决战棋牌

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                      • 基于国际法的远海防卫研究

                        国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)之第七篇 摘要 :当代国际法关于国家自卫权的规定, 为主权国家实施远海防卫提供了较明确的法理基础;在现行国际法体系下, 国家远海防卫的范围可拓展到攻击国的海域、特定第三国的海域以及公海海域;在平时, 国家还可以开展武器试验、远海
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                          国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)之第七篇

                          摘要:当代国际法关于国家自卫权的规定, 为主权国家实施远海防卫提供了较明确的法理基础;在现行国际法体系下, 国家远海防卫的范围可拓展到攻击国的海域、特定第三国的海域以及公海海域;在平时, 国家还可以开展武器试验、远海演习训练、设置海外基地等远海防卫相关准备。

                          关键词决战棋牌:国际法,国家自卫权,远海防卫

                        国际法热点论文

                        决战棋牌   ZAIGUOJIFASHIYEXIA, YUANHAIFANGWEISHIGUOJIAZIWEIQUANDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN, XIANGGUANGUOJISHIJIANLVJIANBUXIAN。DANSHI, SHOULISHICHUANTONGDEYINGXIANG, WOGUOZHANGQIHUSHILEZHEIYIQUANLIDECUNZAIHEXINGSHI。BURUXINSHIDAI, WOGUORIYIRONGRUSHIJIE, FAZHANLIYIKONGQIANTUOZHAN, YUANHAIFANGWEIYICHENGWEIWOJUNXINDELISHISHIMING;ZHUNQUERENSHIBINGZHENGQUEXINGSHIZHEIYIQUANLI, DUIWOJUNSHIMINGRENWUDEWANCHENGJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

                          一、现行国际法有关自卫权的规定, 承认国家拥有远海防卫的自然权利

                          CONGGUOJIFAJIAODUKAN, YUANHAIFANGWEISHIZHIZHUQUANGUOJIAZAIYUANHAIFANGXIANG, WEIDIYULAIZIWAIJIEDEWULIGONGJI, BAOWEIBENGUODEGUOJIAANQUANJIQIRENMINDESHENGMING、CAICHANANQUANERSHISHIDEZIWEIZUOZHAN。

                          现代国际法有关自卫权的规定, 并未将国家合法自卫的空间限定于本国领土。在古代, 我国作为历史悠久的农耕国家, 国家安全利益观“土味”浓厚, 国防观念往往局限于“守疆卫土”;在近现代, 国家长期积贫积弱, 屡次被强行割土租地、面临被瓜分豆剖的危机, 中华民族为保卫领土主权完整, 付出了极大的牺牲。上述深厚的历史文化背景, 无形中造就了传统国防观念的局限性——在国民心中, 往往不自觉地把“国家自卫”等同于“守疆卫土”。从法律角度看, 这种传统认知很容易导致对国家自卫权作片面化狭隘化理解, 实践上也不利于我国充分运用国际法授权维护国家安全利益。

                          ZAIXIANDAIGUOJIFATIXIZHONG, GUOJIAZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIBINGWEIXIANDINGZAIBENGUOLINGTU。《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》GUANYUZIWEIQUANDEDI51TIAOGUIDING:“LIANHEGUORENHEHUIYUANGUOSHOUWULIGONGJISHI, ZAIANQUANLISHIHUICAIQUBIYAOBANFA, YIWEICHIGUOJIHEPINGHUOANQUANYIQIAN, BENXIANZHANGBUDERENWEIJINZHIXINGSHIDANDUHUOJITIZIWEIZHIZIRANQUANLI。”GENJUCITIAOKUAN, ZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIYIZAOSHOUWULIGONGJIWEIQIANTI, QIEZAISHIJISHANGYIBANYAOQIUZHENDUIZHENGZAIJINXINGDEWULIGONGJI, DANSHIBINGWEIDUIZIWEIQUANXINGSHIDEDIDIANZUOCHUXIANZHI。ERQIE, CONGGUOJISHIJIANKAN, WULUNSHIDIERCISHIJIEDAZHANQIJIAN, ZHONG、MEI、YING、SUDENGLIANHEGUOJIAMIANDUIDE、YI、RIDEQINLVEXINGWEI, HAISHIERZHANHOUZHUQUANGUOJIAMIANDUITAGUODEWUZHUANGQINLVE, ZIWEIFANJIXINGDONGCHAOYUEBENGUOGUOJIE、YUANJIDAYANGNAIZHISHENRUQINLVEGUOJIANGYUDEQINGKUANGLVJIANBUXIAN。YINCI, ZAIXINSHIDAI, WOGUOYAOYOUXIAOWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANLIYI, JIUYOUBIYAOCHAOYUECHUANTONGRENZHI, YIKUANGUANGDEGUOJISHIYE、LISHISHIYE, QUANMIANLIJIEDANGDAIGUOJIFAFUYUZHUQUANGUOJIADEZIWEIQUANLI。

                        决战棋牌   XIGUANGUOJIFAHELIANHEGUO《“GUANYUQINLVEDINGYI”DEJUEYI》, ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGWEISHOUGONGJIGUOXINGSHIYUANHAIZIWEIQUANTIGONGLEFALVYIJU。CONGGUOJIFAKAN, YIGUOTONGGUOHAISHANGFENGSUO, ZUDUANTAGUOHAISHANGJIQIKONGZHONGTONGDAODEXINGWEI, SHUYUDIANXINGDEZHANZHENGXINGWEI, BEIFENGSUOGUOJIAZIRANYOUQUANLI, YIWULIZAIHAISHANGDAPOZHEIZHONGFENGSUO。BIRU, ZAI1962NIANDEGUBADAODANWEIJIZHONG, ZHENGSHIWEILEGUIBIYUGUBA、SULIANJINRUZHANZHENGZHUANGTAI, MEIGUOZONGTONGKENNIDICAIZAIDIANSHIJIANGHUAZHONG, TEYIBADUIGUBAZHOUBIANHAIYUDEXUANZEXINGFENGSUOCHENGWEI“GELI”, ERBIMIANSHIYONG“FENGSUO”ZIYAN;WEIZENGQIANGGAIXINGWEIDE“HEFAXING”, MEIGUOHAISHAFEIKUXIN, TUIDONGMEIZHOUGUOJIAZUZHI, TONGGUOLEZHICHIDUIGUBASHISHI“GELI”DEJUEYI。JINGUANRUCI, GUBAHESULIANDENGGUODAIBIAOZAILIANHEGUOANLIHUISHANG, RENGMINGQUEBAMEIGUODEZHEIZHONGXINGWEIDINGXINGWEI“PIANMIANDEZHANZHENGXINGWEI”“JIWEIWEIXIANDEQINLVEXINGWEI”, MEIGUO、SULIANLIANGGUOWEICIJIHUZOUXIANGQUANMIANHEZHANZHENGDEBIANYUAN。

                        决战棋牌   1974NIAN, LIANHEGUODAHUITONGGUOLE《“GUANYUQINLVEDINGYI”DEJUEYI》, GAIJUEYIDUIYIGUOSHOUXIANSHIYONGWULIHAIKONGFENGSUOTAGUOXINGWEIDEQINLVEXINGZHIYOULEGENGMINGQUEDEJIEDING, DUIZHUQUANGUOJIAZHENDUICILEIXINGWEIXINGSHIZIWEIQUANJUYOUZHONGDAZHIDAOYIYI。JUEYIDI3TIAOGUIDINGLEGOUCHENGQINLVEXINGWEIDE7ZHONGQINGXING, QIZHONGDI4ZHONGQINGXINGWEI:“YIGEGUOJIADEWUZHUANGBUDUIGONGJILINGYIGUOJIADELU、HAI、KONGJUNHUOSHANGCHUANDUIHEMINHANGJIDUI。”GAIQINGXINGYIZHIJICHUWULIGONGJIDUIXIANG, ERWEIXIANDINGGONGJIHAIYU。WEICI, FEIFAWULIGONGJIYUANZINALI, ZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIJIUKEYIKUODADAONALI。HUANYANZHI, RUOYIGUODELU、HAI、KONGJUNHUOSHANGCHUANHEMINHANGJIZAIYUANHAIZAOSHOUGONGJI, ZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIJIUKEYIKUODAZHIYUANHAI。

                          JITIZIWEIQUAN, JIBEI《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》DI51TIAOSUOQUEREN, YEBEILIANHEGUOANLIHUIDEJUEYISUORENKE。1990NIAN8YUE6RI, LIANHEGUOANLIHUITONGGUODI661HAOJUEYI, GAIJUEYIZAIXUYANBUFENXUANBU, “JUEXINZHONGZHIYILAKEDUIKEWEITEDERUQINHEZHANLING, BINGHUIFUKEWEITEDEZHUQUAN、DULIHELINGTUWANZHENG”“KENDINGANZHAO《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》DI51TIAO, WEIDUIKANGYILAKEDUIKEWEITEDEWUZHUANGGONGJI, YOUXINGSHIDANDUHUOJITIZIWEIDEZIRANQUANLI”。ZHEISHILIANHEGUOANLIHUISHOUCIZAIJUEYIZHONGRENKEJITIZIWEIQUAN, BINGDUNCUHESHOUQUANCHENGYUANGUOZHENDUIYILAKEDEQINLVEXINGWEIXINGSHIGAIXIANGQUANLI。CONGGUOJISHIJIANKAN, BINGFEIMEIGEXINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUANDEGUOJIADOUYUSHOUQINLVEDEGUOJIAPILIN。MOUXIEGUOJIADELINGTUJULISHOUQINLVEGUOJIAWANGWANGJIAOYUAN, SHENZHIYUANGEZHONGYANG。ZHEIYIWEIZHE, MOUXIEGUOJIAJITIXINGSHIZIWEIQUANSHI, QIWUZHUANGLILIANGBIRANYAOCHAOYUEBENGUOJIANGYU, KUAYUEHAIYANGNAIZHIDAYANG (HUOLULU) , CAINENGDAODASHOUHAIGUOLINGTU。

                          BUGUO, YUYIJULIANHEGUOANLIHUIJUEYIXINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUANXIANGBI, YIJUGUOYUGUOTIAOYUE、SHOUHAIGUOQINGQIUXINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUAN, QIHEFAXINGDERENDINGWANGWANGBIJIAOFUZA, ZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIQINLVE、BEIQINLVEDESHISHIGUANXIWANGWANGNANYIRENDING。BIRU, DANGLIANGGEGUOJIAZHIJIANCUNZAILINGTUZHENGYISHI, DANGSHIGUOZHIJIANWANGWANGDOUXUANCHENGSHIDUIFANG“QINLVE”LEBENGUOLINGTU。CISHI, RUGUODISANGUOYIJUYUQIZHONGYIGUODESHUANGBIAN (HUODUOBIAN) TONGMENGTIAOYUEXINGSHISUOWEI“JITIZIWEIQUAN”, DUILINGYIGUOSHIYONGWULI, FALVSHANGDEZHENGDANGXINGJIUNANYILIZU。ERSHI“SHOUHAIGUOQINGQIU”DEHEFAXING。JITIZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHI, ZHIYOUYISHOUHAIGUOHEFAZHENGFUDEQINGQIUWEIQIANTICAISHIYOUXIAODE。RANER, ZAILENGZHANSHIQI, MEI、SULIANGGECHAOJIDAGUOJINGCHANGXIANXINGGANSHEZHUYI, TONGGUOGEZHONGSHOUDUANDIANFUTAGUOHEFAZHENGFU、FUZHIKUILEIZHENGQUAN, JINERYUGAIZHENGQUANQIANDINGTONGMENGTIAOYUEBINGYINGQI“QINGQIU”, XINGSHISUOWEI“JITIZIWEIQUAN”。CONGGUOJIFAJIAODUKAN, JIYUZHEIZHONG“QINGQIU”DEJITIZIWEIQUANXINGSHI, BENZHISHANGSHUYUQINLVEXINGWEI, BUJUYOUHEFAXING。YINCI, DUIYUYIJUGUOYUGUOTIAOYUE、SHOUHAIGUOQINGQIUXINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUAN, WOGUODELICHANGSHIJINSHENDE、CHIBAOLIUTAIDUDE, YIGUANFANDUIBAQUANZHUYIGUOJIAYOUQISHIHAIYANGBAQUANGUOJIA, JIEXINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUANZHIMING, XINGQINLVEHEGANSHEZHISHI。ZAI1987NIANDI42JIELIANHEGUODAHUISHANG, WOGUODAIBIAOZONGHEGUOJISHIJIAN、GUOJIFABIANZUAN、GUOJISIFAPANLI, TICHURUXIALICHANG:YUANYINJITIZIWEIQUAN, YINGDANGGENJU“MINGQUEDEQINGQIU”, QIESHANGSHUQINGQIU“JIBUNENGLAIZIYOUSHIYONGWULIZAOCHENGDEZAIGUOJIFASHANGMEIYOUHEFADIWEIDEZHENGFU, DANGRANYEBUNENGSHITICHUZAIZHEIZHONGSUOWEI‘JITIZIWEI’XINGDONGSHIJICAIQUZHIHOU”;GENJUGUOJIXIEDINGXINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUAN, QIQIANTIBIXUSHIGAIGUOJIXIEDINGBENSHENHEFAHEYOUXIAO, BINGQIEBUDEWEIFANXIANZHANG。

                        决战棋牌   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU, ZAIYIXIA4ZHONGQINGKUANGXIAKEYISHISHIYUANHAIFANGWEI:YISHIZAIYUANHAIDEZHONGDALIYI, RUSHANGCHUANDUI、MINHANGJIDUIYIJIHAIWAIDALIANGGONGMINHEZHONGYAOSHESHI, SHOUDAOLAIZIWAIJIEDEWULIGONGJI;ERSHIBENTUHEJINHAIMUBIAOZAOSHOUDAOLAIZIYUANHAIDEWULIGONGJI;SANSHIDIFANGYIFAQIZHENDUIWOGUODEDAGUIMOQINLVEZHANZHENG, YANZHONGWEIXIEWOGUOJIBENSHENGCUNHEANQUAN (WULUNQINLVEZHANZHENGSHIQIZILUSHANGHAISHIHAISHANG) ;SISHIYIJULIANHEGUOANLIHUIJUEYIHUOLAIZISHOUHAIGUODEHEFA、ZHENSHIDEQINGQIU, XINGSHIJITIZIWEIQUAN。

                          二、在现行国际法体系下, 国家远海防卫的范围可拓展到攻击国海域、特定第三国海域以及公海海域

                          CONGXIANXINGGUOJIFAJIGEGUOSHIJIANLAIKAN, YUANHAIFANGWEIDEDILIFANWEIKEBAOKUOGONGJIGUOHAIYU (LINGHAI、ZHUANSHUJINGJIQUHEDALUJIA) 、TEDINGDISANGUOHAIYU (LINGHAI、ZHUANSHUJINGJIQUHEDALUJIA) YIJIGONGHAIHAIYU。

                        决战棋牌   YIJUGUOJIFAZIWEIQUANXINGSHIDEXIANGCHENGXINGYUANZEHEZHANZHENGFADEXIGUANFAGUIZE, GUOJIAZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIKESHIQINGYANSHENZHIGONGJIGUODELINGHAINAIZHINEISHUI。SUOWEIXIANGCHENGXINGYUANZE, SHIZHIGUOJIAZIWEIZHONGSHIYONGWULIDEGUIMOHECHENGDUYINGYUTAGUOFEIFAGONGJIDEGUIMOHECHENGDUXIANGDANG。GENJUGAIYUANZE, DANGYIGUOWUZHUANGLILIANGZIBENTUDUITAGUOSHISHIFEIFAWULIGONGJISHI, SHOUHAIGUOZIRANYOUQUANJIYUXIANGCHENGXINGYUANZE, JIANGZIWEIQUANYANSHENZHIGONGJIGUODELINGHAINAIZHINEISHUI。ERQIE, CONGGUOJIXIGUANFAJIAODUKAN, DANGQINLVEGUOYIRANTIAOQIZHANZHENG、YUBEIGONGJIGUOJIAJINRUJIAOZHANZHUANGTAIHOU, SHOUHAIGUOYOUQUANJIANGQINLVEGUODELINGHAI、NEISHUINARUHAIZHANCHANG。BIRU, DIERCISHIJIEDAZHANQIJIAN, FANFAXISILIANMENGGUOJIADUIDEGUO、RIBENDEHAISHANGFANJIZUOZHANDEFANWEI, JIUSHENRUDAOLEQINLVEGUODELINGHAI、NEISHUINAIZHILINGLU。

                          依据联合国《“关于侵略定义”的决议》和习惯国际法, 国家自卫权行使的范围还可以包括某些为侵略国提供基地支援国家的内水和领海。该决议第3条第6种情形为“一个国家以其领土供另一个国家使用让该国用来对第三国进行侵略行为”, 根据该条款, 若一个国家遭受到另一个国家驻扎在第三国领土上的军队的攻击, 则该国自然可以对第三国领土内的目标采取自卫行为。从习惯国际法尤其是中立法看, 当一国提供本国领土供另一国对他国实施战争时, 如果提供国事先宣布中立, 则意味着违背中立义务或放弃了他国间战争中的中立地位;如果未宣布中立, 则意味着其已加入了交战之一方。无论上述哪种情况, 因此而受到攻击的国家均可将该国视为交战方, 并将军事打击范围扩展至其领海、内水乃至领陆。

                          依据国际海洋法和战争法的习惯法规则, 国家有权在公海、专属经济区和大陆架行使自卫权、遂行作战行动。根据《联合国海洋法公约》, 公海应用于和平目的, 但国际法并未禁止在公海、专属经济区和大陆架实施作战行动, 而《圣雷莫海战法手册》则进一步予以了明确, 在第10条规定, 海军兵力的敌对行动可以在公海、专属经济区和大陆架及其上覆空域进行。从国际实践看, 自近代以来, 国际社会和权威法学决战棋牌家, 从未对各国在公海作战的合法性提出过质疑。不过, 随着《联合国海洋法公约》生效及专属经济区和大陆架制度的建立, 国家在远海防卫作战中, 除应遵守武装冲突法规则外, 还应适当顾及沿岸国的权利与义务, 特别是要顾及在专属经济区和大陆架的经济资源勘探与开发, 以及对海洋环境的保护与维护。

                        决战棋牌   SAN、ZAIXIANXINGGUOJIFATIXIXIA, GUOJIAKEYISHISHIYUANHAIFANGWEIXIANGGUANZHUNBEI

                        决战棋牌   ZAIHEPINGSHIQI, GUOJIHAIYANGFAWEIGUOJIAWUZHUANGLILIANGZAIGUOJIGONGGONGHAI (KONG) YUCONGSHIHUODONG, TIGONGLEFALVKONGJIANHEJIBENGUIFAN;CIWAI, YIGUOWUZHUANGLILIANGHAIKEYITONGGUOZHENGDETAGUODETONGYI, ERJIANGQIHUODONGKONGJIANTUOZHANZHIGAIGUOLINGTU。JUCI, GUOJIAZAIPINGSHIKEYISHISHIYUANHAIFANGWEIXIANGGUANZHUNBEI。TONGCHANG, YIGUOZAIGUOJIFAKUANGJIANEISUOSHISHIDEYUANHAIZUOZHANZHUNBEIYOUYIXIA3ZHONGXINGSHI。

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                          实施海外基地建设。建设海外 (保障) 基地是加强远海综合保障、确保舰队持续作战能力的最直接手段, 也是近代以来海军大国、强国走向远海的必由之径、常态举措。在现行国际法体系下, 主权国家对其领土拥有完全的排他性主权及管辖权, 有权依据国际条约法订立驻军协定, 提供基地、接受外国驻军, 但这种行为应遵守国际法原则和规则, 不能用于实施武力侵略和非法武力干涉。不过, 由于近代某些强国经常利用海外基地和驻军推行殖民侵略, 当代仍有一些西方国家尤其是海军强国违反国际法、滥用海外驻军权利, 推行霸权主义强权政治、搞武力侵略和干涉。与西方国家相比, 我国海外基地建设服务于我国独立自主的和平外交政策, 贯彻“构建人类命运共同体”的理念, 体现了我国作为世界大国维护世界和平、促进共同繁荣的责任感;海外基地和驻军权利的取得, 完全在国际法框架下, 遵循了平等协商、互利互惠的原则, 与东道国签署相关条约和协定, 也得到了其自愿、明示同意, 故完全具有正当性与合法性, 也有利于世界和平合作。

                        点击查看>>国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)他文章
                          闫雪昆,段廷志.国际法视野下的远海防卫[J].国防,2017(10):79-82. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8281993.html   

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