZHENGFUGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,KEZHIDINGBENJIZHENGFUGUIFANXINGWENANJIAN,LUOSHISHANGJIZHENGFUBUMENXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,KEZHIDINGBENJIZHENGFUBUMENGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,BENJIZHENGFUBUMENWENJIANNEIRONGBUDEYUBENJIZHENGFUWENJIANNEIRONGCHONGTU。

                        (四)形式应当合法

                        XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANYAOYOUSHIXINGRIQIHEYOUXIAOQI。ZAIWENMOYAOBIAOZHUSHIXINGRIQIHEYOUXIAOQI,SHIXINGRIQIHEYOUXIAOQIDEGESHIWEI,ZIMOUNIANMOUYUEMOURIQISHIXING,YOUXIAOQIZHIMOUNIANMOUYUEMOURI。SHIXINGRIQIYINGWEIZIYINFAGONGBUZHIRIQISANSHIRIHOUDEMOURI。SHIXING、ZANXINGDEXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANYOUXIAOQIWEIYIZHIERNIAN;QITADEYOUXIAOQIWEISANZHIWUNIAN。GUANYUTILIJIEGOU,XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANYIBANBUFENZHANGJIE,BUCAIYONGZHANG、JIE、TIAO、KUAN、XIANGBIJIAOQIQUANDETILIJIEGOUXINGSHI,YIBANZHIJIECAIYONGTIAO、KUAN、XIANGDETILIJIEGOU。GUANYUMINGCHENG,XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANMINGCHENGYIBANCAIYONG“BANFA”“GUIDING”DENG。

                        (五)实施后评估

                        XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHIDINGYINFAHOU,YOUQICAOSHISHIBUMENDUIWENJIANDEZHIXINGSHISHIFUZE。WENJIANSHISHIQIJIAN,QINEIRONGYUFALVFAGUIGUIZHANGHESHANGJIZHENGCEGUIDINGBUYIZHIDE,ANZHAOXINFABUDEFALV、FAGUI、GUIZHANGHESHANGJIZHENGCEGUIDINGZHIXING。WENJIANYOUXIAOQIJIEMANQIANLIUGEYUENEI,YOUQICAOSHISHIBUMENDUIWENJIANJINXINGPINGGU,BUMENHUIYIJITIYANJIU,JINGWAIPINFALVGUWEN、GONGZHILVSHIHEBENDANWEIFAZHIJIGOUHEFAXINGSHENCHAHOU,ZHIDINGPINGGUBAOGAO,JINGBUMENHUIQIANHOU,XIANGZHIDINGJIGUANBAOSONG。WENJIANZHIDINGYIJUDENGQINGKUANGFASHENGBIANHUADE,YINGDANGXIUGAIHUOZHEFEIZHIDE,BUYINGYANQI。WENJIANNEIRONGYUANZHAOXINFABUDEFALV、FAGUI、GUIZHANGHESHANGJIZHENGCEBUYIZHIDE,BUYINGYANQI。WENJIANNEIRONGDEJUTIGUIDINGCAOZUOXINGCHA,LUOSHIQINGKUANGCHADE,BUYINGYANQI。QICAOSHISHIBUMENDUIWENJIANDEQINGLIFUZE,WENJIANZHIDINGYIJUDENGQINGKUANGFASHENGBIANHUADE,QICAOSHISHIBUMENYINGDANGJISHIQIDONGHUOZHESHENQINGQIDONGWENJIANXIUDING、FEIZHICHENGXU。WENJIANYOUXIAOQIJIEMAN,WENJIANSHIXIAODE,YILVZIXINGFEIZHI。

                        三、行政规范性文件合法性审核机制的实践困境

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                        (一)起草部门法治意识弱

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                        (二)合法性审核机制不健全

                      决战棋牌   SHENCHADUIWUJIANSHESHUIPINGDI,HEFAXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODUIWUJIANSHELIDUBUZU,HEFAXINGSHENCHAGONGZUORENYUANPEIBEIYANZHONGBUZU,ZHUANYERENYUANPEIYANGXUYAOJINYIBUJIAQIANG,YANZHONGZHIYUELEHEFAXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODEYOUXIAOKAIZHAN。SHENCHAJIGOUBUJIANQUAN,RENYUANPEIBEIYUQICHENGDANDERENWUBUXIANGSHIYING,YOUDEBUMENMEIYOUSHEHEFAXINGSHENHEJIGOU,WUFATIGONGBUMENFAZHIJIGOUHEFAXINGSHENCHAYIJIAN。CHENGXUGUIDINGBIJIAOYUANZE,YOUDEBUMENDUICHENGXUZHONGSHIBUGOU,YOUDECHENGBANDANWEIBUANCHENGXUBANWEN,YOUDEWEIJINGBUMENHUIQIAN,YOUDEWEIZUZHIGONGZHONGCANYU、ZHUANJIALUNZHENG、FENGXIANPINGGU,JIUTIQINGHEFAXINGSHENCHA。

                        (三)合法性审核制度有待完善

                        DINGCENGSHEJIBUWANSHAN,GUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENCHAQUEFAYOUXIAODEDINGCENGZHIDUSHEJI,DAOZHIGEDICAOZUOMOSHIBUYIZHI、BUTONGYI。SHENCHABIAOZHUNYOUDAITONGYI,YOUYUMUQIANGUANYUHEFAXINGSHENCHADEXIANGGUANGUIDING,BIJIAOLONGTONG,BUGOUXIHUA,HAODUOQINGXINGBUNENGNARUGUIDINGDIAOZHENGDEFANWEI,DAOZHISHIWUZHONGCUNZAIZHENGYI。SHENCHAFANGSHIYOUDAIGUIFAN,YOUDEBUMENFAZHIJIGOUBINGWEICHONGFENFAHUIZUOYONG,YOUDEBUMENFAZHIJIGOUDESHENCHAYIJIANLIUYUXINGSHI,BINGWEITIXIANSHIZHISHENCHAGUOCHENG,JINGBUMENFAZHIJIGOUCHUBUSHENCHAHOU,RENGYOUXUDUOWENTIXUYAOXIUGAI,ZENGJIALEZHENGFUFAZHIJIGOUGONGZUOFUHE。

                        (四)信息化建设水平有待提升,合法性审核工作并未有效纳入法治建设考核评价体系

                      决战棋牌   XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANXINXIHUAJIANGUANMOSHI,GEDIBUYIZHI,QUANGUOFANWEINEIMUQIANBINGBUCUNZAITONGYIDEJIANGUANPINGTAI,ZAIGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEZHONGJIAOSHAOYUNYONGXINXIHUASHOUDUAN。YOUDEDIFANGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHE,WEINARUFAZHIZHENGFUJIANSHEPINGJIAZHIBIAOTIXI,DAOZHIDUIGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHIDINGJIANDUGUANLIBUZHONGSHI,YANZHONGZHIYUELEFAZHIJIANSHEDESHUNLITUIJIN。

                        四、破解行政规范性文件合法性审核机制运行困境的对策

                        TUIXINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEZHIDU,WANSHANXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEJIZHI,YINGDANGJINYIBUGENGXINWENJIANZHIDINGLINIAN,QIANGHUAFAZHISIWEIHECHENGXUYISHI,JIAQIANGHEFAXINGSHENHEDUIWUJIANSHE,JIANQUANHEFAXINGSHENHEJIGOU,YANGEGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEBIAOZHUN,TONGYIHEFAXINGSHENHEMOSHI,JIAQIANGXINXIHUAJIANSHEHEFAZHIDUCHA,CUJINYIFAXINGZHENGHEFAZHIJIANSHE。

                        (一)树立依法制定文件的理念,强化起草部门法治思维和责任意识

                        “FALVTIGONGLESHEHUISHENGHUODEYIFASHENGDEPUBIANJIAGOU。TASHIYIGEZHIDAOXINGWEI、JIEJUEJIUFENDETIXI,BINGQIEZHUZHANGJUYOUGANYURENHEZHONGLEIDEHUODONGDEZUIGAOQUANWEI。TAYEYOUGUILVDIZHICHIHUOZHEXIANZHIQITAGUIFANZAIGAISHEHUIZHONGDECHUANGSHEHESHIJIAN。”[10]DIYI,SHULIYIFAZHIDINGWENJIANDELINIAN,ZHIDINGWENJIANYUFAYOUJU。QICAOBUMENYINGDANGSHULIYIFAZHIDINGWENJIANDELINIAN,ZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,YANGEGUANCHEJINZHIZHIDINGJUYOULIFAXINGZHIDEGUIFANXINGWENJIANDEYAOQIU,BUDETUPODIFANGXINGZHENGGUANLIQUANXIAN。“RENHEFALVGUIFANDOUBUSHIDULICUNZAIDE,RENHEJUTIGUIFANDOUSHIZHENGGEFALVZHIXUDEYIBUFEN”。[11]ZHIDINGZHIXINGSHISHIFALVFAGUIDEGUIDING,ZHINENGZAIFALVFAGUIMINGQUEGUIDINGDEFANWEIHETIAOJIANNEI,SHEJISHISHILIUCHENGHEGONGZUOJIZHIDENG,ZAIFALVFAGUIGUIDINGBUWANSHANDEQINGKUANGXIA,FAWUSHOUQUANBUKEWEI,ZHIDINGXINGZHENGCUOSHIBIXUYUFAYOUJU,BUDENIDINGYINGDANGYOUDINGCENGSHEJIDEZHIDU。DIER,JIANCHIWENTIDAOXIANG,ZUODAOZHIDUSHEJIYOUTESE。NIDINGXINGZHENGGUANLICUOSHI,YINGDANGJIANCHIWENTIDAOXIANG,ZHIDUSHEJIYOUTESE,DANBUNENGWEILEZHUIQIUTESE,TUPOFALVFAGUIGUIZHANGHESHANGJIWENJIANGUIDINGDEFUDUFANWEI。DISAN,QIANGHUAQICAOBUMENDEZERENYISHI,YANGELVXINGWENJIANZHIDINGCHENGXU。QIANGHUAGUIFANXINGWENJIANQICAOBUMENDEZERENYISHI,MINGQUEQICAOBUMENDEZEREN,TONGGUOZERENLUOSHIDUCUQICAOBUMENTIGONGYOUZHIDEGUIFANXINGWENJIANSONGSHENGAO,DIANDINGWENJIANDEZHILIANGJICHU。WENJIANQICAOBUMENYINGDANGQIANGHUAWENJIANNEIRONG、ZHIDINGCHENGXUHEFADENGZERENYISHI,QUESHIJIANGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHENARUZHONGYAOGONGZUOBUSHUANPAI,FANGUIFANXINGWENJIANYILVJITIYANJIU。QIANGHUADUIWENJIANQICAOBUMEN,FALVYINYONGHESHISHIDEGUIFANZHIYIN,NIDINGWENJIANZHIDINGJISHUGUIFAN,QUEBAOFALVYINYONGZHENGQUEGUIFAN。

                        (二)明确专门的合法性审核机构,增加配置合法性审核力量

                        第一,推进合法性审核队伍专业化建设。全面提高合法性审核队伍的审核能力,加强行政规范性文件合法性审核能力建设,通过招录、培训等增配、补充充足的合法性审核专业人员。推进合法性审核队伍的正规化、专业化、职业化,通过出台队伍建设制度规范、专业化建设规划、工作交流、实践业务研讨等,全方位多角度提升业务素质和审核能力。第二,明确专门机构。行政机关应当设立专门负责规范性文件合法性审核的工作机构,合法性审核力量应当适应繁重复杂专业的审核工作任务。配备至少四名以上专门从事合法性审查工作的人员,且需全日制法学本科出身,需要通过法律职业资格考试。四名人员分别负责审查本级政府行政规范性文件、本级政府政策性文件、下级政府行政规范性文件,对于专业性强文件采取集体合议研究共同审查。第三,广泛吸收社会智慧。全面推行规范性文件合法性审核机制建设工作,督促政府部门严格遵守规范性文件制定程序,强化公开征求意见,起草部门应当积极组织公开征求意见、评估论证等程序。“必须努力拓宽公众利益表达渠道,增强公众利益需求输入的实效和水平,为公共决策获得充足的信息,从而实现公共决策的科学化。”[12]制定规范性文件,起草部门要严格落实公开征求意见制度,广泛征求人大代表、政协委员、社会公众的意见建议,要充分听取有代表性的企业和行业协会商会以及律师协会的意见,并及时反馈,最后形成征求意见及反馈记录。第四,完善材料报送。起草单位在严格履行程序前提下,严格执行材料报送等送审要求,及时报送规范性文件送审稿和起草说明,报送作为文件制定依据的法律、法规、规章和国家政策规定,征求意见和意见采纳情况,本单位法制工作机构的合法性审核意见等审核材料,确保程序衔接。第五,发挥专家作用。完善法律等各领域专家协助合法性审核机制,通过各种方式请政府法律顾问、公职律师和有关专家参与研究论证,并出具审核意见。

                        (三)完善合法性审核标准,规范合法性审核方式

                        DIYI,GUIFANXINGWENJIANSHENHEBIAOZHUN。WANSHANDINGCENGSHEJI,TONGYIGEDIDESHENHEMOSHIHESHENHEBIAOZHUN,TONGYISHENHEBIAOZHUN,JINYIBUMINGQUEGEZHONGFUMIANQINGXING,JIANGSHIJIANZHONGCUNZAIZHENGYIDEWENTINARUGUIDINGDIAOZHENGDEFANWEI,SHIZHIDUSHEJIKECAOZUO,BIANYUZHIXING。DIER,QIANGHUABUMENFAZHIJIGOUFAZHISHENHEZEREN。MINGQUEBUMENFAZHIJIGOUDEDIWEIHEZHIZE,BUMENDEGUIFANXINGWENJIANWEIJINGBUMENFAZHIJIGOUSHENHE,BUDETIJIAOBUMENHUIYITAOLUNYANJIU。“FALVQICAOZHEDESIXIANGBIRANHUIYOULOUDONG,TAZIJIBUHUIZONGSHINENGGOUTICHUNEIXIEBUQINGCHUHEMAODUNDEDIFANG”,[13]BUMENFAZHIJIGOU,DUIYUBENDANWEIQICAODEGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,YINGZAIHEFAXINGSHENHEZHONGCHENGDANZHUTIZHIZE,CHONGFENFAHUIZHUDAOZUOYONG,YANBAFALVZHENGCEGUAN,RENZHENFUZEDIDUIGUIFANXINGWENJIANDENEIRONGHEZHIDINGCHENGXUDENG,JINXINGSHIZHIXINGSHENCHA,JIEHEBUMENYEWUHEZHUANYELINGYUDEFALVFAGUI,DUIGUIFANXINGWENJIANNEIRONGDEKEXUEXING、HEFAXING、HELIXINGHEKECAOZUOXINGJINXINGYANJIULUNZHENG,FAHUIZHUTIZUOYONG,TIGONGHEFAYOUZHIDEGUIFANXINGWENJIANCAOAN。DISAN,WANSHANSHENHEGONGZUOFANGSHI。SHENHEJIGOUYINGJINLIANGCAIYONGDUOZHONGFANGSHIJINXINGSHENHE,GUANGFANDEDETINGQUYIJIANJIANYI,DUOJIAODUDESIXIANGGUANDIANPENGZHUANGGENGYOULIYUGONGZHONGQUANLIHEGONGGONGLIYIDEWEIHU,ZUZHIZUOTANHUI、LUNZHENGHUIDENG,CANHUIRENYUANDAIBIAODELIYIYINGDANGZHONGLI,FABIAODEYIJIANJIANYIYINGDANGGONGPINGGONGZHENG。DISI,YANGEHEFAXINGSHENHEBIAOZHUN。JIANCHIHEFAXING、HELIXING、FAZHITONGYIXINGHESHIDANGXINGDENGBIAOZHUN。DUIYUHUIQIAN、GONGKAIZHENGQIUYIJIAN、PINGGULUNZHENGDENGCHENGXUBUWANSHAN,CAILIAOBUQIQUANDE,TICHUWANSHANHUIQIAN、GONGKAIZHENGQIUYIJIAN、PINGGULUNZHENGDENGXIANGGUANCHENGXUDEJIANYI。DUIYUCUNZAIYUFALVCHONGTUDEWENTI,QIEQICAOBUMENCHIYOUYIYI、BUYUXIUGAIDENEIRONG,DUIXIANGGUANNEIRONGTICHUXIUGAIJIANYI。DUIYUWENJIANNEIRONGZHIDINGYUFAWUJU、TUPOFALVQUANXIAN,ZHIDINGLIFAXINGZHINEIRONGDEWENJIAN,TICHUQICAOBUMENWEITIGONGFALVYIJU,JIANYIBUZHIDINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANDEJIANYI。DUIYUYUFAWUJU、TUPOFALVQUANXIAN、NEIRONGWEIFA、JIANGWEIFAWENTIHEFAHUADENEIRONG,TICHUYUFALVFAGUICHONGTU、BUYIZHIDEYIJIAN。

                        (四)加强规范性文件合法性审核工作信息化建设和法治督察

                        DIYI,JIJILIYONGXINXIHUACUOSHI。JIANLIJIANQUANTONGYIDESHENHEGUANLIXINXIPINGTAI,TONGYISHENHEBIAOZHUNHESHENHEMOSHI,JIJILIYONGXINXIHUASHOUDUANWANSHANGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEGONGZUOFANGSHI,TONGYIGESHI、WENBENDENGGEXIANGYAOQIU,CUJINDIANZISHENHEYITIHUA,GONGWENGUANLIXITONGHEZHENGWUXINXIGONGKAIPINGTAINENGGOUHULIANHUTONG。JIJIGONGXIANGHEFAXINGSHENHEXINXI,YOUXIAOLIYONGDASHUJUJISHUZIYUAN,DUIGUIFANXINGWENJIANSHIXINGDONGTAIHUA、JINGXIHUAGUANLI。DIER,JIAQIANGDUCHAKAOHEJIANDUGUANLI。JIANGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEQUANFUGAIQINGKUANG,NARUFAZHIZHENGFUJIANSHEDUCHADENEIRONG,JIANGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEGONGZUONARUFAZHIZHENGFUJIANSHEKAOPINGZHIBIAOTIXI,YIFAYUYIJILI。TONGGUOQIANGHUAKAOHEJIANDU,DUCUZHIDINGJIGUANGAODUZHONGSHI,TIGAOGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEGONGZUOZHILIANG,TONGGUOQIANZHIXINGSHENHEBIMIANWEIFAWENJIANDECHUTAI,ZHULITUIJINYIFAXINGZHENG。

                        结语

                        QUANMIANTUIXINGXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEFAXINGSHENHEJIZHISHILUOSHIDANGZHONGYANG、GUOWUYUANZHONGDAJUECEBUSHUDEZHONGYAOJUCUO。XINGZHENGJIGUANZHIDINGSHEJIGONGMIN、FARENHESHEHUIZUZHIQUANLIYIWUDEXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEZHONGDAXINGZHENGZHENGCEYINGDANGQUDEFALVDESHOUQUAN,XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANHEZHENGCEYIJINGSHISHISHIBIYINGXIANGGONGMIN、FARENHESHEHUIZUZHIDEQUANLIYIWU。XINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANDEZHIDINGYUNIDINGDEXINGZHENGGUANLICUOSHIXUYAOYUFAYOUJU。ZHIDINGCHENGXUHEFAZHENGDANGSHIBAOZHANGNEIRONGHEFADEJICHU,ZAIXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHIDINGGUOCHENGZHONG,YAOGUANGFANZHENGQIUGUANGDARENMINQUNZHONGDEYIJIAN,TONGGUOGONGKAIZHENGQIUYIJIANDENGCHENGXUKEBAOZHANGQUANLIYUQUANLIDEBOYIPINGHENG,YOUXIAOZHIYUEGONGQUANLI,WEIHUGONGZHONGLIYI。WANSHANHEFAXINGSHENHEBIAOZHUN,JIANGLIFAJISHUGUIFANYINRUXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANDESHENCHABIAOZHUN,DUIXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANDEJIEGOU、GESHI、YONGYUDENGYUYIGUIFAN,JIANJUEFANGZHIZHIDINGJUYOULIFAXINGZHIDEWENJIAN,QUEBAOXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANYUFALVFAGUIGUIZHANGHEQITAGUIFANXINGWENJIANXIEDIAOYIZHI,SUOQUELIZHIDUYOUTESEKECAOZUO,NENGGOUYOUXIAOJIEJUEDIFANGSHIJIWENTI。TONGGUOQIANGHUAFAZHISIWEIHECHENGXUYISHI,JIAQIANGHEFAXINGSHENHEDUIWUJIANSHE,JIANQUANHEFAXINGSHENHEJIGOU,TONGYIHEFAXINGSHENHEMOSHI,JIAQIANGXINXIHUAJIANSHEHEFAZHIDUCHA,TUIJINHEFAXINGSHENHEJIZHIDEGUIFANYUNXING,YITISHENGHEFAXINGSHENHEZHIXIAO,QUEBAOXINGZHENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHIDINGZHUTI、QUANXIAN、CHENGXU、NEIRONG、XINGSHIHEFA,WEIFAZHIZHENGFUJIANSHETIGONGYOUZHIDEYIFAXINGZHENGZHIDUTIXI。

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                        [8]梅凯龙.行政治理的创新维度[J].湖北工业职业技术学院学报,2014(4):47-51.
                        [9][德]阿图尔·考夫曼、温弗里德·哈斯默尔.当代法哲学和法律理论导论[M].郑永流译.北京:法律出版社,2013:440.
                        [10][英]约瑟夫·拉兹.实践理性与规范[M].朱学平译.北京:中国法制出版社,2011:174.
                        [11][德]伯恩·魏德士.法理学[M].丁晓春、吴越译.北京:法律出版社,2013:65.
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                      决战棋牌   [13][德]古斯塔夫·拉的布鲁赫.法哲学[M].王朴译.北京:法律出版社,2013:129.

                        石东洋,李龙军.行政规范性文件合法性审核的实践困境及对策[J].江西广播电视大学学报,2020,22(01):64-69. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/faxuelilun/20200316/8285364.html   

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