决战棋牌

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                            1. 论个人所得税征管中的信息非对称问题

                              提要: 我国个人所得税征管中的信息非对称10分突出,如果得以解决不仅有助于提高个人所得税的征收效率,而且对缓解当前收入分配差距、实现税负公平意义重大。本文提出了消除或缓解信息非对称的可能途径,并针对我国的实际情况,提出了具体的政策措施和建议。 关键词:
                              阅读技巧Ctrl+D 收藏本篇文章

                                提要:决战棋牌我国个人所得税征管中的信息非对称10分突出,如果得以解决不仅有助于提高个人所得税的征收效率,而且对缓解当前收入分配差距、实现税负公平意义重大。本文提出了消除或缓解信息非对称的可能途径,并针对我国的实际情况,提出了具体的政策措施和建议。

                                关键词:个人所得税征管 非对称信息 激励与约束

                                1、问题的提出

                              决战棋牌   ZHONGGUANGFANCUNZAIZHEXINXIFEIDUICHENGDEQINGXING,BIJIAODIANXINGDELIZIRU:BAOXIANSHICHANGSHANGBAODANCHIYOURENBIBAOXIANGONGSIGENGLEJIEZIJIDECAICHANHEJIANKANGZHUANGKUANG,JIUCHESHICHANGSHANGCHEZHUDUISUOJIAOYIDEJIUCHEBIGOUCHERENZHIDAOGENGDUODEXINXI。RUGUOJIEYONG1JUTONGSUDEHUALAIBIAODA,JIUSHI“MAIDEBURUMAIDEJING”,JISHICHANGJINGJIZHUTIDE1FANGZONGSHIBILING1FANGYONGYOUGENGDUODEXINXI,ZHEIJIUSHISUOWEIDEXINXIFEIDUICHENG。ZAIZHENGSHUIYUNASHUIGUANXIZHONG,ZHENGSHUIRENYUNASHUIRENZHIJIANTONGYANGCUNZAIZHE10FENDIANXINGDEXINXIFEIDUICHENG:ZHIYOUNASHUIRENZIJICAIQINGCHUDIZHIXIAOGERENSHOURUDEZHENSHIQINGKUANG,ERFUZEZHENGSHUIDESHUIWURENYUANHENNANZHUNQUEZHANGWOZHEI1XINXI。ZAISHANGYOUNEISHENGXINXIFEIDUICHENGYUWAISHENGXINXIFEIDUICHENGZHIFEN,BENWENBUSHEJISHUIWUBUMENNEIBUSHANGJIYUXIASHUZHIJIANDENEISHENGXINXIFEIDUICHENG(RUSHUIWUSUOZHANGDUIZHENGGUANRENYUANGONGZUODESHIJINULICHENGDURUHEBINGBUNENGWANQUANZHANGWO),ERJINDUISHEJIZHENGSHUIRENYUNASHUIRENDEWAISHENGXINXIFEIDUICHENGYUYITANTAO。

                                GERENSUODESHUIYIGERENSHOURUWEIKESHUIDUIXIANG,DANRUHESHIBIE“SHOURU”SHI1JIANPOFEINAOJINDESHI。LILUNSHANGDEBIAOZHUNSHISUOWEIHEIGE——XIMENGSI(YIXIAJIANCHENGH——S)ZHUNZE,JI1DINGSHIQINEIDESHOURUSHIGERENXIAOFEINENGLIDEJINGZENGZHANG,HUANJUHUASHUO,SHOURUSHIDANGQISHIJIXIAOFEIJIASHANGQIANZAIXIAOFEI(JIDANGQIDECHUXU)。H——SGUANDIANRENWEI,GERENSHOURUBUJINBAOKUOYIHUOBIXINGSHIQUDEDE,HAIBAOKUOYISHANGPINHELAOWUXINGSHIQUDEDE。XIANERYIJIAN,H——SSHOURUGAINIANZAISHIJIZHENGGUANZHONGNANYIWANQUANFUZHUSHISHI,YINWEIYUHUOBIHUASHOURUXIANGBI,FEIHUOBIHUASHOURUCUNZAIGENGWEIYANZHONGDEXINXIFEIDUICHENG,DANSHI20SHIJI80NIANDAIDEMEIGUOSHUIZHIGAIGEZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGTIXIANLEH——SSIXIANG,ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYOUYUH——SZHUNZENENGGOUJIAOHAODISHIXIANSHUISHOUGONGPINGHEXIAOLV。

                                ZAIWOGUOGERENSUODESHUIBEICHENGWEI“ZHENGSHUIDI1NAN”,DUITADEZHENGYIZHUYAOJIZHONGZAITABUNENGJIAOHAODIFAHUIDIAOJIEGERENSHOURUFENPEIDEGONGNENG,CHUXIANSUOWEI“GUANZHULEGONGXINJIECENG,QUEGUANBUZHUXINSHENGGUIZU”DEGANGA。JIUQIYUANYIN,BIZHERENWEIZHENGGUANZHONGDEXINXIFEIDUICHENGSHICHANSHENGGANGAJUMIANDEGUANJIANXINGYUANYIN。SHUIWUBUMENBUZHANGWONASHUIRENSHOURUDEZHENSHIXINXI,ERNASHUIRENQINGXIANGYUJIANGGERENSHOURUDEZHENSHIXINXIYINBIHUA、SIYOUHUA,YIDADAOGUIBISHUISHOUSHENHUOTAOSHUIDEMUDE。XINXIBUYIHUOQUDEGENBENYUANYINSHINASHUIRENDUIGERENSHOUYIZUIDAHUADEZHUIQIU。YINWEIYUSHUIFUYIYUZHUANJIADELIUZHUANSHUIBUTONG,SUODESHUISHIZHIJIESHUI,NASHUIJIANGZHIJIEJIANSHAONASHUIRENDEGERENSHOUYI,YINCILIXINGDENASHUIRENWEIJINKENENGZENGJIASHOUYISHOUXIANXUANZEHELIBISHUI,QICIZAITEDINGTIAOJIANXIAYIBUPAICHUYOUXUANZETAOSHUIDEKENENG。ZAIZHEILIGERENSHOURUXINXIGONGKAIDECHENGDUSHIZHENGNASHUANGFANGBOYIDEGUANJIAN,XINXIFEIDUICHENGDESHIJICHENGDUZHIJIENASHUIRENDENASHUIXUANZEHEZUIZHONGSHOUYI。RUGUOXINXIFEIDUICHENGDESHIJICHENGDUQIANG,NASHUIRENGENGQINGXIANGYUXUANZEBUNASHUI,XIANGFANZEGENGQINGXIANGYUXUANZENASHUI。TONGSHIDUIFENGXIANDEYUQIYESHINASHUIRENXUANZENASHUIHAISHITAOSHUISHIDEZHONGYAOYINSU(JICHENGBENSHOUYIQUANHENG)。RUOYUQISHOUYIDAYUFENGXIAN(CHENGBEN),TOUTAOSHUIKUANDEKENENGXINGJIUZENGJIA;RUGUOYUQITAOSHUIDEFENGXIAN(CHENGBEN)XIAOERSHOUYIDA,LIRUBEISHUIWUBUMENJICHAHEJIANCHADEGAILVXIAO、ZAOSHOUCHENGFADECHENGDUQINGWEI、BIANJISHUILVJIAOGAODENGQINGKUANG,ZEHUIYOUSHIYUANLAIDEFENGXIANYANEZHEHEFENGXIANZHONGXINGZHEBIANWEIFENGXIANAIHAOZHE,YOUNASHUIZHUANERXUANZETAOSHUI。RUGUOZHENGSHUI1FANGBUNENGYOUXIAOCHUANDILEISIJICHA、CHENGFADEXINXIJINASHUIREN,RANGNASHUIRENQIESHIGANSHOUDAODEWEISHEHETAOSHUIDEJUDACHENGBEN,SHENZHIFANERSHOUDAOFUXIANGDEJILI,BIRUMOUDAWANTOUTAOJUESHUIKUANHAIYIRANPINPINDENGTAIYANCHU,NEIMENASHUIRENJIUKENENGSHOUDAOQIANGLIEDEANSHIERXIAOFANGTAOSHUI。

                              决战棋牌   YOUCIKANLAI,ZHENGGUANZHONGDEXINXIFEIDUICHENGWENTIRUGUONENGGOUDEDAOJIAOHAODEJIEJUE,BUJINYOUZHUYUTIGAOGERENSUODESHUIDEZHENGSHOUXIAOLV,ERQIEDUISUOXIAODANGQIANSHOURUFENPEICHAJU、SHIXIANSHUIFUGONGPINGYIYIZHONGDA。

                                2、消除或缓解非对称信息的可能途径

                              决战棋牌   JILIYUXINXIFEIDUICHENGWENTIMIQIEXIANGGUAN。JIEJUEXINXIFEIDUICHENGSHIZHISHANGSHI1GETIGONGSHIDANGJILIDEWENTI。SHUIWUBUMENYAOQIUHUOQUCHONGFENXINXI,NASHUIRENBEIYAOQIUZHUANYISIYOUXINXISUOYOUQUAN,SHIJIZHEISHIXINXIJIAOYIDE1GEGUOCHENG。SHUIWUBUMENSHIXINXIDEXUQIUZHE,TAZUOWEIJILI1FANG,KAOLVRUHEQUEBAOYIJIAOXIAODECHENGBENHUOQUZUICHONGFENDEXINXI,JIANRUOXINXIBUDUICHENGDECHENGDU;ERNASHUIRENSHIXINXIDEGONGJIZHE,TAZUOWEIBEIJILI1FANG(HUOCHENGJILIDUIXIANG),ZAIYUQISHOUYIDAYUYUQICHENGBENDETIAOJIANXIASHOUDAOJILIYUANYITIGONGSIYOUXINXI。

                              决战棋牌   YOUCIXUYAOSHEJI1ZHONGJILIQIYUE,GULINASHUIRENXIANGSHUIWUBUMENTIGONGXINXI,JINASHUIRENHUODEJILIYUANYITOULUZHENSHIDESHOURUXINXI。ERZHEIZHONGZHIDUANPAIHUOZHENGCESHEJI,ZHIYOUMANZUGERENDE“JILIXIANGRONGYUESHU”CAISHIKEXINGDE。SUOWEIJILIXIANGRONGYUESHU,JIANYANZHIJIUSHISHUOZHENHUABISHUOJIAHUAYOUHAOCHU。YAOQUEBAONASHUIRENSHUOZHENHUA、SHENBAOSHOURUSHIYOUSHOUYIHUOZHESHUOZHENHUADUOSHIDESHOUYIYOUYUSHUOZHENHUASHAOSHIDESHOUYI。ZHEILIDESHOUYIJIYOUYOUXINGSHOUYIYEYOUWUXINGSHOUYI,BIRUWEILAIXIAOFEIGONGGONGWUPINDEJIANJIESHOUYI、XINYUSHOUYIYIJIZUOWEINASHUIRENDEZIHAOGANDENG。CHENGBENYEBAOKUOYOUXINGCHENGBENHEWUXINGCHENGBENLIANGBUFEN,RUNASHUIDEZHIJIESHOURUSUNSHI、FAKUANHEZHINAJIN、TAOSHUIFUCHUDEJINGSHENDAIJIAYIJIXINLICHENGBENDENG。BIZHERENWEI,JILIYUYUESHUDESHEJIKEZHEYANYUYIXIAJIFANGMIAN:

                                (1)SHUIZHIGONGPING

                              决战棋牌   ①XIANERYIJIAN,ZHEIYOUSHIHENGXIANGGONGPING。QICIGENJUZONGXIANGGONGPINGYUANZE,DISHOURUZHEYINGBUNAHUOZHESHAONASHUI,GAOSHOURUZHEYINGDUONASHUI,LIANGNENGFUDAN,SUIZHENASHUIRENSHOURUDIZENGERZHUJIANLEIJIN,ERSHIJIANZHONGCUNZAIDESUOWEIGERENSUODESHUI“ZHIGUANZHUGONGXINJIECENGQUEGUANBUZHUXINSHENGGUIZU”FANYINGDEJISHIYUSHUIZHISHEJICHUZHONGXIANGFANDEQINGXING。YOUBEISHUISHOUGONGPINGYUANZEDESHUIZHIBIRANYINQINASHUIRENDEXINLIBUPINGHENG,JINERKENENGCHANSHENGDUINASHUIDEDICHUQINGXU,YINCIJILINASHUIRENYIFANASHUIBIXUQUEBAOYOU1GEGONGPINGDESHUIZHI。

                                (2)CHENGFALIDU

                              决战棋牌   ②KEJIANJIFUWEISHELIDECHENGFADUINASHUIFUCONGDEYINGXIANG10FENXIANZHU。

                                (3)JIANCHAGAILV

                              决战棋牌   ③YICIWEIYIJUKEYIQUEDINGWOMENJINXINGZHONGDIANJIANCHADEDUIXIANG。

                              决战棋牌   (4)JINGSHENYUXINLIYINSU

                                NASHUIRENBUJINSHI1GEWEIGUANJINGJIZHUTI,ERQIEHAISHI1GEREN,SHOUDAODE、FALVYIJISHEHUIYULUNDEYUESHU。YINCIZAILIYIZHIWAI,TAHAIYOUJINGSHENXUQIU,ZHONGSHIGERENXINYUHEZIWOJIAZHIDESHIXIAN。ZUNSHOUFALVGUIDINGZHAOZHANGNASHUIHUIJIGERENDAILAIJINGSHENYUYUE、QUELIGERENXINYUDENGWUXINGDE、JIANJIEDESHOUYI(XINYUKENENGDAILAISHOUYI,RUDINGDANDEZENGJIAHUOHAODEGONGZUOJIHUIDENG),ERWEIFANFALVTINGERZOUXIANYAOFUCHUCHENZHONGDEJINGSHENFUDANHEXINLICHENGBEN,NAIZHISHIQURONGRUSHEHUISHENGHUODEJIBENQUANLIHEJIHUI。

                                在提供适当的激励与约束之外,还可能采取以下两种获得信息:1.市场机构。2001年诺贝尔经济学决战棋牌奖得主之1阿克洛夫(George Akerlof)1970年在其《柠檬市场:质量不确定性和市场机制》1文中指出,经济主体有强烈的激励去消除信息问题对市场效率的不利影响,进而,他认为许多市场机构可被视作是为解决信息不对称而产生的。所以市场机构可在其中消除信息屏障,发挥沟通信息的功能。若这些中介机构和力量得以发展壮大,则对征纳双方沟通信息必有裨益。2.设置信息通道。通过不同的途径,多渠道、多角度获取信息,虽然不能直接从纳税人那里获得信息,但信息传播的渠道和途径不是单1的,在现代社会机和通讯手段已成为信息传播的主要载体,完全有可能从纳税人之外寻找突破口获取需要的信息,为此可增设信息通道确保信息通达。

                                3、结论和政策建议

                                ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,KEFUZHENGGUANKUNNANDEGUANJIANSHIJINKENENGJIANRUOXINXIFEIDUICHENGFENBUDECHENGDU,JIEHEWOGUODESHIJIQINGKUANG,JUTIJIANYIRUXIA:

                                (1)YUJILIYUESHUXIANGGUANDEGAIGEHEZHENGCEJIANYI

                                1.GONGPINGSHUIFU,WANSHANGERENSUODESHUIZHIDU。

                                ⑴ QUEDINGHELIDEGERENSUODESHUILV。YUGUOJISHUIPINGXIANGDUIZHAO,WOGUOGERENSUODESHUIDESHUILVBUSUANDI,SHUIZHIGAIGEGUOCHENGZHONGYINGJINKENENGBASHUILVSHEZHIZAIJIAODIDESHUIPINGSHANG。YINWEIGUOGAODESHUILVQIANGHUANASHUIRENDESHOUYIDONGJI,RONGYIZAOCHENGSHUISHOUSHOURULIUSHI,ZHENGRULAFUQUXIANSUOBIAOMINGDE,GAOSHUILVBU1DINGCHANSHENGGAOSHOURU;TONGSHIDUIYUZHENGSHUIGUOZHONGYINQIDEXIAOLVSUNSHI,JIAYOUXUGUJI。YINCIYOUBIYAOJIEJIANMIERLISIDEDAO“U”,DUIZHONGDENGSHOURUZHESHIYONGXIANGDUIJIAOGAODESHUILV,DUIDISHOURUZHEHEGAOSHOURUZHESHIYONGXIANGDUIJIAODIDESHUILV,SHENZHIYOUYUXINXIFEIDUICHENGDECUNZAI,DUIZUIGAOSUODEDEBIANJISHUILVYINGDANGWEI0。

                              决战棋牌   ⑵ GAIGEFENXIANGZHENGSHOUBANFA。DANCHUNDEFENXIANGZHENGSHOURENWEIDIXINGCHENGLEBUTONGLEIBIESHOURUZHIJIANDEBUGONGPINGSHUISHOUDAIYU。JINHOUKEKAOLVFENXIANGZONGHEXIANGJIEHEDEZHENGSHOUBANFA,KEZAINIANNEIFENXIANGYUJIAO,NIANDUZHONGLEHUISUANQINGJIAO。

                              决战棋牌   ⑶ QUEDINGHELIDEKOUCHUBIAOZHUN。ANZHAOXIANXINGWUJIASHUIPINGHE1BANSHENGHUOBIAOZHUN,KAOLVBUTONGNASHUIRENDEJIATINGGOUCHENG、SHOURUSHUIPINGHESHANYANGFUDANQINGKUANG,GUIDINGHELIDEKOUCHUBIAOZHUN。

                                2.JIADACHENGFAHEJIANCHALIDU。

                                YANLICHENGCHUTAOSHUIZHE,ZENGDATAOSHUIZHEDEYUQIFENGXIANHEJIHUICHENGBEN,YIJINGXIAOYOU,XINGCHENGQIANGDADEWEISHE。ZHIDINGCHENGFADESHISHIXIZE,DUITAOSHUIZHEDECHENGCHUZHIDUHUA、GUIFANHUA,JIANSHAORENWEIYINSUHESUIYIXING。QIZHONGJIANBIANYIXINGERZHUOYOUCHENGXIAODECHENGFASHOUDUANSHIJIANLIJILUBINGYUYIGONGGAO。JIADASHUIWUJIANCHAGAILV,YOUQIYAOZHONGDIANJIANCHANEIXIENASHUIBULIANGJILUZHE。DUISHUEJUDA、QINGJIEYANZHONGDETOUTAOSHUIANJIAN,ANZHAOYOUGUANGUIDING,YISONGSIFAJIGUANLIANSHENCHA。

                                3.WANSHANDAIKOUDAIJIAOZHIDU。

                                DAIKOUDAIJIAOBIANYUSHIXIANCONGYUANTOUSHANGDUISHUIKUANDEJIZHENG,SHIGERENSUODESHUIZHENGSHOUDEYOUXIAO。JIBIANSHIZAIGONGMINNASHUIYISHIJIAOQIANGDEMEIGUO,GUZHUDAIKOUDAIJIAORENGSHIGERENSUODESHUIZHENGSHOUDEZHUYAOXINGSHI。ZAIWOGUOYAOMINGQUEGUIDINGKOUJIAOYIWURENDEFALVYIWUHEFALVZEREN。RUOKOUJIAOYIWURENBULVXINGYIWU,YINGJIYUYANLICHUFABINGZHUIJIUQIFALVZEREN。

                                4.JIANGLICHENGXINNASHUI。

                                DUIYIFACHENGXINNASHUIDEGONGMIN,GENJUJIANLIDEXINYONGJILU,QUELIXIANGYINGDEJIANGLIZHIDU。JIEJIANSHUISHOUFAZHIJIAOWEIJIANQUANDEGUOJIAHEDIQUDEZUOFA,JIANGGONGMINNASHUIYUGERENLIYIXIANGLIANXI,BIRUYIFANASHUIDEGONGMIN,ZAIYANGLAOHEYILIAODENGFANGMIANXIANGSHOUBUTONGCHENGDUDEYOUHUIDAIYU。

                                (2)GUIFANFAZHANSHUIWUDAILIZHONGJIEJIGOU

                                SHUIWUDAILIYIZHONGJIEDELICHANG,YIZHAOSHUIFAGUIDING,KEGUANGONGZHENGDIYINGSHUISUODE,QUEBAONASHUIRENCHENGSHINASHUI,BAOHUGUOJIALIYIBUSHOUQINHAI,TONGSHIHAIKEZAIFALVXUKEDEFANWEINEIBANGZHUNASHUIRENJINKENENGSHAONASHUIKUAN。YINCIZUOWEIDULIDEFUWUJIGOU,SHUIWUDAILISHOUDAOZHENGNASHUANGFANGDEHUANYING,NENGGOUFAHUIGOUTONGXINXIHEXIEDIAOSHUANGFANGGUANXIDEZUOYONG。JINHOUYAOGUIFANSHUIWUZHONGJIEJIGOUDEYEWUFANWEI、FUWUBIAOZHUNHESHOUFEIBIAOZHUN,ZHENZHENGSHIXIANSHUIWUZHONGJIEJIGOUSHEHUIHUA,CHENGWEIDULIDEZHUANYEHUASHEHUIFUWUJIGOU,GENGHAODIFUWUYUSHUANGFANGDEXINXIJIAOLIU。

                                (3)YUSHEZHIXINXITONGDAOXIANGGUANDEJUTICUOSHI

                                1.QIDONGHUAZHENGGUANSHOUDUAN。

                                多渠道获取信息,利用计算机决战棋牌对税源进行监控。在财政、工商、银行、保险、海关、和税务等部门之间设立计算机联网,便于信息共享和进行交叉稽核。

                              决战棋牌   2.XIANZHIXIANJINJIESUANDEFANWEI,YANGETUIXINGCUNKUANSHIMINGZHI。

                                限制现金结算,对应该采用转账支付结算而不采用的,制定惩罚措施。严格推行存款实名制,居民凭身份证(非居民凭护照)办理存款账户。税务编码和存款账户11对应,通过银行的计算机网络系统对纳税人的税源情况进行有效监控。

                                3.JIANLIQUNZHONGJUBAOJIANGLIZHIDU。

                              决战棋牌   GULIQUNZHONGTIGONGXINXI,JUBAOTAOSHUISHISHI,GENJUSHIJIGONGXIANJIYUJIANGLI,BINGBAOZHENGWEIJUBAOZHEBAOMI,XINGCHENGXIESHUIHUSHUIDELIANGHAOSHEHUIHUANJING。

                                (1)ZHANGWEIYING《BOYILUNYUXINXIXUE》SHANGHAI3LIANSHUDIAN、SHANGHAIRENMINCHUBANSHE1996NIANBAN。

                                (2)HAWEI·LUOSEN《CAIZHENGXUE》ZHONGGUORENMINDAXUECHUBANSHE2000NIANBAN。

                                (3)QIAN SHENG 《WOGUOSHUISHOUDIAOJIEGERENSHOURUFENPEIDELEITUIQINGXIANGJIQIDUICE》《SHUIWU》2001NIANDI8QI。


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