决战棋牌

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                          1. 气候难民的国际法保护现状分析

                            国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)之第六篇 摘要 :气候恶化造成大批人流离失所, 他们就是气候难民。对于这类人群, 实践中申请难民身份的尝试均告失败, 立法上相关制度也不能提供有效的保护。基于国际法保护人权的出发点, 气候难民应当纳入国际法的保护范围。一方面需要
                            阅读技巧Ctrl+D 收藏本篇文章

                              国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)之第六篇

                              摘要决战棋牌:气候恶化造成大批人流离失所, 他们就是气候难民。对于这类人群, 实践中申请难民身份的尝试均告失败, 立法上相关制度也不能提供有效的保护。基于国际法保护人权的出发点, 气候难民应当纳入国际法的保护范围。一方面需要国际社会共同努力从根源上减少气候难民的产生, 另一方面可以通过订立新的国际公约、缔结双边条约、建立专门的救济基金及管理组织等方式进行保护。

                              关键词:气候难民,国际法,保护

                            国际法热点论文

                              GUOJIYIMINZUZHIZHICHU, ZHI2050NIANZUOYOU, KENENGYOULIANGYIRENKOUYINQIHOUBIANNUANERQIANXI。JIYUGUOJIFABAOHURENQUANDEJIBENCHUFADIANYIJIWEICHIGUOJISHEHUIWENDINGDEXUYAO, QIHOUNANMINDEGUOJIFABAOHUSHIZAIBIXING。JIRANYAOTANTAOQIHOUNANMIN, BIXUXIANMINGQUEQINEIHAN。BIZHERENWEI, QIHOUNANMINSHIZHIYOUYUQIHOUDEZAINANXINGBIANHUACONGERBUDEBUQIANYIDAOBIEGUOLINSHIHUOYONGJIUJUZHUDEREN。

                              一、气候难民的保护现状

                              (YI) XIANXINGGUOJILIFADUIQIHOUNANMINBAOHUDETANSUO

                              2009NIAN, LIANHEGUORENQUANWEIYUANHUICAIYONGLELIANHEGUODI10/4HAOJUEYICHENGRENQIHOUBIANHUAYURENQUANZHIJIANDEGUANLIAN (1) 。JIRANBAOHURENQUANSHIGUOJIFADEJIBENCHUFADIAN, QIHOUBIANHUAYOUQUESHIHUIYINGXIANGRENQUAN, NEIMEQIHOUNANMINJIUYINGDANGDEDAOGUOJIFABAOHU。RANER, MUQIANBINGMEIYOUWENJIANGUIDINGGERENXIANGYOUANQUANSHENGHUOHUANJINGDESHITIQUANLI, DISANDAIRENQUANGUAN (2) ZHONGSUIRANSHEJIBUFENGUANYUJIANKANGHUANJINGQUANDENEIRONG, DANFAZHANRENGBUCHENGSHU。LIANHEGUORENQUANSHIWUGAOJIZHUANYUANBANSHICHUDEBAOGAOZHONGJINZHICHULE“YINWEIQIHOUBIANHUAERKUAYUEGUOJINGDERENXIANGYOUJIESHOUGUODEPUBIANRENQUAN, DANBUXIANGYOUJINRUQUAN”。 (3) RANER, JINRUQUANSHIQIHOUNANMINXIANGYOUPUBIANRENQUANDEJIBENQIANTI。ZONGHEYISHANGGUIDING, MUQIANDERENQUANFALIFATIXIDUIQIHOUNANMINDEBAOHURENGYOUYIDINGQIANQUE。

                              XIANJIEDUANHENDUOXUEZHEZANTONGJIANGYINQIHOUYUANYINBEIPOQIANYIDANRENGWEIKUAYUEGUOJIEDERENZUOWEI“GUONEILIULISHISUOZHE”JIYUBAOHU。《GUANYUGUONEILIULISHISUODEZHIDAOYUANZE》DUIGUONEILIULISHISUOZHEJINXINGLEMINGQUEDEDINGYI (4) , QIHOUBIANHUAWANQUANFUHEDINGYIZHONG“TIANZAI”DETIAOJIAN, WENTIZAIYUBAOHUDELIDUJIKEXINGXING。YUANZEDEZHUYAONEIRONGSHIWEILIULISHISUOZHEDEBENGUOZHENGFUSHEDINGBAOHURENQUANDEYIWU, RANERQIHOUBIANHUAQIANLIANZHENGGEGUOJIA, BINGBANSUIHENDUOQITAJISHOUWENTI, FASHENGGUOZHENGFUGENBENWULIDUILIULISHISUOZHEJINXINGBAOHU。DANGAIYUANZEQUEYOULIANGDIAN, YUANZEZHONGTIJILELIULISHISUOZHEYOUQUBIEGUOBINAN、XUNQIUBIHUDEQUANLI (5) 。LIANHEGUODI3454HAOJUEYIFUZHUSHIJIAN, TIJIYAOJIANGNANMINJILIULISHISUOZHEYITONGNARUNANMINSHUDEYUANZHUDUIXIANG (6) 。SUIRANGAIYUANZERENGQUEFAPUJIXINGHEFALVXIAOLI, YEWUDUIYINGDEGUOJITIAOYUEGUIDINGBIEGUODUIRUJINGDELIULISHISUOZHEFUYOUBAOHUYIWU, DANQUESHIDUIXIANJIEDUANQIHOUNANMINDEBAOHUJUYOUKAITUOXINGDEZHIDAOYIYI。

                              LINGWAIYIZHONGKENENGDEBAOHULUJINGSHIZUOWEIWUGUOJIRENJINXINGBAOHU。《GUANYUGUOJIAQUANLIYUYIWUDEMENGDEWEIDEYAGONGYUE》GUIDINGDEGUOJIAYAOSUYOUDINGJUDEJUMIN、QUEDINGDELINGTU、ZHENGQUANZUZHIHEZHUQUAN。DANCONGZHEIYIGUIDINGLAIKAN, MEIYOULINGTUHUOZHEDINGJUDEJUMINSHIBUNENGGOUCHENGGUOJIADE。DANGUOJIFADUIGUOJIADEXIAOWANGZHIGUIDINGLEHEBING、XISHOU、FENLISANZHONGQINGKUANG, WULIXIAOWANGBINGBUZAILIE (7) 。YINCIQIHOUBIANHUADAOZHILINGTUWULIXIAOWANGDEGUOJIAZIGENENGFOUCUNXURENGJUZHENGYI, JISHIQIHOUNANMINDEBENGUOYIJINGXIAOWANG, QINENGFOUZUOWEIWUGUOJIRENDEDAOBAOHUYEWEIKEZHI。

                              MUQIAN, FEIZHOUHELADINGMEIZHOUDEQUYUXINGNANMINGONGYUEYIJINGTUOKUANLENANMINFANWEI。1969NIANTONGGUODE《GUANYUFEIZHOUNANMINWENTIJUTIFANGMIANDEGONGYUE》ZAIDINGYINANMINSHIXISHOULELIANHEGUO1951NIANDEGUOJIGONGYUEYIJI1967NIANDEYIDINGSHUZHONGDUINANMINDEDINGYI (8) , TONGSHIYOUJIANGYINGONGGONGZHIXUBUWENDINGERTAOLIQIBENGUODERENYENARUNANMINFANWEI (9) 。1984NIANLADINGMEIZHOUTONGGUODE《KATAHENANANMINXUANYAN》YOUJINYIBUKUODALENANMINDEFANWEI, JIANGYINSHENGMING、ANQUAN、ZIYOUSHOUDAOWEIXIEERTAOLIBENGUODERENDOUNARULENANMINFANWEI (10) 。SUIRANLIANGFENGONGYUEDOUMEIYOUMINGQUEJIANGQIHOUBIANHUALIERUNANMINRENDINGDEYINSU, DANSHIYIJINGBIAOXIANCHUGENJUXIANSHIQINGKUANGKUODANANMINFANWEIDEYITU, KEYIWEIJINHOUQIHOUNANMINBAOHUTIGONGCANKAO。

                            决战棋牌   (ER) QIHOUNANMINSUSONGBAOHUSHIJIAN

                            决战棋牌   2014NIAN, YIJUXINXILANDUONIANDEJILIBASIGONGMINTeitiotaXIANGXINXILANFAYUANSHENQINGCHENGRENQIQIHOUNANMINDIWEI。XINXILANYIMINYUBAOHUFATINGHEGAODENGFAYUANRENWEIQIBUFUHEGONGYUENANMINDENEIHAN, ZHIYOUHUIGUOHOUKENENGZAOSHOUPOHAIDERENCAINENGQUDENANMINDIWEI, TeitiotaYUQITAJILIBASIGONGMINMIANLINDEZHUANGKUANGMEIYOUSHENMEBUTONG, JILIBASIZHENGFUYIJINGZAINULICAIQUCUOSHIBIMIANQIHOUBIANHUADAILAIDEFUMIANYINGXIANG, TAMENDEZHUANGKUANGBINGMEIYOUDADAOXUYAOXINXILANZHENGFUJIYUBAOHUDECHENGDU。FAGUANYEKAOLVDAO, RUGUOZHEIYISUQINGBEIZHICHI, QITAQUYUJIANGHUIXIAOFANG, YONGRUXINXILANQINGQIUBAOHU, ZHEIJIANGJIXINXILANDAILAIJUDADEYALI。ZAILEISIANJIANZHONG, WUYILIWAIDE, YINQIHOUYUANYINSHENQINGNANMINSHENFENJUNBEIBOHUI, KEJIANXIANJIEDUANSHIJIANZHONGQIHOUYUANYINBINGBUNENGCHENGWEIRENDINGYONGJIUJULIUQUANHUONANMINSHENFENDEYINSU, YOUBIYAOTONGGUOQITAZHIDULAIDUIQIHOUNANMINJINXINGGUOJIFABAOHU。

                              二、气候难民保护面临的困境

                              首先, 国际法地位不明确。目前气候难民没有取得国际法上的难民地位。公约将难民的产生原因局限在了五种政治决战棋牌因素, 很多学者认为气候因素难以与之并列, 加入会造成体系混乱。还有学者认为气候恶化不符合公约中受到迫害的要求。环境难民的概念产生后大部分学者认为范围太过宽泛, 对其均予以保护会使得传统公约难民的保护力度降低, 由于气候难民是环境难民的下位概念, 自然而然就受到了冷落。其实, 将气候难民纳入国际法保护并不意味着一定要破坏原公约体系, 完全可以尝试从其他路径解决问题。公约中迫害二字也不应做局限的解释, 气候难民的处境可以视为遭受自然环境的迫害。再就气候难民与环境难民的关系来讲, 气候难民是环境难民中人权受损害最为严重的一类, 产生原因非常清楚, 认定起来也比环境难民要明确, 气候难民先于环境难民进行保护并无不可, 这也可以作为对环境难民保护的一种探索。

                            决战棋牌   QICI, ZERENZHUTIBUMINGQUE。“WURANZHEFUFEI”YUANZEZAIYINGDUIQIHOUNANMINWENTISHANGCUNZAIHENDUOWUFAJIEJUEDEWENTI。BIZHERENWEI, GEGUODOUSHIQIHOUNANMINBAOHUDEZERENZHUTI。《QIHOUBIANHUAKUANGJIAGONGYUE》QUEDINGLEQIHOUBIANHUASUNHAIYUFANGYIWU, 《JINGDOUYIDINGSHU》GENGSHIWEIDIYUEGUOQUEDINGLEJUTIDEJIANPAIYIWU。YIGUOWENSHIQITIPAIFANGCHAOBIAOYIWEIZHEYAOMESHIGUOJIABUZUOWEI, YAOMESHIJIANGUANCUNZAIGUOSHI。YINCI, KEYITONGGUOZHUISUWEIFANGONGYUECHAOBIAOPAIFANGDEGUOJIALAIQUEDINGNAXIEGUOJIAXUYAODUIQIHOUNANMINDECHANSHENGCHENGDANGUOJIAZEREN。WENTIZAIYUMEIYOUCHAOBIAOPAIFANGDEGUOJIAYIJIWEIDIYUEGUOJIADEZERENRUHEQUEDING, HAIYOUBUFENGUOJIAZAIQIANSHU《QIHOUBIANHUAKUANGJIAGONGYUE》SHI, DUIQIHOUBIANHUAYINZHIDEGUOJIZERENTIAOKUANTICHULEBAOLIU。DUIYUZHEILEIGUOJIA, ZAIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGJUNCENGJINGPAIFANGLEDALIANGWENSHIQITI, SUIRANMANZULEXINGWEIDEBUJIAJINZHI○11, DANSHIYOUYUYINQILEQIHOUNANMINZHEILEISUNHAIJIEGUO, JISHIBUHUICHUFAGUOJIAZEREN, YEXUCHENGDANGONGPINGZHENGYIYAOQIUXIADEGUOJISUNHAIZEREN。JIUQIHOUNANMINDEBENGUOERYAN, YINGDANGJIJICAIQUCUOSHIFANGZHIZHUANGKUANGEHUA, RANERMUQIANQIHOUNANMINJIQIBENGUOGUODUYILAIYUGUOJISHEHUIDEYUANZHU, ZAOCHENGLEJIUJIZHUTIZUIZHONGYAOYIHUANDEQUESHI。DUIQIHOUNANMINBENGUOYIWAIDEGUOJIA, QIHOUNANMINBAOHUYIWUWENTISHIZHONGMEIYOUDEDAOGUOJISHEHUIZHUANMENDETAOLUN, JINZAI《KANKUNSHIYINGKUANGJIA》ZHONGTIJIGULIGEGUODUIYINQIHOUBIANHUADAOZHIDEQIANYISHISHIXIANGGUANCUOSHIYIZENGQIANGLIJIE、XIEDIAOHEHEZUO。XIANZHUANGSHIQIHOUNANMINZAIRUJINGSHIZAODAOHENDUOGUOJIADEJUSHOU, BUFENQIHOUNANMINTONGGUOFEIFADETUJINGRUJINGZHIHOUZAODAOQUZHU。

                            决战棋牌   ZUIHOU, JIUJITUJINGQUESHI。XIANXINGDEGUOJILIFASHIDESIFAJIUJIKUNNANZHONGZHONG。RUOSHISHENQINGQIHOUBIANHUASUNHAIPEICHANG, ZEBIXUZHENGMINGYIGUODEPAIFANGWENSHIQITIXINGWEIYULINGYIGUODEQIHOUEHUACUNZAIYINGUOGUANXI, ZHEIYIJUZHENGZERENDUIYUANGAOLAISHUOQUESHIYOUDIANQIANGRENSUONAN。RUOSHISHENQINGQIHOUNANMINSHENFEN, ZEQUEFAHESHIDEGUOJILIFAZHICHI。RUQIANWENSUOSHU, QIHOUNANMINKESHIYONGDEYIJUJIBENDOUGUIDINGZAIRENQUANFAZHONG, ERRENQUANFADEFALVYUESHULIJIAORUO, XIANGYAOYICIHUODENANMINSHENFENFEICHANGKUNNAN。NANMINDIWEISHENQINGHAOSHIJIAOZHANG, ZHEIYIGUOCHENGDUIYUQIHOUNANMINLAISHUOBENSHENJIUSHIYIZHONGKAOYAN。ZAISHIJIANCENGMIAN, XIANGYAODEDAONANMINSHUDEJIUJIYESHIFEICHANGKUNNANDESHIQING。MUQIAN, NANMINSHUDEBAOHUDUIXIANGZHUYAOSHIGONGYUENANMINYIJIWUGUOJIZHE、GUONEILIULISHISUOZHEDENGZHANGCHENGNANMIN, YIJINGXIANDELIBUCONGXIN。NANMINSHUZIJINXUQIUSHIYIGEJINGRENDESHUZI, ZIJINLAIYUANCHULESHAOBUFENYOULIANHEGUOBOKUANZHIWAI, DABUFENKAODESHIGEGUORENJIAO, GEGUOXIANRANMEIYOURUCIZHIGAODEJIJIXING。JISHINARULENANMINSHUDEBAOHUDUIXIANG, NANMINSHUDEXINGDONGHENDACHENGDUSHANGYILAIYUGUOJIADEPEIHE, ZHEIJIUSHIDENANMINSHUBEISHUFUZHULESHOUJIAO, NANYOUDAZUOWEI。

                              三、完善气候难民保护的对策

                              (YI) TONGGUOGUOJILIFADUIQIHOUNANMINZUOCHUTONGYIJIEDING

                              GEGUOYINGZHENGSHIQIHOUNANMINDECUNZAI, JINXINGTONGYIDEJIEDING, BINGMINGQUEQIYINGXIANGYOUDEQUANLI。XUEJIETICHUXIUGAIYUANGONGYUEHEDINGLIXINGONGYUELIANGZHONGFANGSHI。JIANDANXIUGAIYUANGONGYUE, ZAINANMINDECHANSHENGYUANYINZHONGJIASHANGQIHOUYINSUDEQUESHIZUIJIANDANDEDINGYIFANGFA, DANDEQUEHUIPOHUAIYUANGONGYUEDETIXI。QIHOUNANMINBIJINGYUGONGYUENANMINJUYOUBUTONGDETEDIAN, ZAISHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG, BAOHUCUOSHIYEBUYIWANQUANXIANGTONG。JIUSHIJIANCENGMIANERYAN, MUQIANNANMINSHUDEZIJIN、RENYUANDENGTIAOJIANYEXIANZHILEQIHOUNANMINDEBAOHULIDUDABUDAOYUGONGYUENANMINDENGTONG。YINCI, DANDUDINGLIGUANYUQIHOUNANMINWENTIDEGUOJIGONGYUEXIANGBIZHIXIASHIZUIHAODEFANGSHI。

                              关于气候难民的国际公约中应当明确为该群体定义并界定具体的认定方法、流程、制度, 列举其享有的各项权利。结合现行的国际公约, 气候难民具有的权利主要应包括生命权, 健康权, 食物、淡水权, 财产权等等。同时也应注意保护团体的传统文化习俗。最为重要的是, 公约中最好可以适当设定各国接收气候难民的义务。目前, 接收难民与否主要靠国家自由裁量, 这就意味着, 接收气候难民是一种道义上的救助。在这一现状下, 即使有公约对气候难民的具体权利做出了详细的规定, 也无法落到实处。明确了各国的接收义务, 气候难民的保护才能真正得到完善和保障。

                              (ER) JIANLIQIHOUNANMINWENTIDEYUFANGJIZHI

                            决战棋牌   QIHOUBIANHUAQIANYIFAERDONGQUANSHEN, GEGUOYINGJUYOUZERENYISHIZIJUEJIAQIANGGUONEIHUANJINGBAOHUHEJIANPAI, BIMIANGUONEIHUANJINGEHUAMANYANZHIZHOUBIANGUOJIAXINGCHENGQUANQIUXINGQIHOUWENTI。KEYIDINGLIGUONEIFAXIANZHIWENSHIQITIDEPAIFANG, LUOSHIXIANGGUANGUOJITIAOYUEGUIDINGDEZEREN。TONGSHIYEYAOZUOCHUYINGDUIQIHOUBIANHUADEJIHUA, BAOKUOYUPANCHANSHENGQIHOUNANMINHOUDEJIUJICUOSHI。BUDAOWANBUDEYI, QIHOUNANMINWENTIYINGYOUXIANZAIFASHENGGUODEDAOANZHI。JIESHOUGUOYEYINGZUOCHUYIXILIEDEZHUNBEI, YUFANGMINZUJIANDEDIDUIHESAOLUAN。

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                              (SAN) JIANLIQIHOUNANMINBAOHUDEGUOJIHEZUOJIZHI

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                              另一方面, 应通过建立气候难民保护组织, 设立气候难民救济基金等方式为气候难民提供专门保护。南非德班气候大会上已经启动了绿色气候基金, 《坎昆协议》中也规定了基金的管理方法, 即世界银行管理三年之后, 由专门的委员会管理。将该基金中的一部分资金和人员用作气候难民的专项保护是可行的措施, 实施起来也比建立新的基金更加快捷。亦可建立新基金, 扩大资金的筹集面, 国家、国际组织和个人都可以自愿进行捐助, 当然也要按照共同但有区别的责任原则强制各国缴纳一部分资金。对于气候难民的认定、募集管理资金, 落实各国责任, 监督各国保护状况, 宣传气候难民保护, 应由专门的组织进行。可以利用现有的国际环保组织, 也可以建立新的国际组织, 这可以使气候难民的保护得到很大程度的推进。

                              参考文献
                              [1] 毛颖洁.论气候难民保护面临的国际法问题及其对策[J].净月学刊, 2014, 28 (2) :24-29.
                              [2] 甘开鹏.国际法视野下环境难民法律地位及其保护[J].科学.经济.社会, 2013 (1) :128-131.
                              [3] 何志鹏, 谢深情.领土被海水完全淹没国家的国际法资格探究[J].东方法学, 2014 (4) :82-93.
                              [4]史学瀛, 刘晗.气候移民的国际法保护困境与对策[J].南开学报 (哲学决战棋牌社会科学版) , 2016 (6) :68-77.

                            点击查看>>国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)他文章
                              韩段琪瑞.论气候难民的国际法保护[J].法制博览,2018(12):4-6. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8281999.html   

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