决战棋牌

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                          2. 哲学对崇高的承诺与寻求的论文

                            “人之为人”的内在尺度和人类历史的精神坐标上的终极指向,是哲学本体论追求的真实意义。但是,在当代社会思潮中,出现了“意义的危机”和“崇高的失落”,造成空前的价值坐标的震荡和“现代人的困惑”。因此,关于崇高的问题,不是一个是否应当追求的问题,而是一个
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                              “人之为人”的内在尺度和人类历史的精神坐标上的终极指向,是哲学决战棋牌本体论追求的真实意义。但是,在当代社会思潮中,出现了“意义的危机”和“崇高的失落”,造成空前的价值坐标的震荡和“现代人的困惑”。因此,关于崇高的问题,不是一个是否应当追求的问题,而是一个在新时期如何追求的问题。哲学作为“时代精神的精华”,应当通过批判性地反思“两极模式”下崇高的异化与消解,而重新达到“中介模式”下新时期哲学使命的理论自觉——本体论:哲学对崇高的承诺与寻求。

                              关键词:决战棋牌本体论;崇高;两极模式;中介模式

                              ZAIRENLEILISHIDEJINGSHENZUOBIAOSHANG,CHONGGAOZUOWEIRENSHENGDEZUIDAYIYIHEZUIGAOJIAZHI,SHIRENDEANSHENLIMINGZHIBEN。ZHEXUEZUOWEI“YIYI”DESHEHUIZIWOYISHIHESHIDAIJINGSHENDEJINGHUA,TADEMEILIJIUZAIYUDUICHONGGAODEXUNQIU。DANSHI,ZAIDANGDAISHEHUISICHAOZHONG,CHUXIANLE“YIYIDEWEIJI”HE“CHONGGAODESHILUO”,WOMENCHUZAIYIYISHIJIEHEIANDESHIDAI,WUJIAKEGUI。YINCI,XUNZHAOYIYIHEZHONGJIANCHONGGAOCHENGWEIXINSHIQIZHEXUEDELIXINGQIDAIHEZUIZHONGYAODELISHIRENWU。

                              一、哲学与崇高的寻求

                              哲学作为“意义”的社会自我意识,它的独特价值就在于,把人类以各种方式创造的“意义”聚焦为照亮人的生活世界的“普照光”。因此,黑格尔形象地把哲学比喻为“庙里的神”,并指出,“一个有文化决战棋牌民族”如果没有哲学,“就像一座庙,其他各方面都装饰得富丽堂皇,却没有至圣的神那样”[1](p.2)。按照黑格尔的比喻,“庙里的神”是使“庙”成其为庙的“灵光”,哲学则是使人类的“文化殿堂”和“精神家园”成其为文化殿堂和精神家园的“灵光”,即哲学就像普照大地的阳光一样,照亮了人类的生活。正因为如此,黑格尔说:“凡生活中真实的伟大的神圣的事物,其所以真实、伟大、神圣,均由于理念”,“人应尊敬他自己,并应自视能配得上最高贵的东西”[2](pp.35,36)。由此可见,黑格尔把哲学视为对“崇高”的追求,哲学是使人崇高起来的“普照光”,而理念则是崇高的存在。

                              ZHEXUEWEISHENMEYAOXUNQIUCHONGGAONI?

                              SHOUXIAN,ZHEIGENYUANYURENLEICUNZAIDESHIJIANXING。SHIJIANSHIRENDECUNZAIFANGSHI,ZHEXUEDESHENGHUOJICHUSHIRENLEIDESHIJIANHUODONGJIQILISHIFAZHAN。ZUOWEIRENLEISHENGMINGHUODONGDESHIJIANHUODONG,BUTONGYUDONGWUBENNENGSHIDESHENGCUNHUODONG,TASHIRENLEIYOUYISHI、YOUMUDE、NENGDONGDIGAIZAOSHIJIEDEKEGUANDEWUZHIHUODONG。DUICI,LIENINGZHICHU,“RENDESHIJIAN=YAOQIU(1)HEWAIBUXIANSHIXING(2)”[3](p.183)。GUANYURENDESHIJIANDE“YAOQIU”,LIENINGJIESHISHUO:“SHIJIEBUHUIMANZUREN,RENJUEXINYIZIJIDEXINGDONGLAIGAIBIANSHIJIE”,JIRENYI“WEIZIJIHUIZHIKEGUANSHIJIETUJINGDERENDEHUODONGGAIBIANWAIBUXIANSHI,XIAOMIETADEGUIDINGXING(=BIANGENGTADEZHEIXIEHUONEIXIEFANGMIAN、ZHI),ZHEIYANG,YEJIUQUDIAOLETADEJIAXIANG、WAIZAIXINGHEXUWUXINGDETEDIAN,SHITACHENGWEIZIZAIZIWEIDICUNZAIZHEDE(=KEGUANZHENSHIDE)XIANSHI”[3](pp.183,187)。YINCI,SHIJIANHUODONGDEBENZHIZAIYU,XIANSHIDERENZONGSHIBUMANZUYUZIJIDEXIANSHI,ZONGSHIYAOBAXIANSHIBIANCHENGLIXIANGDEXIANSHI。ZAIZHEIZHONGRENBALIXIANGBIANCHENGXIANSHIDESHIJIANHUODONGZHONG,BAOHANZHEYIZHONGSHUANGZHONGHUAGUOCHENG,JI:YIFANGMIANSHISHISHIJIEDE“XIANSHIXING”BIANCHENG“FEIXIANSHIXING”;LINGYIFANGMIANSHISHIRENDE“LIXIANGXING”BIANCHENGKEGUANCUNZAIDE“XIANSHIXING”[4](p.199)。JIYUCI,SHENGHUOSHIJIEDUIRENLAISHUO,CAISHI“YOUYIYI”DESHIJIE,QIBUJINTIXIANLERENLEIFOUDINGXIANSHI、ZHUIQIULIXIANGDEXINGSHANGBENXING,ERQIEZHANGXIANLERENLEI“ANZHAOMEIDEGUILVLAISUZAO”SHIJIEDEKENENGXING。ZHENGSHI“YIYI”ZHEIDAOPUZHAOGUANGZHAOLIANGLERENDESHENGHUOSHIJIE,SHIDESHENGHUOSHIJIEWUCAIBINFEN、HUIHUANGCANLAN。ZHEXUEZUOWEI“YIYI”DESHEHUIZIWOYISHIHESHIDAIJINGSHENDEJINGHUA,TADEMEILIJIUZAIYUZHUIQIU“YIYI”HEXUNQIU“CHONGGAO”。

                            决战棋牌  QICI,ZHEXUEBENTILUNDEZHENSHIYIYISHIDUICHONGGAODEXUNQIU。ZHEXUEBENTILUNDECHANSHENGYUFAZHANJIYUYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN:QIYI,ZHEXUEDESHENGHUOJICHUSHIRENLEIDESHIJIANHUODONGJIQILISHIFAZHAN。ZAIRENLEIDESHIJIANHUODONGJIQILISHIFAZHANZHONG,RENZONGSHIBUMANZUYUZIJIDEXIANSHI,ZONGSHIYAOBAXIANSHIBIANCHENGLIXIANGDEXIANSHI,JIDUIRENLAISHUOSHIZHENSHANMEITONGYIDELIXIANGSHIJIE。QIER,YISHIJIANHUODONGWEI“ZUIBENZHIZUIQIEJINDEJICHU”DERENLEISIWEIJUYOU“ZHISHANGXING”YU“FEIZHISHANGXING”。“ANTADEBENXING、SHIMING、KENENGHELISHIDEZHONGJIMUDELAISHUO,SHIZHISHANGDEHEWUXIANDE;ANTADEGEBIESHIJIQINGKUANGHEMEICIXIANSHILAISHUO,YOUSHIBUZHISHANGHEYOUXIANDE。”[5](p.427)JIUSIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”ERYAN,TAZONGSHIKEQIUBAWOZUOWEISHIJIETONGYIXINGDEZHONGJICUNZAI、ZUOWEIZHISHITONGYIXINGDEZHONGJIJIESHIHEZUOWEIYIYITONGYIXINGDEZHONGJIJIAZHI,ZHEIZHONGZHONGJIXINGDEKE

                            决战棋牌  QIUJIUSHIGUANCHUANGUJINDEZHEXUEBENTILUN,ZHONGJICUNZAI、ZHONGJIJIESHIHEZHONGJIJIAZHIZESHIBENTILUNDESANZHONGNEIHAN,JIBENTILUNSHIZHENSHANMEIDETONGYI。JIUSIWEIDE“FEIZHISHANGXING”ERYAN,ZHEXUEBENTILUNSHIYIZHONGZIWOPIPANDEBENTILUN,JUYOUZIWOFOUDINGDENEIZAIGENJU,ZAIQINEIBUCUNZAIZHEZHONGJIGUANHUAIYURENLEIDELISHIFAZHANZHIJIANDEMAODUN。YINCI,YIRENLEIDESHIJIANHUODONGWEIJICHUDEZHEXUEBENTILUNDEZHENSHIYIYIJIUZAIYUDUIZUOWEIZHENSHANMEIXIANGTONGYIDECHONGGAODEXUNQIU,ERQIEZUOWEIZHENSHANMEIXIANGTONGYIDECHONGGAOJUYOULISHIDEGUIDINGXINGHESHIDAINEIHAN。

                              最后,哲学的历史是寻求崇高的历史。纵观整个传统哲学史,无论是从先秦到明清的中国传统哲学,还是从古希腊罗马到近代欧洲的西方传统哲学,无不把象征真善美的崇高作为哲学理性的真谛。“中国传统哲学,一向是以‘为天地立心,为生民立命’为己任,以‘究天人之际,通古今之变’为内容,以‘修齐治平’、‘内圣外王’为门径,去建构人类生活的精神坐标和确立人类生活的‘安身立命’之本”[6]。追求崇高,可以说是中国传统哲学坚韧不拔、始终如一的目标。对此,冯友兰先生指出:“中国的儒家,并不注重为知识而求知识,主要的在求理想的生活。求理想生活,是中国哲学决战棋牌的主流,也是儒家哲学精神所在。”[7]同样,以“寻求最高原因的基本原理”和“提供知识的基础”为己任的西方传统哲学,也是以崇高和使人崇高起来作为追求的目标。康德以人自身的尊严和价值为崇高的根源,把崇高的审美判断建立在一个“人之为人”的尺度;黑格尔更是明确地把追求崇高作为哲学的根本旨趣,“在他看来,真正的崇高,只能是对真理的追求;对真理的追求,只能是依赖于精神的力量;而精神追求真理的过程,也就是使人自己崇高起来的过程”。因此,作为“思想中的时代”和“时代精神的精华”的哲学一直把崇高的追求和阐扬作为自己的理论使命和历史任务。

                              DANSHI,ZAIDANGDAIDESHEHUISICHAOZHONG,CHUXIANLE“YIYIDEWEIJI”HE“CHONGGAODESHILUO”,ZAOCHENGKONGQIANDEJIAZHIZUOBIAODEZHENDANGHE“XIANDAIRENDEKUNHUO”,SHICHONGGAOSANGSHILETAZAIRENLEILISHIDEJINGSHENZUOBIAOSHANGDEZHONGJIZHIXIANGDIWEI,GUANYUCHONGGAODESIXIANGBIANCHENGSUOWEIDE“WANGXISHIDAIJIULIXIANGDEYINTUILEDEGUANGHUI”。YINCI,GUANYUCHONGGAODEWENTI,BUZAISHIYIGESHIFOUYINGDANGZHUIQIUDEWENTI,ERSHIYIGEZAIXINSHIQIRUHEZHUIQIUDEWENTI。ZHEXUEZUOWEI“SHIDAIJINGSHENDEJINGHUA”,YINGDANGTONGGUOPIPANXINGDIFANSI“LIANGJIMOSHI”XIACHONGGAODEYIHUAYUXIAOJIE,ERZHONGXINDADAO“ZHONGJIEMOSHI”XIAXINSHIQIZHEXUESHIMINGDELILUNZIJUE——BENTILUN:ZHEXUEDUICHONGGAODECHENGNUOYUXUNQIU。

                              二、“两极模式”下崇高的异化与消解

                              SUOWEI“LIANGJIMOSHI”ZHUYAOSHIZHIRENLEISIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”HE“FEIZHISHANGXING”DELIANGJIDUILI。ZAIZHEIZHONGMOSHIZHONG,YOUYURENMENTUOLIZUOWEISIWEIDE“ZUIBENZHIZUIQIEJINDEJICHU”DESHIJIANHUODONGQULIJIESIWEI,YAOMEZHIQIANGDIAOSIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”,YAOMEZHIQIANGDIAOSIWEIDE“FEIZHISHANGXING”,ZHEISHIYIZHONG“LIANGJIDUILI”、“FEICIJIBI”DE“XINGERSHANGXUE”DESIWEIFANGSHI。ZHEIZHONG“LIANGJIMOSHI”DESIWEIFANGSHIZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAICHUANTONGZHEXUEHEXIFANGKEXUEZHUYIHUORENBENZHUYISICHAOZHONG:CHUANTONGZHEXUECONGSIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”CHUFA,LITUWEIRENMENTIGONGZUOWEIYONGHENGDE“ANSHENLIMING”ZHIBENDE“JUEDUIZHENLI”;XIFANGKEXUEZHUYIHUORENBENZHUYISICHAOCONGSIWEIDE“FEIZHISHANGXING”CHUFA,XUANYANGFEILIXINGZHUYIHEXIANGDUIZHUYI,FOUDINGCHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNZHUIQIU。YINCI,ZAIZHEIZHONG“LIANGJIMOSHI”ZHONG,CHONGGAOBUSHIBEIYIHUAWEIMOUZHONGCHAOLISHIDECUNZAI,JIUSHIBEICHEDIXIAOJIE。コLIUHUIGUATONGZHEXUEZHONGDEYIHUA。JIYUSIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”DECHUANTONGZHEXUE,ZONGSHILITUHUODEYIZHONGZUOWEIJIESHI、PANDUANHEPINGJIAYIQIEDEBIAOZHUN、GENJUHECHIDUDE“JUEDUIZHENLI”,WEIRENMENTIGONGYONGHENGDE“ANSHENLIMING”ZHIBEN。DANSHI,CHUANTONGZHEXUEHUSHILERENLEISIWEIDEXIANSHIJICHU——SHIJIANHUODONG,MOSHALESIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”YURENLEILISHIDEFAZHANZHIJIANDEMAODUN,YINCI,TABAZHEXUESUOZHUIQIUHECHENGNUODE“BENTI”DANGZUOYIZHONGYURENLEIZHUANGKUANGWUGUANDECHAOLISHIDESHITI,CHONGGAOSHIQUQILISHIDEGUIDINGXINGHESHIDAINEIHAN。JIYUCI,“ZHEXUEZUOWEILISHIXINGDESIXIANGJI‘SIXIANGZHONGSUOBAWODAODESHIDAI’,WULUNSHIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGZHEXUEHAISHIXIFANGCHUANTONGZHEXUE,ZAIJIANGOURENLEISHENGHUOJINGSHENZUOBIAODEGUOCHENGZHONG,JILISHIDIJIANLVZHEDUICHONGGAODEZHUIQIU,YOUFEILISHIDIBACHONGGAOYIHUAWEIMOUZHONGCHAOLISHIDECUNZAI”[6]。

                              崇高在中国传统哲学中的异化,主要表现为“君权”、“经典”、“纲常”等伦理关系的神圣化。对此,陈独秀提出,“儒家三纲之说,为一切道德政治之大原。君为臣纲,则民于君为附属品,而无独立自主之人格矣;父为子纲,则子于父为附属品,而无独立自主之人格矣;夫为妻纲,则妻于夫为附属品,而无独立自主之人格矣……”[8],他还特

                              ZHICHU,“KONGXUEYOUDIAN,PUWEICHANGBUFUYING,WEIZIHANWUYILAI,XUESHANGYIZUN,BAIJIAFEICHU,WUZUCONGMINGYINZHIGUBI,LIUDUZHIJIN,WEIZHINENGJIE;YOUKONGZIZUSHURUSHUOJIEJIGANGCHANGZHILUNLI,FENGSUOSHENZHOU”[9]。JINGUANCHENDUXIUDEPIPANYOUSHIPIANJI,QUESHENKEDIJIELULECHONGGAOBEIYIHUADEYANZHONGHOUGUO。

                              CHONGGAOZAIXIFANGCHUANTONGZHEXUEZHONGDEYIHUA,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEI“BENTI”、“GONGXIANG”、“LUOJI”DENGRENSHIGUANXIDESHENSHENGHUA。“SHANGDI”ZUOWEIBEIYIHUALEDECHONGGAO,TABUJINSHI“WANWUDEYUANYIN”,YESHI“YUZHOUDEYUANZE”,TASHIJIZHENSHANMEIYUYISHENERCAIPANYIQIEDEGENJU、BIAOZHUNHECHIDU。DUICI,LUODIZHICHU,“ZIXILASHIDAIYILAI,XIFANGSIXIANGJIAMENYIZHIZAIXUNQIUYITAOTONGYIDEGUANNIAN,……ZHEITAOGUANNIANKEBEIYONGYUZHENGMINGHUOPIPINGGERENXINGWEIHESHENGHUOYIJISHEHUIXISUHEZHIDU,HAIKEYIWEIRENMENTIGONGYIGEJINXINGGERENDAODESIKAOHESHEHUIZHENGZHISIKAODEKUANGJIA”[10](p.11),JICHONGGAOBEIYIHUAWEIRENLEIYONGHENGDEANSHENLIMINGZHIBENHUOZUIGAOZHICHENGDIAN,CHONGGAOSHIQUQILISHIDEGUIDINGXINGHESHIDAINEIHAN。

                              CHONGGAODEZHUIQIUWEISHENMEHUIZAICHUANTONGZHEXUEZHONGBIANCHENGCHONGGAODEYIHUANI?ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYOUCHUANTONGZHEXUEDE“LIANGJIMOSHI”DESIWEIFANGSHISUOZAOCHENGDE。QIYI,CONGSHENCENGDESHENGHUOJICHUSHANGKAN,SHIYINWEICHUANTONGZHEXUELILUNBIAOZHENGZHEZIRANJINGJIZHONGDERENDECUNZAIFANGSHI。ZIRANJINGJIZHONGDERENDECUNZAIFANGSHI,CONGGENBENSHANGSHUO,SHIYIZHONGMAKESISUOZHICHUDE“RENDEYIFUXING”。ZAIZHEIZHONG“RENDEYIFUXING”ZHONG,CHONGGAOZONGSHIBEIYIHUAWEIMOUZHONGSHENSHENGXINGXIANG。QIER,CONGSIWEIFANGSHISHANGKAN,SHIYINWEICHUANTONGZHEXUEWUFAZHENGTUOLIANGJIDUILIDESIWEIFANGSHI,JIZAIDUILILIANGJIZHONGXUNQIUHEQUERENBENTIDESIWEIFANGSHI,TABA“BENTI”DANGZUOYIZHONGZIWOCUNZAIDE、YURENLEIZHUANGKUANGWUGUANDESHITI,ZAOCHENGLECHONGGAODEYIHUA。QISAN,CHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNSHIFEIPIPANDEBENTILUN,TABAZIJISUO“CHENGNUO”DECHONGGAODANGZUOWUYONGZHIYIHEBUKEBIANYIDEJUEDUI,MOSHALECHONGGAODELISHIXINGNEIHAN,FEILISHIDIBACHONGGAOYIHUAWEIMOUZHONGCHAOLISHIDECUNZAI。

                              其次,崇高在现代西方科学主义或人本主义思潮中的异化与消解。针对整个传统哲学的最深层次的内在否定性——它在追求崇高的过程中所造成的崇高的异化,现代西方哲学则提出了本体论的重建。如,蒯因提出的“何物存在?”[11](p.1)的问题。针对此问题,我们可以看出,传统哲学家一直是在“说何物存在”,但他们把其视为“何物实际存在”,即把自己所“承诺”的崇高当作毋庸置疑和不可变易的绝对,把自我批判的本体论变成非批判的本体论信仰,进而导致崇高的异化。现代西方科学主义或人本主义思潮从思维的“非至上性”出发,宣扬非理性主义和相对主义,否定传统哲学的本体论追求的合理性,以此来克服崇高的异化,然而导致崇高的消解。现代西方科学主义思潮的代表人物h·赖欣巴哈明确提出,“理性,宇宙的立法者,把一切事物的内在性质显示给人的思维——这种论纲就是一切思辨哲学的基础”[12](p.235),即他认为传统哲学的本体论追求源于片面夸大了人类思维的“至上性”——理性成为“宇宙的立法者”。同时,他还指出整个传统哲学表现了人类的“不幸本性”,即“在他们还无法找到正确的答案时就做出答案”来满足“要求普遍性的冲动”。可见,科学主义思潮以否认人类思维的“至上性”为出发点,否定传统哲学的本体论追求的合法性。

                            决战棋牌  YUKEXUEZHUYISICHAOBUTONG,XIANDAIXIFANGRENBENZHUYISICHAOLINGPIXIJING,TABACHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNZHUANXIANGGUANYURENDESHENGCUNZHUANGTAIDEBENTILUN,YINWEI,ZAITAKANLAI,RENDECUNZAIBICHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNGENGJUYOUYOUXIANDIWEI。DUICI,HAIDEGEERZHICHU,“CHEDIJIEJUECUNZAIWENTIJIUDENGYUSHUO:JIUMOUZHONGCUNZAIZHE——JIFAWENDECUNZAIZHE——DECUNZAI,SHIZHEIZHONGCUNZAIZHETOUCHEKEJIAN。……ZHEIZHONGCUNZAIZHE,JIUSHIWOMENZIJIXIANGLAISUOSHIDECUNZAIZHE,JIUSHICHULEQITACUNZAIDEKENENGXINGHAINENGGOUFAWENDECUNZAIZHE,WOMENYONGCIZAIZHEIGESHUYULAICHENGHUZHEIZHONGCUNZAIZHE”[13](p.9)。YINCI,RENBENZHUYISICHAO“BABENTILUNSHIDEYIXIANGXINGZHUIQIUJUJIAOYUFANSIRENZISHENDECUNZAI,QIANXINYUGOUJIANXIANDAIDE‘CIZAI’BENTILUN”[14]。JIYUCI,RENBENZHUYISICHAOCONGDUIRENDECUNZAIZHUANGTAIDEGUANHUAICHUFA,QUXIAOLECHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNZHUIQIUDEHEFAXING。BUKEFOUREN,JINGUANERZHEDOUSHITUTONGGUOFOUDINGCHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNZHUIQIUDEHEFAXINGLAIXIAOJIECHONGGAODEYIHUA,RANERDAOZHICHONGGAODEXIAOJIE,DANSHI,ZAITAMENNEILIHAIBAOLIUZHECHONGGAODEWEIZHI,RUKEXUEZHUYISICHAOZHUANXIANGDUIKEXUEZHEXUEDECHONGBAI,QUELILEMEIYOUCHONGGAOGANDEYIHUADECHONGGAO。

                              ZUIHOU,CHONGGAOZAIHOUXIANDAIZHUYISICHAOZHONGDECHEDIXIAOJIE。RUGUOSHUO,XIANDAIXIFANGKEXUEZHUYISICHAOHAIZHUIQIUXIAOJIEDIAOCHONGGAOGANDEYIHUADECHONGGAO,NEIME,HOUXIANDAIZHUYISICHAOZECONGGENBENSHANGJUJUEZHEXUEDUICHONGGAODEZHUIQIU。DUICI,LUODIZHICHU,ZAIHOUZHEXUEWENHUAZHONG,“JIANGBUCUNZAIRENHECHENGZUO‘(DAXIEDE)ZHEXUEJIA’DE

                              REN”,ZHEXUE“MEIYOURENHETEBIEDE‘WENTI’XUYAOJIEJUE,MEIYOURENHETEBIEDE‘FANGFA’KEYIYUNYONG,YEMEIYOURENHETEBIEDEXUEKEBIAOZHUNKEYIZUNXUN,MEIYOURENHEJITIDEZIWOXINGXIANGKEYIZUOWEI‘ZHUANYE’”。SUOWEIDE“ZHEXUEJIA”ZHIBUGUOSHIYIXIE“XINGQUGUANGFANDEZHISHIFENZI,LEYUDUIRENHEYIGESHIWUTIGONGYIGEGUANDIAN,XIWANGZHEIGESHIWUNENGYUSUOYOUQITASHIWUXIANGGUANLIAN。”[15](p.15)YINCI,LUODISUODAIBIAODEHOUXIANDAIZHUYISICHAO,YIJUCHIZHEXUEJIQISUOBIAOZHENGDERENLEIDUICHONGGAODEZHUIQIUWEIDAIJIADE,CONGGENBENSHANGXIAOJIELECHONGGAODERENHEYIHUAXINGTAI。ZHICI,CHONGGAOCHEDIXIAOJIE,RENLEIDUICHONGGAODEZHUIQIUCHEDICHENGWEIPAOYING,JINERCHUXIANLE“XIANDAIRENDEKUNHUO”,WOMENCHUZAIYIGESHIJIEHEIANDESHIDAI,WUJIAKEGUI。HAIDEGEERCENGZHEIYANGMIAOSHUWOMENDESHIDAI,“SHIJIEHEIYEMIMANZHETADEHEIAN。SHANGDIZHILIQU,‘SHANGDIZHIQUEXI’JUEDINGLESHIJIESHIDAI”[16](p.281)。

                              JINGUANXIFANGXIANDAIKEXUEZHUYIHEHOUXIANDAIZHUYIDOUSHITUTONGGUOBENTILUNDEXIANDAIZHONGJIANLAIKEFUYOUCHUANTONGZHEXUEDE“LIANGJIDUILI”DESIWEIFANGSHISUOYINQIDECHONGGAODEYIHUA,DANSHI,ZAITAMENNEILIQUEDAOZHICHONGGAODEXIANDAIYIHUAXINGTAIHECHONGGAODEXIAOJIE。RANER,CHONGGAOZUOWEIRENLEILISHIDEJINGSHENZUOBIAOSHANGDEZHONGJIZHIXIANGHERENLEISUOXUNQIUDEZHONGJIYIYI,SHIRENLEIZAIQILISHIZHANGHEZHONGBUKEBIMIANDEBENTILUNZHUIQIU,RENLEIJIQIZHEXUESHIWUFARENSHOUJINGSHENZUOBIAODEXIAOJIEHECHONGGAODESHILUODE。YUSHI,“ZHONGJIANCHONGGAO”HE“XUNZHAOYIYI”ZIRANERRANDICHENGWEIXINSHIQIZHEXUEDELIXINGQIDAI。RUHEZAIXINSHIQIZHONGJIANCHONGGAONI?ZHEIJIUXUYAOXINSHIQIZHEXUETONGGUOPIPANXINGDIFANSI“LIANGJIMOSHI”XIACHONGGAODEYIHUAYUXIAOJIE,ZAI“ZHONGJIEMOSHI”XIAZHONGXINDADAOWEIRENLEISHENGHUODIANJIDEBENTILUNZHUIQIUDELILUNZIJUE。

                              三、“中介模式”下崇高的承诺与寻求

                              所谓“中介模式”是指以人类的实践活动为基础实现思维的“至上性”和“非至上性”的辩证统一。这是一种以实践观点的思维方式所展开的哲学本体论追求;是一种对哲学本体论的新的辩证的理解;是一种“相对之绝对”的本体观。这种“中介模式”下的本体论不仅超越了“两极模式”下的本体论,而且实现了新时期崇高的承诺与重建。プ莨壅个哲学史,我们可以看出,这种“中介模式”下的本体论变革的道路是由黑格尔所指出,最终由马克思所实现的。“在黑格尔逻辑学决战棋牌的概念论中包含着历史唯物主义的萌芽。这个萌芽,就在于黑格尔对概念的实践理解中,具有把实践活动作为自然与精神、客观与主观统一的中介,并通过这个中介来说明世界对人的生成的天才猜想。”[17]正是黑格尔的这个天才猜想为现代哲学指出了一条“中介模式”的道路。马克思则沿着黑格尔所指的这条道路,彻底实现了“中介模式”下的本体论变革。马克思认为,抽象的、孤立的、与人分离的自然界对人来说是无,要想证明自然界的优先地位,必须诉诸人类的全部实践活动;而且只有在人类的实践活动中,并以其为中介,才能彻底扬弃自然与精神的抽象对立,进而克服传统本体论的非此即彼的形而上学的思维方式。因此,马克思把实践活动视为人与世界对立统一的根据,并以实践的观点去解决全部的哲学问题;实践活动不仅成为人类思维“最本质最切近的基础”,而且实现了思维的“至上性”和“非至上性”的辩证统一。

                            决战棋牌  QICI,“ZHONGJIEMOSHI”XIADEBENTILUNCHAOYUELE“LIANGJIMOSHI”XIADEBENTILUN,TASHIYIZHONG“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUAN。ZHEIZHONGBENTILUNYIRENLEISHIJIANHUODONGDEXIANSHIXINGYULIXIANGXINGDEMAODUNWEIJICHU,SHIXIANLESIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”YU“FEIZHISHANGXING”DEBIANZHENGTONGYI,SHIYIZHONGZIWOPIPANDEBENTILUN,NEIZAIDIBAOHANZHEZISHENDEFOUDINGXING;TAZHANZAILISHIZHUYIDELICHANGSHANG,SUZHURENLEILISHIHUODONGDEBIANZHENGFALILUN,PAICHIDUIJUEDUIQUEDINGXINGDEZHUIQIU。JIYUCI,RENLEIZAIQILISHIFAZHANZHONGSUOCHENGNUODE“BENTI”,JIUSIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”ERYAN,SHIGAISHIDAIZUIGAODE“ZHICHENGDIAN”,JUYOUSHIDAIDEJUEDUIXING;JIUSIWEIDE“FEIZHISHANGXING”ERYAN,SHIGAISHIDAITEDINGDECHANWU,JUYOUSHIDAIDEXIANGDUIXING;JIUSIWEIDE“ZHISHANGXING”YU“FEIZHISHANGXING”DEBIANZHENGTONGYIERYAN,SHIRENLEILISHIFAZHANDEJIETI,YUNYUZHEXINSHIDAIDEKENENGXING。YINCI,RENLEIZAIQILISHIFAZHANZHONGSUOCHENGNUODE“BENTI”YONGYUANSHIZUOWEIZHONGJIEERZIWOYANGQI,TAJIBUSHIJUEDUIDEJUEDUI,YEBUSHIJUEDUIDEXIANGDUI,ERSHI“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”。ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONG“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUANCONGSHENCENGCISHANGGAIBIANLERENLEIDESIWEIFANGSHI,YOUQIGAIBIANLERENMENZAIZHIZHI、JIAZHIHESHENMEISHANGDEQUXIANG。

                              CIWAI,ZONGGUANXIANDAIXIFANGZHEXUESHI,WOMENYEKEYIKANDAO,“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUANPUBIANCUNZAI。RU,KEXUEZHEXUEJIABOPUQIANGDIAOKEXUEDEKECUOXING,BAKEXUELILUNDANGZUOLISHIPIPANDEDUIXIANG;JIESHIXUEJIAJIADAMOERQIANGDIAOZUOWEIRENLEIDECUNZAIFANGSHIDELIJIEJUYOULISHIJUXIANXING,CHENGREN“PIANJIAN”DEHEFAXINGDENG,ZHEIXIEGUANDIAN

                              DOUSHI“ZHONGJIEMOSHI”XIABENTILUNBIANGEDEXIANZHUBIAOXIAN。

                            决战棋牌  ZUIHOU,ZAISHILUOHEXIAOJIECHONGGAODEDANGDAISHEHUISICHAOXIA,“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUANJIWOMENZHIMINGLEYITIAOZHONGJIANCHONGGAODEDAOLU:“ZAIZHIZHIQUXIANGSHANG,BUSHIZHUIQIUJUEDUIDEZHONGJIZHIZHEN,ERSHITANSUOSHIDAIDEXIANGDUIZHIZHEN,BAZHENLIJIEWEIGUOCHENG;ZAIJIAZHIQUXIANGSHANG,BUSHIZHUIQIUJUEDUIDEZHISHANGZHISHAN,ERSHITANSUOSHIDAIDEXIANGDUIZHISHAN,BAJIAZHICHIDULIJIEWEIGUOCHENG;ZAISHENMEIQUXIANGSHANG,BUSHIZHUIQIUJUEDUIDEZUIGAOZHIMEI,ERSHITANSUOSHIDAIDEXIANGDUIZHIMEI,BASHENMEIHUODONGLIJIEWEIGUOCHENG。”[17]ZHEIZHENGSHI“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUANCHAOYUECHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTIGUANDEJUTIBIAOXIAN,TADEHELIXINGZAIYU,RENLEIDESHIJIANHUODONGSUOYUNHANDEXIANSHIXINGYULIXIANGXINGDEMAODUNYIJIRENLEIFOUDINGXIANSHI、ZHUIQIULIXIANGDEXINGSHANGBENXING;TADEZHENSHIYIYIZAIYU,“QIFARENLEIZAILIXIANGYUXIANSHI、ZHONGJIDEZHIXIANGXINGYULISHIDEQUEDINGXINGZHIJIAN,JIYONGYUANBAOCHIYIZHONG‘BIYAODEZHANGLI’,YOUBUDUANDAPOZHEIZHONG‘WEIMIAODEPINGHENG’,CONGERSHIRENLEIZAIZIJIDEQUANBUHUODONGZHONGBAOCHISHENGJIBOBODEQIUZHENYISHI、XIANGSHANYISHIHESHENMEIYISHI,YONGYUANCHANGKAIZIWOPIPANHEZIWOCHAOYUEDEKONGJIAN”[14]。YINCI,“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUANBUJINKEFULECHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBENTILUNDEFEIPIPANXING,SHIXIANLEBENTILUNDEZIWOPIPAN;ERQIECHEDIJIESHILECHONGGAODELISHIDEGUIDINGXINGHESHIDAINEIHAN,BUZAIBA“SHUOHEWUCUNZAI”SHIWEI“HEWUSHIJICUNZAI”,ERBACHONGGAODANGZUOYIZHONGCHENGNUO,CONGERCHEDIKEFU“LIANGJIMOSHI”XIADECHONGGAODEYIHUAYUXIAOJIE。

                              ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,JIYUSHIJIANGUANDIANDESIWEIFANGSHIDE“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUANSHIYIBIANZHENGDESIWEIFANGSHIQUKANDAIZHEXUEDEZHONGJIGUANHUAI,ZHEIZHONGBENTIGUANJISHIWOMENJIANCHILEZHEXUEBENTILUNDUICHONGGAODEZHUIQIU,YOUSHIWOMENKEFULEZAOCHENGCHONGGAODEYIHUAHEXIAOJIEDE“LIANGJIDUILI”DESIWEIFANGSHI,CONGERDADAODUIZHEXUEBENTILUNDEXINDEBIANZHENGDELIJIE:BENTILUNJIZHEXUEDUICHONGGAODECHENGNUOYUXUNQIU。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,ZHEIZHONG“XIANGDUIZHIJUEDUI”DEBENTIGUAN,“JISHIBARENLEI‘WENMINGDEHUODELINGHUN’NINGJIEWEI‘SHIDAIJINGSHENDEJINGHUA’,YOUSHIBA‘SHIDAIJINGSHENDEJINGHUA’SHENGHUAWEI‘WENMINGDEHUODELINGHUN’,CONGERGOUCHENGRENLEILISHIXINGDIXUANZEDE‘BIAOZHUN’,JIZIJISHIDAIDE‘XIANGDUIDEJUEDUI’”[18]。YINCI,ZHEIZHONGWEIRENLEISHENGHUODIANJIDEBENTILUNZHUIQIU——DUICHONGGAODECHENGNUOYUXUNQIU,JIYINGDANGSHIXINSHIQIZHEXUEDEZUIZHONGYAODELILUNZIJUE,YEYINGDANGSHIWOMENKEFUDANGDAISHEHUISICHAOXIADE“XIANDAIRENDEKUNHUO”,ZHONGJIANRENLEIJINGSHENZUOBIAOSHANGDEZHONGJIZHIXIANGHEQUELIRENSHENGYIYIDEBIRANXUANZE。

                              参考文献

                              [1]HEIGEER.LUOJIXUE(SHANGJUAN)[m].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1966.

                            决战棋牌  [2]HEIGEER.XIAOLUOJIXUE[m].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1980.

                            决战棋牌  [3]LIENING.ZHEXUEBIJI[m].BEIJING:RENMINCHUBANSHE,1974.

                            决战棋牌  [4]SUNZHENGYU.ZHEXUETONGLUN[m].SHENYANG:LIAONINGRENMINCHUBANSHE,1998.

                              [5]MAKESIENGESIXUANJI(DI3JUAN)[m].BEIJING:RENMINCHUBANSHE,1995.

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                            决战棋牌  [10]LUODI.ZHEXUEHEZIRANZHIJING[m].SHANGHAI:SANLIANSHUDIAN,1987.

                              [11]w.v.o.KUAIYIN.CONGLUOJIDEGUANDIANKAN[m].SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIYIWENCHUBANSHE,1987.

                            决战棋牌  [12]LAIXINBAHA.KEXUEZHEXUEDEXINGQI[m].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1983.

                              [13]HAIDEGEER.CUNZAIYUSHIJIAN[m].SHANGHAI:SHANGHAISANLIANSHUDIAN,1987.

                            决战棋牌  [14]SUNZHENGYU.ZHONGJICUNZAI、ZHONGJIJIESHIHEZHONGJIJIAZHI[j].SHEHUIKEXUEZHANXIAN,1991,(4).

                            决战棋牌  [15]LUODI.HOUXIANDAIWENHUA[m].SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIYIWENCHUBANSHE,1992.

                            决战棋牌  [16]HAIDEGEER.LINZHONGLU[m].SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIYIWENCHUBANSHE,2004.

                              [17]SUNZHENGYU.CONGLIANGJIDAOZHONGJIE[j].ZHEXUEYANJIU,1988,(8).

                              [18]SUNZHENGYU.DANGDAIRENLEIDESHENGCUNKUNJINGYUXINSHIJIZHEXUEDELILUNZIJUE[j].SHEHUIKEXUEJIKAN,2003,(5).

                            转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhexueqita/20190704/8180021.html   

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