决战棋牌

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                              • 我国教育社会学研究的趋势与思考

                                摘 要: 批判取向研究成为当代教育社会学研究的趋势,这在教育社会学文集或文选中有明显体现;当代教育社会学批判取向的研究形成了批判思维的分析传统和批判教育学两支流派。从理论范式的角度来看,当代教育社会学研究一度出现范式竞争,目前则出现了超越范式竞争的动
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                                  摘 要: 批判取向研究成为当代教育社会学研究的趋势,这在教育社会学文集或文选中有明显体现;当代教育社会学批判取向的研究形成了“批判思维”的分析传统和“批判教育学”两支流派。从理论范式的角度来看,当代教育社会学研究一度出现“范式竞争”,目前则出现了超越“范式竞争”的动向。从研究范式的角度来看,当代教育社会学研究出现了融合趋势。多学派共同推进学术发展,开展学术争鸣,这是侧重方法论视角反思当代教育社会学研究给予我们的重要启示。

                                  关键词: 当代教育社会学研究; 方法论反思; 启示;

                                  Abstract: The critical orientation research has become the trend of contemporary educational sociology,which is obviously reflected in the collected or selected works of educational sociology.The study of critical orientation in contemporary educational sociology has formed two schools:the analytical tradition of critical thinking and the critical pedagogy.From the perspective of theoretical paradigm,the study of contemporary sociology of education once appeared "paradigm competition",but now it appears to surpass the trend of "paradigm competition".From the perspective of research paradigm,the study of contemporary educational sociology shows a trend of integration.Multi-schools jointly promote academic development and carry out academic contention,which is an important enlightenment for us to reflect on contemporary educational sociology research from a methodological perspective.

                                  Keyword: 决战棋牌contemporary educational sociology research; methodology reflection; enlightenment;

                                决战棋牌   BENTUZHISHIMUQIANYIJINGZHUJIANCHENGWEIZHISHISHIJIEDEHEFACHENGYUAN。ZI20SHIJI70、80NIANDAIYILAI,BANSUIZHEPIPANKEXUEZHISHIBAQUANDIWEIDESICHAO,GONGYESHEHUIXIANGZHISHISHEHUI、XINXISHEHUIDEZHUANXING,DENGDENG,RENMENKAISHIZHONGSHIBENTUZHISHI。KEYISHUO,20SHIJIMO,BENTUZHISHIBUJINCHENGWEIYIZHONGXINDE、DUTEDEZHISHILEIXING,ERQIEYIJINGCHENGWEIGUOJI、GUOJIAJIBENTUSHEHUIZAIZHIDINGHESHISHIGEZHONGFAZHANGUIHUA、PEIXUNCONGSHIFAZHANGONGZUORENYUANDEYIZHONGZHISHIJICHU。[1]

                                  基于上述分析我们认为,一般而言,任何社会都有其独特的形成、发展的历史,都是本土社会。从这个意义上说,没有所谓一般意义上的教育与社会的关系,教育与社会的关系只能是、也仅仅是某一具体的教育与其赖以存续的本土社会之间的关系。教育社会学是一门肇始于西方、发展且成熟于欧美的学科,其理论、方法等必然打上了西方社会理论、方法的“印痕”。教育社会学已走过了一个世纪的发展历程,现在正处于“取向修正”时期,[2]或者说,教育社会学正处于进一步发展的“黎明”。我们从方法论视角反思当代教育社会学研究,应该明了“隐匿”于其背后的社会经济政治文化传统等本土的社会生态,以期对推进我国教育社会学的本土化研究有所助益。

                                  一、批判取向研究成为当代教育社会学研究的趋势

                                  (一)批判取向研究的佐证

                                  批判取向的研究成为教育社会学发展的趋势。由于性别、种族等问题不断凸现并成为社会各界关注的热点问题,最近几十年来引起了教育社会学研究的关注,这使得社会弱势群体在国家教育体制内安身立命的问题进入了教育社会学分析的视野,这导致教育社会学研究在承继功能论、冲突论、解释论之后,又发展出了批判理论的取向。

                                我国教育社会学研究的趋势与思考

                                  教育社会学发展的这一趋势,哈尔西跨越40年光阴主编的3本教育社会学文选,可以提供有力的证明。张建成教授对教育社会学的这一研究趋势进行了梳理,具体如下[3]:第一本文选是1961年出版的《教育、经济与社会:教育社会学读本》,收录41篇论文,分为经济变迁的影响,教育、社会流动与劳动市场,教育中的选择过程,教育成就的社会成因,学校与大学的社会功能,学校与大学中的教师等6个部分。全书功能论及实证论的色彩相当明显,许多文章均提供了具体的量化数据来支持自己的论点。第二本文选是1977年出版的《教育中的权力与意识形态》,收录37篇论文,分为教育与社会结构,教育与社会选择,教育、人力资本与劳动市场,教育政治学,文化再制与知识传递,社会改造与教育变迁等6个部分。全书功能论的色彩转淡,冲突学派(含新韦伯主义及新马克思主义决战棋牌)与解释学派(新教育社会学)的观点明显浮现,但仍有不少的篇幅具有实证论的量化特色。第三本文选是1997年出版的《教育:文化、经济与社会》,收录51篇论文,分为教育、文化与社会,教育、全球经济与劳动市场,国家与教师工作的再造,政治、市场与学校效能,知识、课程与文化政治,功绩主义与社会排除机制等6个部分。跟前面两个版本比较起来,这本新文选功能论的主张少之又少,量化研究的论文也压到一个最低的限度,冲突论及解释论虽然还有一定程度的影响,但是汇集这两种观点以及女性主义、后现代主义、后殖民主义(批判种族论)、多元文化主义等新思潮的批判观点,却显得更为强势。

                                决战棋牌   QITADEYIXIEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEWENJIHUOWENXUANYEXIANSHICHUPIPANQUXIANGYANJIUCHENGWEILEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUDEQUSHI。QISHI,CHULESHANGSHUFENXIDE《JIAOYU、JINGJIYUSHEHUI:JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDUBEN》DENG3BENJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEWENXUANZHIWAI,SHANGSHIJIMOBENSHIJICHUCHUBANDEYIXIEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEWENJI,YEYINZHENGLEPIPANQUXIANGCHENGWEILEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEYANJIUQUSHI。MEIGUOLUOSHANJIJIAZHOUDAXUEJIAOSHOUTESI(Torres,C.A.)HEMIQIEER(Mitchell,T.R.)ZAI1998NIANZHUBIANDE《JIAOYUSHEHUIXUE:XINCHUXIANDEGUANDIAN》YISHURENWEI,“JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEJINLAIYOUYUZHONGZU、JIEJI、XINGBIEYANJIUZHIJIASHENJIAGUANG,BUDANZAIXIANDAIZHUYIYUHOUXIANDAIZHUYIZHIJIANXINGCHENGJILIEDELILUNLAJU,YECHANSHENGLEXUDUOJIONGYIYUKEXUESHIZHENGLUNDEFANGFALUN,WEILEFANYINGZHEIYIXINDEFAZHANQUSHI,ZHEIBENSHUSUOXUANBIANDE10PIANWENZHANGDABUFENCHUZIZHEMINGDEPIPANLUNZHEZHISHOU”。[4]MEIGUOSHEHUIXUEHUIDEXUEHUIKANWU《JIAOYUSHEHUIXUE》ZAI2001NIANCHUBANLEYIQITEJI,YONGYIJIANTAOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEZAIMUQIANDEWEIZHI,BINGZHANWANGQIZAIXINSHIJIDEKENENGDEZOUXIANG,JIEGUOZAIKANCHUDE9PIANWENZHANGZHONG,YOU6PIANFENBIECONGGUOJIAZHENGCE,WENPINGLILUN,ZHONGZU、JIEJI、WENHUAZIBENDEJIAODULAIFENXIJIAOYUJIHUIBUJUNDENGDEWENTI。[5]

                                  (二)批判取向研究的流派

                                  就教育的批判理论而言,一些学者勾勒出了两支批判的教育理论———“批判思维”的分析传统和“批判教育学”。

                                  “批判思维”一派的传统从希腊哲学决战棋牌到经院哲学再到当代,近几十年来的代表人物有罗伯特·恩尼斯(Ennis,R.)、约翰·麦克佩克(McPeck,J.)、里查德·保罗(Paul,R.)、伊斯雷尔·谢弗勒(Scheffler,I.)和哈维·西格尔(Siegel,H.)等人。这一派强调理性思维、逻辑规则、合理论证等。

                                决战棋牌   “PIPANJIAOYUXUE”GUANZHUXUEXIAOJIAOYUYUZHENGZHI、SHEHUIHEJINGJIDEGUANXI,DUIJIAOYUWENTIJINXINGLEBIANZHENGERZHENGTIDESIKAO;TAZHILIYU“RENDEJIEFANG”HE“SHEHUIGAIZAO”,BAJIAOYUDANGCHENGYIZHONGPIPANXINGDESHIJIAN。[6]“PIPANJIAOYUXUE”DEDAIBIAORENWUYOUBAOLUO·FULAILEI(Freize,P.)、JILU(Giroux,H.A.)、MAIKELALUN(Mclaren,P.)DENG。

                                  YIXIEXUEZHEZAIFENXILE“PIPANSIWEI”HE“PIPANJIAOYUXUE”DEGUANXI、CHAYIHEJUXIANHOUTICHULEYIZHONGTIDAIXINGHUAYU———“PIPANXINGDESHIJIAN”(practice of criticality)。[7]WOMENRENWEI,ZHEIZHONGZONGHEDUI“PIPANJIAOYUXUE”SHIBULIDE,TASIHUXIAOJIELE“PIPANJIAOYUXUE”ZHI“PIPAN”DEXUEPAIXINGTEZHENG,YEXUYANZHEZHEIYIZONGHEZOUXIAQU,“PIPAN”JIUKENENGZHENHUICHENGWEIYIGEPUTONGSHUYU。

                                  二、当代教育社会学研究在“范式竞争”基础上出现了超越“范式竞争”的动向

                                  (一)当代教育社会学研究一度出现“范式竞争”

                                决战棋牌   CONGZONGTISHANGKAN,DANGDAIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEXUEPAILINLI,CHUYUDUOGEFANSHIJINGZHENGDEZHUANGTAI。ZI20SHIJI60NIANDAIMO70NIANDAICHUYILAI,GONGNENGZHUYIXUEPAIDEDUZUNDIWEIBEIDAPO,CHUXIANLEXUEPAIFENCHENGDEJUMIAN,JIAOYOUYINGXIANGDEXUEPAIYOUGONGNENGZHUYI、JIEGOUZHUYI、WEIBOZHUYI、XINWEIBOZHUYI、HUDONGLILUN、RENZHONGFANGFALUN、SHIZHENGZHUYIDENG。

                                  ZAIDUOYUANFANSHIBEIJINGXIA,20SHIJI70NIANDAIHE80NIANDAIDE“FANSHILUNZHENG”ZHUYAOYOU:MAKESIZHUYIYUSHIZHENGZHUYI、XIANDAIZHUYIYUHOUXIANDAIZHUYI、WEIWUZHUYINVXINGZHUYIYUHOUJIEGOUZHUYINVXINGZHUYI,SUOYOUZHEIXIE“FANSHILUNZHENG”DOUFANYINGZAIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUELI。JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEZHENGSHIDEYIYUZHEIZHONG“FANSHILUNZHENG”DEBUDUANFAZHAN,HUOZHESHUOZAIQIGAINIANBIANQIANDEDUANLIEZHONGSHIZHONGBAOCHIZHEXUEPAIDELIANXU。

                                决战棋牌   JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUZHONGCHUXIANLEDUOYUANFANSHIDEJINGZHENG,ZHEIJISHIDANGJINSHIJIEFAZHANDUOYUANHUADEYIZHONGFANYING,TONGSHIYESHIDANGJINSHIJIEFAZHANDUOYUANHUADEBIRANYAOQIU。DANGJINSHIJIEDEZHULIUSHIHEPINGYUFAZHAN,ZHEIYIJIDIAOJUEDINGLESHIJIEFAZHANDEDUOYUANHUA,TAFANYINGZAIBUTONGDEMINZHUGUOJIANEIBU,ZESHIGEJIEJI、ZHONGZUHELIYIGONGTONGTIWEIGEZIRENWEIDE“HELIXING”,YIDUOYUANMINZHUDE“HEFAXING”WEIWAIYIWEIQIJINXINGBIANHUBINGZHENGQUQUANYI,YINCIDAIBIAOGELIYIJITUAN、ZHONGZUHEJIEJILIYIDESIXIANGZHIJIANDEDOUZHENGYESHIJIYUZHEIZHONGHEFAXINGYUHELIXING。KEJIAN,DUOYUANHUASHIYIZHONGSHEHUISHENGCUNFANGSHI,YESHISIXIANGHEGUANNIANDESHENGCUNYUFAZHANDETIAOJIAN,DUOYUANHUAJISHIQUANSHIZHEBIAOBANGMINZHUDEZHENGZHIKOUHAO,YESHIRUOZHEZHENGQUSHENGCUNDEBAOSHOUSAN。

                                  (二)当代教育社会学研究出现了超越“范式竞争”的动向

                                决战棋牌   ”ZI20SHIJI90NIANDAIYILAI,XUESHUJIECHUXIANLEHUIBIHUOCHAOYUE“FANSHILUNZHENG”DEXINDONGXIANG,CHUXIANLEYANJIUFANGFADEZONGHE、XUEKEDEZONGHEYIJIFANSHIDEZONGHEDENGYIXILIEDEZONGHEQUSHI。

                                  90NIANDAIYILAISUOXINGCHENGDE“FANSHIZONGHE”ZUITUCHUDIBIAOXIANZAILILUNSHANGDEZONGHE,HUOZHESHUOSHIHUAYUCHUANTONGDEZONGHE。WOMENYINGGAIBIANZHENGDIKANDAIXUESHUJINGZHENGZHONGDE“ZONGHE”XIANXIANG。ZONGHE,YEXUHUISHIBUTONGDELILUNHEXUEPAIQUZHANGBUDUAN;ZONGHE,YEXUSHITAJUYOUGENGQIANGDESHIYINGXINGHEFAZHANKONGJIAN;ZONGHE,YEXUSHIYIXIELILUNHEXUEPAIANRANSHISE,TAZIJIYUANYOUDETESEHEZHANGCHUJINBEIBIEDELILUNHEXUEPAIXISHOU,CONGERZHEIXIETEDIANHEZHANGCHUCHENGLEGONGSHI。

                                  KEYISHUO,XUEKEDEFENHUAYUZONGHESHIDANGJINXUESHUFAZHANDELIANGZHONGBINGCUNQUSHI。90NIANDAIJINRULEYIGE“HOUXUEKEYANJIU”SHIDAI,QIXUEKEZONGHEYAOQIUXINGCHENG“KUAXUEKEDEXUEKE”。JIAOYUSHEHUIXUE,ZUOWEIYIZHONGXUEKEXINGLIUPAI,YIJINGBIAOXIANBINGJUYOULEDUOXUEKEDETEDIAN,ZHEIZUITUCHUDIBIAOXIANZAI“PIPANJIAOYUXUE”SHANG。YEXU“PIPANJIAOYUXUE”HUITUIDONGGENGHONGDADEXUEPAI———“JIEFANG”XUEPAIDESHENGCHENG,YEXUTADEDUOXUEKEHUAYUHUIXIAOJIETADEXUEKETEDIAN。XUEKEDEZONGHEQUESHISHIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEMIANLINZHEYIGESHENGCUNWENTI。

                                  三、当代教育社会学的研究范式出现了融合趋势

                                  (一)社会学研究中研究范式的综合趋势

                                  SHEHUIXUEYANJIUZHONGFANSHIDEZONGHEQUSHIYINGXIANGLEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUE。ZAISHEHUIXUELILUNZHONG,JIAOZAODUIHONGGUANHEWEIGUANYANJIUQUXIANGJINXINGZHENGHEDESHIMODUN,QI“ZHONGCENGLILUN”JIUSHISHITUZAIHONGGUANQUXIANGHEWEIGUANQUXIANGZHIJIANQUDEZONGHE。XUYAOZHICHUDESHI,MODUNDEZONGHE,SHIZAIMOUYIGEJUTIFANSHINEIJINXINGDEZONGHE。

                                  XINSHEHUIXUELILUNJIAKUAYUEBUTONGFANSHIJINXINGLESHEHUIXUEZONGHE。BIRU,CHONGTULUNXUEPAIDEKELINSIDEYANJIUJIUSHIYIGEJUYOUSHUOFULIDELIZI,“KELINSIZHENGQUANLIYIFUDIBAJIEGOULILUNYUBENTUFANGFALUN、FULUOYIDEHETUERGANDESIXIANGJIEHEQILAI,SHENZHIKAISHICHENGRENPASENSIZAIZHEIFANGMIANZUOCHUDEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN。KELINSIZAITAZUIJINCHUBANDE《SANZHONGSHEHUIXUECHUANTONG》YISHUZHONGTICHU,YINGGAIZHONGXINZONGHECHONGTULUN、TUERGANSIXIANGHEWEIGUANHUDONGLUNCHUANTONG,ZHEIYANGKEYIJIANGGENGDUOHELIXINGDEJIESHIZONGHEQILAI,CONGERGENGJUSHUOFULIHEDUOWEIXING”。[8]

                                  吉登斯也试图对社会学研究进行综合。吉登斯提出了着名的结构化理论,该理论认为结构既要理解为行动的结果,也要理解为行动的媒介;行动者的行动既维持着结构,同时也改变着结构。吉登斯在这里和常人方法学一样坚决反对“社会结构的物化”观,反对将社会结构看作可以脱离人的行动存在,像“物”一样外在于人的实践的“东西”,在他看来,正是由于结构社会学所特有的这一“物化结构观”,才产生了社会学中广泛存在的许多二元对立,如微观与宏观,主观与客观,个人与社会等,只有用结构化理论克服“物化结构观”,才能使社会学摆脱这些二元对立。[9]

                                  (二)教育社会学研究中研究范式的综合趋势

                                决战棋牌   SHEHUIXUEYANJIUFANSHIZONGHEDEQUSHIZAIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEYANJIUFANSHIYEYOUFANYING。DANGRAN,ZUOWEIYIMENDULIDEXUEKE,JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEZHIYANJIUFANSHIDEZONGHEQUSHI,YEBUPAICHUSHIGAIXUEKEZISHENFAZHANDELUOJISUOZHI。

                                  ZAIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIULINGYU,XUEZHEMENHENZAOJIUYISHIDAOLEDANYIYANJIUFANSHIDEJUXIANXING,HUYUYAOYUNYONGBUTONGDEYANJIUFANSHIJINXINGJIAOYUDESHEHUIXUEYANJIU。ZAOZAI20SHIJI50NIANDAI,DANGGONGNENGZHUYIXUEPAIYUNYONGHONGGUANFANSHIDUIJIAOYUJINXINGSHEHUIFENXIZHENGCHUYUDINGSHENGSHIQIDESHIHOU,JIUYOUJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEXUEZHETICHUXUYAOJIANLIYIZHONGJIANGJIAOYUDEHONGGUANFENXIYUWEIGUANFENXIROUWEIYITIDELILUNFANGFA。[10]QIHOU,BOENSITANDENGXUEZHEYOUDUIHONGGUANYANJIUYUWEIGUANYANJIUJIEHEDEWENTIJINXINGGUOLUNSHU。BOENSITANRENWEI,ZHISHIBUSHIZAIZHENKONGSHEHUIZHONGCHUANDIDE,SHEHUIDEQUANLIHEKONGZHIMOSHIBIRANSHENTOUYUJIAOYUGUOCHENGDEMEIGEGUANJIEDIAN。TAJIANXIN,BUGUANSUOKAOCHADEXIANXIANGDUOMEWEIBUZUDAO,DANZHICHUZHEIYIXIANXIANGDEXINGSHIHEFAZHANZENYANGSHOUDAOGENGDAFANWEIDEQUANLIHEKONGZHIDEYINGXIANGYINGGAISHIKENENGDE。KEYIKANCHU,BOENSITANSHIJIANCHIBAHONGGUANSHIJIAOYUWEIGUANSHIJIAOJIEHEQILAIJINXINGJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUDE。CHENGRUKALABEIERHEHAERXIZHICHUDE,BOENSITANDUIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEFAZHANZUOCHULESANDALILUNGONGXIAN,QIZHONGZHIYISHITACHANGDAODEHONGGUANFENXIHEWEIGUANFENXIYOUJIJIEHEDEFANGFALUN,ZHANSHILEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUDEFAZHANFANGXIANG。[11]

                                  20SHIJI80NIANDAI,OUMEIDEYIXIEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEXUEZHEKAISHIGUANZHUJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEFANGFAHELILUNZHONGHUXIANGDUILIYIZHIYUMAODUNDEXIANXIANG,TAMENSHITUXUNZHAOYIZHONGJINENGRONGHELIANGHUAFANSHIYUZHIHUAFANSHI、HONGGUANFANSHIYUWEIGUANFANSHI,YOUNENGJIEHEGONGNENGLUN、CHONGTULUNHEJIESHILUNGEZISUOZHANGDELILUNFANGFATIXI。[12]TAMENDELILUNYIJUSHIWEIBOZHUYISUOCHANGDAODEGUANDIAN,JIYAOZHUZHONGGERENDEXINGDONG,YOUYAOZHONGSHISHEHUIDUIGERENXINGDONGDEYINGXIANG。[13]ZHEIZHONGYANJIUDEDAIBIAOXINGZUOPIN,ZHUYAOLAIZIYINGGUOHEMEIGUODENGGUOXUEZHE。JIUYINGGUOLAIKAN,ZHUYAOYOUJIN(King,R.A.)DE《WEIBOZHUYIDEGUANDIANYUJIAOYUYANJIU》、AQIEER(Archer,M.)DE《JIAOYUZHIDUDESHEHUIQIYUAN》JIBOENSITAN(Bernstein,B.)DE“JIAOYUBIANMALILUN”DENG;JIUMEIGUOLAIKAN,ZHUYAOYOUMAIER(Meyer,J.W.)DE“JIAOYUXIAOYONGLILUN”DENG。QIJINWEIZHI,ZHEIZHONGYANJIUHAIBUJINWANSHAN,DANJIEHELIANGHUAFANSHIYUZHIHUAFANSHI、HONGGUANFANSHIYUWEIGUANFANSHI,ZHEIKENENGSHIYITIAOCHUANGJIANJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEXINDELILUNFANGFATIXIDEJIAOWEILIXIANGDELUXIANG。[12]

                                决战棋牌   PIPANJIAOYUXUECHANGSHIZONGHEGEZHONGYANJIUFANSHIJINXINGJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEYANJIU。ZHANGJIANCHENGJIAOSHOUZAI《PIPANDEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIU》ZHONGDUICIJINXINGLESHULI[4](10):PIPANJIAOYUXUEHUOZHESHUOSHIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUZHONGDEPIPANLILUNZAICONGFALANKEFUXUEPAIJINZHANDAOHOUXIANDAIZHUYIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,JINGUANGUANZHUDEZHONGDIANYOUSUOBUTONG,DANZAIFANDUISHIZHENGZHUYIYIJIQITAGEZHONGXINGSHIDEJUEDINGLUN、HUAYUELUNHUOBENZHILUNSHANG,LICHANGZEJIBENYIZHI。ZHEIXIEXUEPAIDADISHICONGLISHIDE、BIANZHENGDE、WENBENHUOQINGJINGJIESHIDEGUANDIAN,LAITAOLUNJIEGOUDEYAPO、ZHUTIDEJIEFANGYIJIWENHUADESHENGCHANDENGSANZHEDEJIAOHUGUANXI。RUYIGONGNENGZHUYIZUOWEIBIJIAODECANZHAO,WOMENBUNANFAXIAN,HUDONGLUNQIANGDIAODESHIXINGDONGZHEZAIRENJIHUDONGZHONGJIANGOUYIYIDEZHUTINENGLIANG;CHONGTULUNQIANGDIAODESHISHEHUIBUPINGDENGJIWENHUAZAIZHIXIANXIANGBEIHOUDEJIEGOULILIANG;ERPIPANLILUNCHANGSHIJIANGSHEHUIXINGDONGDEZHUTIMIANYUJIEGOUMIANJIEHEQILAI,RENWEIBIKAIJIEGOUYINSULAIGAOTANZHUTIXINGSHIBUQIESHIJIDE,DANSHIXINGDONGZHUTIZAIJIEGOULILIANGDEYUEXIANXIA,YEBUWANQUANZHISHIBEIDONGDICHENGSHOUERYI。SUOYI,GENHUDONGLUNBIJIAOQILAI,PIPANLUNZAICHENGRENZHUTIXINGDETONGSHI,GENGQIANGDIAOSHEHUIXINGDONGZHECONGJIEGOUDEYAPOZHONGXUNQIUJIEFANGDEKENENGXING;YUCHONGTULUNXIANGBIJIAO,PIPANLUNZAICHENGRENWENHUAZAIZHIDETONGSHI,GENGQIANGDIAOSHEHUIXINGDONGZHETOUGUORICHANGSHENGHUODESHIJIANYICUJINSHEHUIGAIZAODEKENENGXING,ERZHEIXIEKENENGXINGSUOYUNHANDE,BIANSHIWENHUADESHENGCHANHUOCHUANGXIN。

                                决战棋牌   SHEHUIPIPANYANJIUBIJIAODUODIYUNYONGZAIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEHONGGUANYANJIUZHONG。ZAIYANJIUJIAOYUSHANG,SHEHUIPIPANDEYANJIUKEGUINAWEIRUXIAJIGETEDIAN[4](12):QIYI,DUIJIAOYUDEYANJIU,CHULEYAOBAWOJIAOYUGUOCHENGZISHENDEZHENGTIXINGWAI,GENGYAOZHUYITAYUSHEHUIGUANXIDEZHENGTIXING。QIER,JIAOYUYANJIUDEZHUTI,BUSHIBIAOMIANDEJIAOYUSHISHI,ERSHIZHEIXIESHISHIBEIHOUDEYIYI。TONGSHI,YEYAOCHENGRENJIAOYUHUODONGZHONGCHONGTU、MAODUNHEDUILIDESHISHI,YAOYISHEHUICHONGTUWEIJIBENXIANSUOLAIKAOCHAJIAOYUXIANXIANG。QISAN,JIAOYUYANJIUDERENWUBUZHISHIMIAOSHUHECHANSHIDONGTAIDEJIAOYUGUOCHENG,ERQIEYAOCUJINJIAOYUZHEYUXUEXIZHEDEJIEFANGYISHI。JIULILUNYUSHIJIANDEGUANXIERYAN,TACHANGDAODESHIYIZHONGPIPANLIXINGGUAN,ZAIZHEIZHONGLIXINGGUANXIA,SHIJIANBUSHIYIZHONGJISHUXINGXINGDONG,ERSHIPIPANDESIXIANGJIASHANGZIJUEDEXINGDONG。QISI,ZAIYANJIUFANGFAFANGMIAN,TAYIBIANZHENGFATONGHEJIESHIYULIJIE、LIANGDEYUZHIDEYANJIU。

                                  DANSHI,ZAIYANJIUFANSHICHUXIANZONGHEDESHIHOU,TONGSHIYECUNZAIZHEXUEPAIDEGUSHOU。BUTONGXUEPAIZAIYANJIUFANSHIDEJIEJIANZHONGBINGMEIYOUFANGQIZIJIPIANAIDEYANJIUFANSHI,HUANYANZHI,ZHEIXIEXUEPAIRENGRANYUNYONGZHEZIJIPIANAIDEYANJIUFANSHI。YINCIYANJIUFANSHIZHIJIANDEDUOYUANDUILI、DUOYUANGONGSHENGDEJUMIANHAIHUIJIXUCUNZAIXIAQU。

                                  四、当代教育社会研究的方法论反思对于我们的启示

                                  (一)多学派共同推进学术发展

                                决战棋牌   JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUDESHIJIAOYUZHONGDESHEHUIWENTIHESHEHUIZHONGDEJIAOYUWENTI,HUOZHESHUOGUANZHUDESHIJIAOYUWENTIDESHEHUIXUECENGMIANJISHEHUIWENTIDEJIAOYUXUECENGMIAN。“JIAOYULILUNDEFAZHANYUSHIDAIYOUZHENEIZAIDE、ZHIJIEDE、DUOFANGMIANHEDUOCENGCIDEGUANLIAN。ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANG,JIAOYULILUNSHUYU‘SHIDAIXUE’ZHILIE”。[14]JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEBUTONGSHIQIDEJUYOUXUEPAIXINGTEZHENGDEFANSHI,DOUJINKOUNEIGESHIDAIDEWENTIKAIPILUNYU。YIGEXUEPAIYINGGAIYANJIUZIJISHIDAIDEXIANSHIWENTI,XIANSHIDELILUNWENTIHEXIANSHIDESHIJIANWENTI。

                                  TONGGUOKAOCHAXUESHUFAZHANSHIKEYIKANCHU,DUOXUEPAIGENGDUODIBIAOXIANZAILILUNXUEPAIDEBAIJIAZHENGMING。ZHEIYIDIAN,WOMENKEYICONGJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEFAZHANLICHENGZHONGQINGCHUDIKANCHU。LILUNXUEPAIDEXINGCHENG,GUANJIANSHIGAIXUEPAIDEBIAOSHIXINGDEGAINIANHEMINGTIZHIJIANJUYOUNEIZAIDELUOJI,GUANJIANSHIGAINIANDETIXIHUAHEMINGTICHENSHUDETIXIHUA。JINNIANLAI,WOGUOYIXIEXUEZHEZAIZHEIFANGMIANZUOLEJIJIDETANSUO。WOGUOJIAOYUXUEJIECUNZAIDEWENTIZHIYIJIUSHI,XUESHUGAINIANNEIHANDEMOHUXING,XUEZHEZIJISUOYANJIUDEWENTIQUEFALIANXUXING,MINGTICHENSHUZHIJIANQUEFALIANXIXING,QUEFAXIANGDUIWENDINGDEXUEKEDINGWEI,ZHISHAOMEIYOUXIANGDUIWENDINGDEWENTIYU,JUYOUMINGXIANDELIUXINGSECAI,XUESHUGUANDIANZHILIPOSUI,GENGTANBUSHANGLILUNTIXI。

                                  (二)开展学术争鸣

                                决战棋牌   XUESHUZHENGMINGYOULIYUXUESHUFAZHAN,ZAIHENDUOQINGKUANGXIA,XUESHULUNZHENG、XUESHUZHENGMINGBENSHENJIUSHIXUESHUFAZHANDEXINDESHENGZHANGDIAN。ZHEIYIDIAN,ZAIRENWENSHEHUIKEXUEDANGZHONG,DANGRANYEBAOKUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEFAZHANLICHENGDANGZHONG,DOUKEYIQINGCHUDIFAXIAN。MAKESIZHUYIJIUSHIZAILUNZHENGZHONGFAZHANQILAIDE,MAKESIBENRENDEXUDUOZHEZUODOUSHIZAILUNZHENGZHONGWANCHENGDE。ZAIJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEYANJINZHONG,CHONGTULUNXUEPAISHIZHIJIEZHENDUIGONGNENGZHUYIXUEPAIDEBUZUFANANDE,ERJIESHILUNXUEPAIZUICHUCHONGJIDUIXIANGZESHIGONGNENGZHUYIXUEPAIHEZAOQIDECHONGTULUNXUEPAI。ZONGZHI,XUESHUWENTIBUYUNXULUNZHENG、SHIXING“YIZHONGLILUNZHUYI”,SHIBULIYUXUESHUFAZHANDE。WOMENYESHENXIN,“ZHIYOUYIZHONGGUANDIANDEXUESHU,SHIZHIXILEDEXUESHU;MEIYOUZHENGLUNDEXUESHUSHISIWANGLEDEXUESHU。ZHENGLUNDESHENDUHEGUANGDU,SHIXUESHUBUDUANQIANJINHEBUDUANCHENGSHUDEBIAOZHI”。[15]BUGANPIPINGHEZIWOPIPING、HAIPAPIPINGDEXUEWENBUNENGCHENGQIWEIXUEWEN。LILUNYANJIUZHONGDEWENTIYISHI、ZHENDUIYISHIBENSHENJIUANHANZHEPIPINGYULUNZHENG,ZHIBUGUOZHEISHIYIZHONGXUYAOGENGZIXIJIEDUDEPIPINGHELUNZHENG。

                                  WOMENTICHANGYIXUESHUWEIJICHUDEXUESHULUNZHENG、XUESHUZHENGMING。WEIYOURUCI,CAIKENENGZHENZHENGTONGGUOXUESHUZHENGMINGTUIJINXUESHUDEFAZHAN。XUESHUDEFANRONG,LILUNDEFAZHAN,XUEPAIDECHUANGJIAN,BUJINXUYAOLIANGHAODESHEHUIDAHUANJING,YEXUYAOYIGELIANGHAODEXUESHUNEIHUANJING。LIANGHAODEXUESHUHUANJINGDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHIJIUSHIJIANGJIUXUESHUGUIFAN。SHEHUIXUEJIAMODUNBAKEXUEDEGUIFANFENWEIDAODEGUIFANHEJISHUGUIFAN,BINGQIERENWEI“JISHUSHANGDEGUIDING,YESHIDAODESHANGDEGUIDING”。[16]WOGUOXUESHUJIEJIYUXUESHUYINZHENGHEZHUSHIDEJISHUXINGSHIFANHEDAODESHIFANSHIXIANGDANGYANZHONGDE,ZHEIYEFANYINGZAIXUESHUPIPANHEXUESHULUNZHENGSHANG。[17]

                                  参考文献

                                  [1]石中英.知识转型与教育改革[M].北京:教育科学出版社,2001:70-77.
                                  [2]吴康宁.教育社会学[M].北京:人民教育出版社,1998:40-46.
                                  [3]张建成.教育社会学的流变与智慧:由A.H.Halsey等人所编三本教育社会学文集谈起[J].外国中小学教育,2005(3).
                                  [4] 张建成.批判的教育社会学研究[M].台北:学富文化事业有限公司,2002:4.
                                  [5]Sociology of Education,Vol.74,Extra Issue,2001.
                                  [6]胡春光.批判教育学:一种反压迫的文化论述和民主教育实践[J].教育研究与实验,2010(1).
                                  [7]Burbules,N.C.&Berk,R.,‘Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy:Relations,Differences,and Limits’in Popkewitz,T.S.&Fendler,L.(eds.),Critical Theories in Education:Changing Terrains of Knowledge and Politics, New York,Routledge,1999.
                                  [8]钱民辉.对国外教育社会学知识体系的思考[J].北京大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2003(1).
                                  [9]李猛.从帕森斯时代到后帕森斯时代的西方社会学[J].清华大学学报(哲学社会科学版),1996(2).
                                  [10]吴康宁.西方教育社会学的学科发展(下)[J].外国教育资料,1997(4).
                                  [11]唐宗清.伯恩斯坦教育社会学理论探析[J].上海教育学院学报(社会科学版),1988(3).
                                  [12]胡振京,杨昌勇.当代教育社会学方法论特征探析[J].教育科学,2014(3).
                                  [13][英]戴维·布莱克莱吉,D.巴里·亨特.当代教育社会学流派——对教育的社会学解释[J].王波,陈方明,胡萍,译.北京:春秋出版社,1989:343-367.
                                  [14]叶澜.世纪初中国教育理论发展的断想[J].华东师范大学学报(教育科学版),2001(1).
                                  [15]嵇秀梅.促进教育科学的发展——瞿葆奎教授访谈录[J].中国教育学刊,1994(1).
                                  [16][美]R·默顿.科学的规范结构[J].林聚任,译.哲学译丛,2000(5).
                                  [17]杨昌勇.学术论着注释和索引的规范与功能[J].中国社会科学,2002(2).

                                  胡振京,杨昌勇.当代教育社会学研究的方法论反思及其启示[J].天津市教科院学报,2019(06):72-77. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8281995.html   

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