决战棋牌

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            中国社会主义的政治经济学研究对象探索

            大一政治经济学论文热门推荐10篇之第九篇:中国社会主义的政治经济学研究对象探索 摘要: 中国特色社会主义政治经济学是正在形成和发展的当代马克思主义政治经济学,要建立能阐释中国特色社会主义发展道路并指导中国经济发展的系统化学说,关键和难点是确立正确的研究对
            阅读技巧Ctrl+D 收藏本篇文章

            大一政治经济学论文热门推荐10篇之第九篇:中国社会主义的政治经济学研究对象探索

              摘要:中国特色社会主义政治经济学是正在形成和发展的当代马克思主义政治经济学,要建立能阐释中国特色社会主义发展道路并指导中国经济发展的"系统化学说",关键和难点是确立正确的研究对象。本文结合政治经济学研究对象探讨的历程,对中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究对象所包含的历史阶段、社会主义性质、中国社会主义初级阶段下的政治经济学研究对象进行探索,研究发现,中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究的是中国社会主义初级阶段生产方式以及相应的生产和交换条件。

              关键词:中国特色社会主义; 政治经济学; 研究对象; 生产方式;

              Abstract:

            决战棋牌   The political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the contemporary Marxist political economy that is being formed and developed. To establish a "systematized theory" that can explain the development path of socialism with Chinese characteristics and guide China's economic development, the key and difficult point is to establish correct research object. Combining with the development of the research object of political economy, this paper explores the historical stage, the socialist nature and the research object of political economy under the primary stage of Chinese socialism in the study of socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics. The study finds that the socialist political economy with Chinese Characteristics researches on the production mode of the primary stage of China's socialism and the corresponding conditions of production and exchange.

              Keyword:

            决战棋牌   Socialism with Chinese Characteristics; Political Economy; Research Object; Production Method;

            政治经济

              引论

              对于任何一个学科的理论体系构建而言,研究对象问题都是一个首要的基本问题,自然,中国特色社会主义政治经济学也不例外。对于中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究对象,大部分学者基于传统政治经济学教科书研究对象的规定,认为中国特色社会主义政治经济学的研究对象仍然是生产关系,但是"研究生产关系需要联系生产力".例如,刘伟在《在马克思主义与中国实践结合中发展中国特色社会主义政治经济学》中指出:"政治经济学是研究社会生产关系运动规律的学说,生产关系运动规律只能从生产力与生产关系的矛盾运动中揭示,生产关系的运动规律源于生产力发展的历史要求及其变化。"[1]逄锦聚、卫兴华、张宇、洪银兴等都在中国特色社会主义政治经济学这一术语提出后发表过类似的看法。一些学者试图突破"联系生产力研究生产关系"之论述限制,将生产力直接纳入研究对象之中。例如,黄泰岩基于社会主义初级阶段生产力和生产关系的矛盾主要表现在生产力相对落后的现实,提出:"中国特色社会主义政治经济学……如果不仅仅联系生产力研究生产关系就不够了。……把生产关系和生产力作为自己的研究对象,推进了中国特色社会主义经济学的理论创新。"[2]卫兴华也明确提出,"中国特色社会主义政治经济学既要系统和深入研究中国特色社会主义生产关系,又要从理论上研究怎样更好更快地发展社会生产力。"[3]洪银兴则直接指出,在发展变化中,中国特色社会主义政治经济学应该研究相互联系的生产力和生产关系,构建关于解放、发展和保护生产力的系统化经济理论。[4]还有一些学者认为,中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究的是中国特色社会主义经济形态。例如,张宇指出,中国特色社会主义政治经济学的研究对象是中国特色社会主义经济形态。这既包括改革开放以后确立的中国特色社会主义生产关系或经济制度,也包括在此基础上形成的中国特色社会主义经济发展战略、发展理念、发展政策和发展道路。逄锦聚也将"社会主义初级阶段的生产方式"置于中国特色社会主义政治经济学的研究对象之中。尽管上述关于中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究对象的认识存在一定的分歧,但是其共识也是明显的,那就是中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究的是中国特色社会主义(而不是其他)经济形态,仍然要把生产关系作为主要研究对象,但是仅仅研究生产关系是不够的,不能忽视生产力这一重要因素。

            决战棋牌   ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUESHIZHENGZAIXINGCHENGHEFAZHANDEDANGDAIMAKESIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,YAOJIANLINENGCHANSHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHANDAOLUBINGZHIDAOZHONGGUOJINGJIFAZHANDE"XITONGHUAXUESHUO",GUANJIANHENANDIANSHIQUELIZHENGQUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANG。NEIME,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANGJIUJINGYINGGAISHISHENMENI?WEILELIQINGZHEIGEWENTI,WOMENBUFANGCONGGAINIANYUYICHUFAQUSHULI。JIUGAINIANBENSHENDEYUYIERYAN,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEZHISHAOBAOHANSANGECENGMIANDEHANYI:DIYI,YANJIUDESHI"ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYI"ZHEIYISHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,LISHIJIEDUANBUKEQUESHAO,XUYAOJIAQIANGLISHIWEIDUDEYANJIU;DIER,YANJIUDESHIZHONGGUOTESE"SHEHUIZHUYI"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,SHEHUIZHUYIDEXINGZHIBUNENGDIU,XUYAOJIEJUEWEISHEIFUWUDEWENTI;DISAN,YANJIUDESHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDE"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"ERBUSHIQITAXUEKE,ZIRANYINGGAIBAOKUOZHENGZHIJINGJIXUENEIRONG。DANGRANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,JIBUSHIGUDIANDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,YEBUSHIZICHANJIEJIDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,ERSHIMAKESIZHUYIDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE。

            决战棋牌   GENJUYISHANGLUNSHU,BENWENYUXIABUFENDUIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSUOBAOHANDELISHIJIEDUAN、SHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHI、ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEBENSHENYANJIUDUIXIANGJINXINGFENXI。YANJIUJIEGUOFAXIAN,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDESHIZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN。

              一、中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究对象中的历史维度

            决战棋牌   JINGUANZAIWOGUODUIYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUESHIYIMENLISHIKEXUEDERENSHIYOUZHEGUANGFANDEGONGSHI,GAIGEKAIFANGZHIQIANDUIYUGUANGYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIANSHEYEZUOLEDALIANGDETANSUO,DANSHICONGGAOXIAOPUBIANSHIYONGDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHUHEYICHUBANDEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHULAIKAN,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYULISHISHITUOJIEDE:WOMENZAIJIANGSHOUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEKECHENGSHIQIANGDIAOZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDELISHIXING,ERZAISHIJIDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHUDELILUNTIXIZHONGZHEIZHONGLISHIXINGQUEHENSHAOCUNZAI,CHONGQILIANGZHISHITIXIANZAIJIAOKESHUZHONGSHEJIJINGJITIZHIHUOQITANEIRONGSHISUOZHURUDEYIDIANERLISHIYUANSU,ERQIEZHEIZHONGLISHIXINGWANGWANGHAITINGLIUZAIZHENGCEJIEDUCENGMIAN,SHENZHIZAIFANGFALUNSHANGDELISHIWEIWUZHUYIYUZAIXUSHUZHONGDELISHIXUWUZHUYIANRANBINGCUNYUTONGYIBUZHUZUOHUOJIAOKESHUZHIZHONG。

              (YI)ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUESHIYIMENLISHIKEXUEMA

              尽管在《德意志意识形态》这部"新历史观"产生的手稿中马克思和恩格斯删去了"我们仅仅知道一门唯一的科学,即历史科学"[5]66,这句近年来仍然是令我国哲学决战棋牌界"痴迷"的话语,但是有一点可以肯定,在这部手稿中马克思和恩格斯实现了从哲学批判向政治经济学批判的转换,建立了作为政治经济学方法论基础的历史唯物主义,这一点可以从历史唯物主义原理的经典表述中看出:

              "WEIWUZHUYILISHIGUANCONGXIASHUYUANLICHUFA:SHENGCHANYIJISUISHENGCHANERLAIDECHANPINJIAOHUANSHIYIQIESHEHUIZHIDUDEJICHU;ZAIMEIGELISHIDICHUXIANDESHEHUIZHONG,CHANPINFENPEIYIJIHETAXIANGBANSUIDESHEHUIZHIHUAFENWEIJIEJIHUODENGJI,SHIYOUSHENGCHANSHENME、ZENYANGSHENGCHANYIJIZENYANGJIAOHUANCHANPINLAIJUEDINGDE。SUOYI,YIQIESHEHUIBIANQIANHEZHENGZHIBIANGEDEZHONGJIYUANYIN,BUYINGDANGDAORENMENDETOUNAOZHONG,DAORENMENDUIYONGHENGDEZHENLIHEZHENGYIDERIYIZENGJINDERENSHIZHONGQUXUNZHAO,ERYINGDANGDAOSHENGCHANFANGSHIHEJIAOHUANFANGSHIDEBIANGEZHONGQUXUNZHAO。BUYINGDANGDAOYOUGUANSHIDAIDEZHEXUEZHONGQUXUNZHAO,ERYINGDANGDAOYOUGUANSHIDAIDEJINGJIZHONGQUXUNZHAO。"1[6]284

            决战棋牌   DANGRAN,DUIYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUESHIYIMENLISHIKEXUEDERENSHI,DAJIAERSHUNENGXIANGDESHIENGESIZAI《FANDULINLUN》ZHONGDERUXIABIAOSHU:

              "RENMENZAISHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANSHISUOCHUDETIAOJIAN,GEGEGUOJIAGEBUXIANGTONG,ERQIEZAIMEIYIGEGUOJIALI,GEGESHIDAIYOUGEBUXIANGTONG。YINCI,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEBUKENENGDUIYIQIEGUOJIAHEYIQIELISHISHIDAIDOUSHIYIYANGDE。……SHEIYAOXIANGBAHUODIDAODEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEHEXIANDAIYINGGUODEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEZHIYUTONGYIGUILVZHIXIA,NEIME,CHULEZUICHENFUDELAOSHENGCHANGTANYIWAI,TAXIANRANBUNENGJIESHIRENHEDONGXI。YINCI,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEBENZHISHANGSHIYIMENLISHIDEKEXUE。"[6]157

              对于政治经济学的历史性,古典经济学奠基人亚当·斯密是非常清楚的,他在《国民财富的性质与原因的研究》中,不仅在全书五篇结构中专列了经济史一篇,而且还在逻辑叙述需要的时候增加经济史的佐证[7].新古典经济学奠基人马歇尔对历史学决战棋牌派给予了高度评价[8].

            决战棋牌   MAKESIDUILISHIDEZHONGSHIKEYICONGENGESIZAI《ZIBENLUN》YINGWENBANXUYANDE"ZHEIGERENDEQUANBULILUNSHITABISHENGYANJIUYINGGUODEJINGJISHIHEJINGJIZHUANGKUANGDEJIEGUO"[9]35ZHONGKANCHU,《ZIBENLUN》WEIWOMENTIGONGLEYANJIUYANGBEN,QIZHONG《ZIBENLUN》DIYIJUAN"XIANGDUISHENGYUJIAZHISHENGCHAN"YIPIANZUIWEITUCHU。ZAIZHEIPIANZHONGMAKESIJIEZHUXIANGSHIDELISHIZILIAO,ANZHAOLISHIDESHUNXU,YICIKAOCHALEXIEZUO、GONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEHEJIQIBUTONGSHENGCHANLIZHUANGKUANGXIAXIANGDUISHENGYUJIAZHIDESHENGCHAN,YIJIYUSHENGCHANLIZHUANGKUANGXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANFANGSHIHESHENGCHANGUANXIDEBIANHUA,WEIWOMENDAJIANLEYIGEXIONGBITE(1842)CHENGZHIWEI"LUOJIYULISHIHUAXUERONGHE"DESHENGCHANYANJINDONGTAIKUANGJIA。[10][11]

              长期以来,由于翻译的错误等原因[10],将马克思在《资本论》中研究对象(一般称之为狭义政治经济学研究对象)与恩格斯在《反杜林论》中的广义政治经济学研究对象错误地隔离开来,把政治经济学"历史性"演变成广义政治经济学的建立,而忽视了每一个阶段的政治经济学都是历史科学这一基本的逻辑。而在我们称之为西方经济学的所谓现代经济学的另一端,由于坚信(抑或意识形态的需要)资本主义决战棋牌制度的永恒性,将政治经济学或经济学演变成一个"超越历史"的"科学".

              (ER)ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYAOJIAQIANG"LISHI"DEYANJIU

              由于西方经济学和马克思主义经济学都共同植根于西方的土地之中,是西方文化、历史、哲学传统的必然产物,而中国有着不同于西方的文化、历史、哲学传统与环境,使得一些西方经济学的理论原理、管理方法和技术手段在引进到中国之后,往往难以取得预期的效果,有些甚至失灵或者发生了反作用。这就要求中国特色社会主义政治经济学要植根于中国的土地之中,吸取传统政治经济学教科书脱离历史、脱离实际,既不能理解我国中国特色社会主义的过去,也不能指导中国特色社会主义建设的教训,建立与中国文化、历史和哲学传统和环境相一致的政治经济学[12].

              TONGGUOLISHIDEYANJIU,WOMENXUYAONONGQINGCHUGAIGEKAIFANGSISHINIANDECHENGJIUYUGAIGEKAIFANGQIANSANSHINIANDEGUANXI,NONGQINGCHUWEISHENMEWOMENYAOTUPO"SHEHUIZHUYIDENGYUJIHUAJINGJI"MOSHIDEXIANZHIJIANLISHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJI,NONGQINGCHUWEISHENMEWOGUODEGAIGEYAOXUANZE"JIANJINSHIGAIGE"DENGYIXILIELISHIWENTI,TONGSHI,JIAQIANGBUTONGFAZHANJIEDUANSHENGCHAN、JIAOHUANHEFENPEIGUILVDEYANJIU,GENGHAODISHIYINGSHENGCHANLIFAZHANSHUIPING,WEI"QIANGQILAI"DEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU。

              二、中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究对象中的社会主义性质

              SUIRANYISHEHUIZHUYIYUSHICHANGJINGJIJIEHEWEI"TESE"DEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHE,JIEFANGHEFAZHANLESHENGCHANLI,SHIWOGUOCHENGGONGKUAYUELE"PINKUNXIANJING",ZHENGZAIXIANGTUPO"ZHONGDENGSHOURUXIANJING"MAIJIN,DANSHISHEHUIZHUYIDEYOUYUEXINGHAIMEIYOUCHONGFENTIXIANCHULAI,"GONGTONGFUYU"DEMUBIAOYUANMEIYOUSHIXIAN,POQIEXUYAOJIAQIANG"SHEHUIZHUYI"DINGYUDEYANJIU。

              (YI)"YIRENMINWEIZHONGXIN"SHIMAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIADEYIGUANLICHANG

            决战棋牌   "YIRENMINWEIZHONGXIN"SHIMAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIADEYIGUANLICHANG,KEYISHUO,RENXINGDEYIHUAYUFUGUISHIGUANCHUANYUMAKESIZHUYISHIZHONGDELUOJIZHUXIAN。ZAOZAI1844NIAN,MAKESIJIUZHICHU,"LAODONGSUOSHENGCHANDEDUIXIANG,JILAODONGDECHANPIN,ZUOWEIYIZHONGYIJIDECUNZAIWU,ZUOWEIBUYILAIYUSHENGCHANZHEDELILIANG,TONGLAODONGXIANGDUILI。"[13]269ZAI1845-1846NIANDE《DEYIZHIYISHIXINGTAI》SHOUGAOZHONG,MAKESIKAISHICONGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAODUJIESHIRENXINGDEBENZHI,SHIZHEXUEPIPANXIANGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEPIPANDEGUODU。ZAI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONG,MAKESITONGGUOYI"LAODONGJIAZHILUN"WEIJISHIDE"SHENGYUJIAZHILILUN"LUNZHENGLEZIBENZHUYIZHIDU"GONGPINGZHENGYI"BEIHOUYANZANGDEBUPINGDENGHEDAILAIDE"RENXINGYIHUA",WANCHENGLECONGZHEXUEPIPANXIANGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEPIPANDEZHUANBIAN。MAKESIZAIPIPANZIBENZHUYIZHIDU"RENXINGYIHUA"DETONGSHI,DUI"RENXINGFUGUI"JINXINGLEPIPANXINGLUNSHU,BINGTICHUWEILAISHEHUISHI"ZIYOURENDELIANHETI"DEWEIDASHEXIANG,YINWEIZAIMAKESIKANLAI,ZHIYOUDAOLESHENGCHANLIJIDAFAZHANCONGERWUZHICAIFUHEJINGSHENCAIFUJIDAFENGFUDEWEILAISHEHUI,MEIGERENZIYOUERQUANMIANDEFAZHANCAINENGSHIXIAN。

              XUYAOQIANGDIAODESHI,SUIRANMAKESIDECHENGSHUZHUZUO《ZIBENLUN》JUYOUMINGQUEDEWUCHANJIEJILICHANG,DAIBIAODESHI"WUCHANJIEJILIYI",DANSHIYOUYU《ZIBENLUN》SHIYIXIOUGEGUOYOUQISHIYINGGUONONGMINBEIWANQUANBODUODEZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIWEIDAIBIAOSUOZUODEFENXI,"WUCHANJIEJI"DELIYIYU"RENMINQUNZHONG"DELIYIJIBENDENGTONG,KEYISHUO,DAIBIAO"WUCHANJIEJILIYI"JIUSHIDAIBIAO"RENMINQUNZHONGDELIYI".[11]

            决战棋牌   (ER)"YIRENMINWEIZHONGXIN"SHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDECHUFADIAN

              生产力的快速发展为践行"以人民为中心"的发展思想奠定了坚实的物质基础,而收入差距问题、区域不平衡问题、环境污染问题等对践行"以人民为中心"的发展思想提出了现实的要求。十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,带领中国人民砥砺前行,迈入了中国特色社会主义的新时代。在新的历史方位,我国社会的主要矛盾已经转化为"人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾"[14],如何践行"以人民为中心"的发展思想变得非常重要。在中共十八届五中全会上,习近平就明确提出:"必须坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,把增进人民福祉、促进人的全面发展作为发展的出发点和落脚点。"[15]在2015年11月23日中央政治局第二十八次集体学习时,习近平进一步指出:"要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,这是马克思主义政治经济学的根本立场。"[16]在党的十九大报告中,习近平四次提到"以人民为中心",并明确指出"必须坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,不断促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕。"[14]在2017年中央经济工作会议第一次提出的"习近平新时代中国特色社会主义经济思想"中,明确将"坚持以人民为中心的发展思想"纳入习近平新时代中国特色社会主义经济思想的主要内涵。需要特别指出的是,在新时代,"以人民为中心"发展思想通过"精准扶贫"的实践形式展现了出来,这是一个践行"以人民为中心"发展思想的历史性飞跃。可以说,"以人民为中心"的发展思想,是一条贯彻中国特色社会主义政治经济学的逻辑主线,这要求我们在构建中国特色社会主义政治经济学理论体系时,要加强"制度维度"的研究,将"以人民为中心"作为中国特色社会主义政治经济学的立足点和出发点。

              三、政治经济学研究对象的确定

            决战棋牌   ZAIWANCHENGLEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEDINGYU"ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYI"BAOHANDELISHIWEIDUHESHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHITANSUOZHIHOU,BENBUFENZAIDUIGUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGTANSUODELICHENGDEJICHUSHANG,YANJIUZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUAN"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"BENSHENDEYANJIUDUIXIANG。

              (YI)GUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGTANSUODELICHENG

              ZUIZAOJICHUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGJIAOWEIWANZHENGDINGYIDESHIENGESIZAI1859NIANFABIAODE《KAER·MAKESIDE<ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEPIPAN>》,ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG,ENGESITICHULE"JINGJIXUESUOYANJIUDEBUSHIWU,ERSHIRENYURENZHIJIANDEGUANXI,GUIGENDAODISHIJIEJIHEJIEJIZHIJIANDEGUANXI"[1]333DEGUANDIAN,CHENGWEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIU"SHENGCHANGUANXI"DELAIYUAN2[16]333.LIENINGZAI1897NIANFABIAODE《PINGJINGJILANGMANZHUYI》YIWENZHONGCHENGJILEZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN:"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEDUIXIANGJUEBUXIANGTONGCHANGSUOSHUODENEIYANGSHIWUZHIDESHENGCHAN(ZHEISHIGONGYIXUEDEDUIXIANG),ERSHIRENMENZAISHENGCHANZHONGDESHEHUIGUANXI。"[18]166JILIENINGZHIHOU,SIDALINZAI1952NIANXIEDE《SULIANSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIWENTI》ZHONGZUOLELEISIDEDINGYI,TAXIEDAO:"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEDUIXIANGSHIRENMENDESHENGCHANGUANXI,JIJINGJIGUANXI。"[19]158ANZHAOSIDALINZHEIYIGUIDING,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGZHISHISHENGCHANGUANXI。DUIYUSHENGCHANGUANXI,SIDALINYEZUOLEFADIANHUADEGAIKUO,ZHUYAOBAOKUOSUOYOUZHI、LAODONGZHONGDERENYURENDEGUANXI、CHANPINFENPEISANGEFANGMIAN。SULIANBANZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHUHEHOULAIWOGUOZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHUYIBANDOUGUIDING,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUESHIGUANYUSHENGCHANGUANXIDEKEXUE,TAYANJIURENMENDESHEHUISHENGCHANGUANXIJIJINGJIGUANXI。ZHEIGEGUIDINGBUSHILAIZIMAKESI,ERSHIQIYUANYUENGESI,XINGCHENGYUSIDALIN。ZHEIYANGYUANBENNEIRONGFENGFUDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,BIANCHENGLEZHIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,YANJIUFANWEIDADAXIAZHAIHUA。[20]158-171

              MAOZEDONGZAI20SHIJI50NIANDAIMO60NIANDAICHURENZHENYANJIUHESIKAOLESULIANSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIWENTIHEZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIWENTI,DUIZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJINXINGLEZHONGYAOTANSUO,QIZHONGDUIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDETANSUOJIZHONGTIXIANZAITA1959-1960NIANDUSULIAN《ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHU》DISANBANXIACESHIDETANHUA,ZAIZHEIGETANHUAZHONG,MAOZEDONGYIJINGRENSHIDAOZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEZHIYANJIU"SHENGCHANGUANXI"YANJIUFANWEIGUOZHAIWENTI,SANCILUNSHULEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANG,CONGLIANGGEFANGMIANTUOZHANLEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUFANWEI。ZAIDIYICILUNSHUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHI,MAOZEDONGZHICHU:"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDEDUIXIANGZHUYAOSHISHENGCHANGUANXI,DANSHI,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEHEWEIWUSHIGUANNANDEFENJIA。BUSHEJISHANGCENGJIANZHUFANGMIANDEWENTI,JINGJIJICHUJISHENGCHANGUANXIDEWENTIBURONGYISHUODEQINGCHU。"[21]170ZHEILICHULEJIANGYANJIUDUIXIANGTUOZHANWEI"ZHUYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI"[21]422,HAIQIANGDIAOLESHANGCENGJIANZHUWENTIYANJIU。ZAIDIERCILUNSHUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHI,HAICONGLIANGFANGMIANLAITUOZHANZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUFANWEI,MAOZEDONGZHICHU:"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDEDUIXIANGZHUYAOSHISHENGCHANGUANXI,DANSHIYAOYANJIUQINGCHUSHENGCHANGUANXI,JIUBIXUYIFANGMIANLIANXIYANJIUSHENGCHANLI,LINGYIFANGMIANLIANXIYANJIUSHANGCENGJIANZHUDUISHENGCHANGUANXIDEJIJIZUOYONGHEXIAOJIZUOYONG。"ZAIDISANCILUNSHUSHI,ZHUYAOSHIQIANGDIAOLESIDALINDUISHENGCHANGUANXIDEGUIDING,TAZHICHU:"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDEDUIXIANG,ZHUYAOSHISHENGCHANGUANXI。ANZHAOSIDALINDESHUOFA,SHENGCHANGUANXIBAOKUOSANGEFANGMIAN,JI:SUOYOUZHI,LAODONGSHENGCHANZHONGRENYURENDEGUANXI,CHANPINFENPEI。"[21]804MAOZEDONGDUIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDUIXIANGGUIDINGCHENGLEWOGUOXUESHUJIEDEGONGSHI,JI"ZHUYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,DANSHIYAOMIQIELIANXISHENGCHANLIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,MIQIELIANXISHANGCENGJIANZHUYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI。"[20]158-171

              WOGUOXUESHUJIEDUIYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDEYANJIUKEYIZHUISUDAO《RENMINRIBAO》1949NIAN10YUE19RIWANGXUEWENFABIAODE《ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANGJIQITEDIAN》YIWEN,DANSHIDUIYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGTANSUODEDIYIGEGAOCHAOSHI20SHIJI50NIANDAIMO60NIANDAICHUNEICHANGDATAOLUN。JIYU"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYAOWEIJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIFUWU"DEXUQIU,PINGXINCONG1959NIANDAO1961NIANFABIAOLEXILIELUNWEN,TICHULEYINGGAIBA"SHENGCHANLI"LIEWEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDEGUANDIAN。LIUSHIBAI(1961)[22]BUTONGYIZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN,RENWEIZHEIHUIGAIBIANZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEXINGZHI,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGJIUSHISHENGCHANGUANXI。SUNSHANGQING(1961)[23]YEBUTONGYIJIANGSHENGCHANLIZUOWEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDEGUANDIAN,BUGUOJIANYICHENGLISHENGCHANLIZUZHIXUELAIZHUANMENYANJIUSHENGCHANLI。YUZHEILIANGZHONGGUANDIANBUTONG,TIANGUANG(1961)[24]TICHULEDISANZHONGGUANDIAN,JIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHICONGSHENGCHANGUANXIJIAODUYANJIUSHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXIMAODUN、SHANGCENGJIANZHUYUJINGJIJICHUMAODUN。TIANGUANGJIYUDUIMAKESIENGESIJINGDIANZHUZUOWENBENJIEDU,JICHULE"SHANGCENGJIANZHU-SHENGCHANGUANXI-SHENGCHANLI"GONGSHI,TICHU"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHIZHUAZHU'ZHONGJIAN',LIANXI'LIANGTOU',SANZHESHIQUEYIBUKEDE。"[24]FANGWEN(1961)[25]BUTONGYITIANGUANGDEGUANDIAN,RENWEITIANGUANGDECHUFADIANSHIYIGECUOWUDEGONGSHI,TADUIMAKESIENGESIJINGDIANZHUZUOWENBENJIEDUSHIYIGEWUDU,ZHICHU:"JUEBUNENGBASHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXIZHIJIANDEMAODUNTONGJINGJIJICHUYUSHANGCENGJIANZHUPINGLIEQILAI,GENGBUNENGYONG'SHANGCENGJIANZHU-SHENGCHANGUANXI-SHENGCHANLI'BUWANBEIDEGONGSHILAIKAOCHAZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEDUIXIANG。"[25]FANGWENZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONGHAITICHULE"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHISHEHUISHENGCHANFANGSHI"DEDISIZHONGGUANDIAN,FANGWENSHITUJIANG"SHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXIMAODUNTONGYITI"ZIRANYEBAOKUOSHENGCHANLILIERULEYANJIUDUIXIANG,TADEYANJIUNAIRENXUNWEI:"ZAIRENHESHIHOU,SHENGCHANLIZONGSHIYIDINGSHENGCHANGUANXIZHIXIADESHENGCHANLI,SHENGCHANGUANXIZONGSHIYIDINGSHENGCHANLIZHIXIADESHENGCHANGUANXI。BASHENGCHANFANGSHIZUOWEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEDUIXIANG,JIUSHIYAOBASHENGCHANFANGSHIZUOWEISHENGCHANLIHESHENGCHANGUANXIDEMAODUNTONGYILAIKAOCHA。"[25]FANGWENDEYANJIUBUJINKAITUOLEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUFANWEIDETANSUO,ERQIEYEYINQILEDUI"SHENGCHANFANGSHI"BENSHENDEYANJIU,WENTISHITADUISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEDINGYIYANXILESIDALINGUANYU"SHENGCHANFANGSHISHISHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXITONGYI"DECUOWUGUIDING。TADEGUANDIANSHOUDAOLIUSHIBAI、SUNSHANGQINGDENGJIANCHIDIERZHONGGUANDIANXUEZHEDEPIPAN,CHULE"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDESHISHENGCHANGUANXIDEFAZHANGUILVERBUSHISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEFAZHANGUILV"WAI,QITADUIDIYIZHONGGUANDIANDEPIPANYETONGYANGSHIHEDUIFANGWENGUANDIANDEPIPAN。

              DUIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGTANSUODEDIERGEGAOCHAOSHIDANGDESHIYIJIESANZHONGQUANHUIYIHOU。3LISHISHIJINGRENDEXIANGSI,YUDIYICIGAOCHAOYIYANG,YESHICONGJIANGSHENGCHANLINARUYANJIUDUIXIANGKAISHI,ERQIEYETICHULEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEQU"JIEJIXING""ZHENGMING"GUANDIAN,ZHISHIZHEICIFAQIZHEBUSHIPINGXINERSHICONG1978NIANQILIANXUFALESANPIANWENZHANGDEZHEXUEJIAXIONGYINGWU,QIZHUYAOYIJUWUWAIHUSHIMAKESIMEIYOUSHUOGUOZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEZHIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI(RUSHANGWENSUOSHUENGESI1859NIANSHUOGUO)、WUCHANJIEJIDUOQUZHENGQUANHOUGAOSHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEBIXUFAZHANSHENGCHANLI、SHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXISHIMIBUKEFENDEDENGXINPINGZHUANGJIUJIUDELUNJU。DUIYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"ZHENGMING"WEI"JINGJIXUE"YEYUPINGXINDELIYOUYIYANG。XIZHAOYONGDENGCONGWENBENCHUFAZHENDUIXIONGYINGWUDELUNZHENGJINXINGLEPIPAN。[26]BUGUO,SHIRENZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANJINGJIYANJIUSUOSUOZHANGDESUNYEFANGWEIPINGXINDE《LUNSHENGCHANLI》WENJIXIEDEXUYAN《ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYEYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANLI》ZHICHILEZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN,SUNSHANGQINGYEJIARULEZHICHIJIANGSHENGCHANLIZUOWEIYANJIUDUIXIANGDEDUIWU,YOUCIZHENGLUNYEZAIJINGJIXUEJIEYINQILEYIDINGDEFANXIANG。ZAIZHEICHANGZHENGLUNZHONG,SHENFENWEIZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANJINGJIYANJIUSUOTEYUEYANJIUYUANDEZHANGWENTIANZAI1979NIAN《JINGJIYANJIU》FABIAODE《GUANYUSHENGCHANGUANXIDEERZHONGXING》,KEYIKANZUOSHITIANGUANGDISANZHONGGUANDIANDECHUANCHENG,ZHANGWENTIANTICHULESHENGCHANGUANXIDEERZHONGXING,BINGYICIWEIJICHU,DUIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGJINXINGLEGAISHU:"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDESHENGCHANGUANXI,BUSHITUOLISHENGCHANLIERDANCHUNYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,ERSHIYAOZAIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXIZHONGYANJIUSHENGCHANLIHESHENGCHANGUANXIDENEIZAIMAODUN,JILIANGZHEDEDUILITONGYIGUANXI"[27].MAJIAJUHELINZIRONG(1981)[28]DENGTICHULE"ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDESHISHENGCHANFANGSHIHETAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI"DEDISIZHONGGUANDIAN,YUDIYICIYANJIUGAOCHAODEDISIZHONGGUANDIANYOUXIELEISI,YESHIJIANGSHENGCHANFANGSHINARUYANJIUDUIXIANGZHIZHONG,DANSHIBUTONGDESHI,TAMENDOUBUTONGYISIDALINDE"SHENGCHANFANGSHISHISHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXITONGYI"[28]DEGUANDIAN。DUIYUSIDALINGUANYUSHENGCHANFANGSHIDEDINGYI,MAJIAJUHELINZIRONGZHICHU:"MAKESISUOJIANGDESHENGCHANFANGSHIBINGBUSHIZUOWEISHENGCHANLIHESHENGCHANGUANXIDETONGYIBALIANGZHEBAOKUOZAIZISHENZHINEI,ERSHIJIEYUZHEILIANGZHEZHIJIANCONGERBATAMENLIANXIZAIYIQIDEYIGEFANCHOU"[28],ANZHAOMAJIAJUHELINZIRONGJIANGSHENGCHANFANGSHIBAOHANLIANGZHONGHANYI,JI"ZUOWEILAODONGFANGSHIDESHENGCHANFANGSHI"HE"ZUOWEISHEHUIXINGSHIDESHENGCHANFANGSHI",YICIWEIJICHU,MAJIAJUHELINZIRONGTICHUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHOUXIANSHISHENGCHANFANGSHI,RANHOUCAISHIYUSHENGCHANFANGSHIXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI。DANGRAN,ZAIZHEICIGUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDATAOLUNZHONG,SUNYEFANGDUIYUSIDALINSHENGCHANGUANXIDINGYIDEPIPANYEGEWAIYINRENZHUMU,TAZHICHU:"WOJUEDESIDALINDEDINGYISHIDUIENGESIZAI《FANDULINLUN》ZHONGGUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDUIXIANGDEZHENGQUEDINGYIDEXIUGAI,ZHEIZHONGXIUGAISHIBUTUODANGDE,DUISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHESHIJIANYIJINGDAILAILEBULIANGHOUGUO。"[29]SIDALINZAISHENGCHANGUANXIDINGYIZHONGJIANGJIAOHUANPAICHUZAIYANJIUDUIXIANGZHIWAI,JIANGSUOYOUZHINARUSHENGCHANGUANXIZHIZHONG,ZHIJINRENGSHIWOMENZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHUDENEIRONG。

              JINGUANZAIDIERCIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUGAOCHAOZHONG,MAJIAJUHELINZIRONGDENGDUIYANJIUDUIXIANGDETANSUOQUDELEHENDADEJINZHAN,DANSHI,ZAIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOXUEZHONGRENGRANJIANGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGGUIJIEWEI"SHENGCHANGUANXI"(YIBANJIESHIWEI"RENYURENZHIJIANDEGUANXI"),ERZAIRENYUZIRANGUANXIBIANDEYULAIYUZHONGYAODEXIANDAISHEHUI,JIUSHIMAKESIZHUYIJINGJIXUEZAILILUNJINGJIXUEFANSHIZHIZHENGZHONGXIANYUXIANTIANDELIESHI[30].WEILEBAITUOZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEKUNJING,XUDUOXUEZHEZUOLEYOUYIDETANTAO。YIXIEXUEZHESHITUTONGGUOZHONGXINJIESHIMAKESIZAI《ZIBENLUN》YANJIUDUIXIANGGUIDINGZHONGDEGUANJIANGAINIANRUSHENGCHANFANGSHI、SHENGCHANGUANXI,FUYUMAKESIZHUYIJINGJIXUEXINDEHUOLI[31];LINGYIXIEXUEZHESHITUCONG《ZIBENLUN》ZHONGDESHIJIYANJIUNEIRONGCHUFA,ZHENGMINGMAKESIZHUYIJINGJIXUEBUJINYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,ERQIEYIJINGJIANGXIFANGJINGJIXUEYANJIUDE"ZIYUANPEIZHI"BAOHANLEJINQU[32],ERZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,WUYIFENG(1997)[30]DE《LUNZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEHUOJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANG》YIWENSHIYIPIANGUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGWEIZHUTIDEWENXIANZHONGQIJINWEIZHIYINYONGLVZUIGAODEWENZHANG(HANZHIQIANLIANGCIYANJIUGAOCHAODEWENZHANG)。ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG,WUYIFENGZHUYAOZAILIANGGEFANGMIANQUDELEZHONGDAJINZHAN:DIYI,DUIWEIWUZHUYILISHIGUANDEYANJIUQUDEZHONGDAJINZHAN,TICHUBINGLUNZHENGLEMAKESIDE"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"YUANLI。SUIRAN"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"YUANLIBUSHIWUYIFENGDIYICITICHUDE,ZAIMAJIAJUHELINZIRONG(1981)[28]NEILIYIJINGYOULE"SHENGCHANLIJUEDINGSHENGCHANFANGSHI""SHENGCHANFANGSHIJUEDINGSHENGCHANGUANXI"DEJIANDANLUNSHU,ZAILIMINGXUE(1982)[33]NEILISHENZHIZHIJIETICHULE"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"GONGSHIBENSHEN,DANSHIWUYIFENGDEGONGXIANSHITONGGUODUIMAKESIENGESIZAOQIZHUZUOYANJIU、《ZIBENLUN》DIYIJUANSUOZUODEZHONGDAXIUGAI、《ZIBENLUN》DISANJUANDEYINZHENG,LUOJIYANMIDILUNZHENGLE"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"YUANLI;DIERGESHIDUIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUESHIFOUYANJIUZIYUANPEIZHIFANGSHIDELUNZHENG,DECHULEMAKESIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEBUJINYANJIUZIYUANPEIZHIYIBAN,ERGENGZHONGYAODESHIYAOYANJIUTONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIXIANGSHIYINGDELISHIDE、JUTIDEZIYUANPEIZHIJIQITEZHENG,ZHEIYIYANJIUCHENGGUOBUJINYOULIDIPIBOLEMAKESIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"ZHIYANJIURENYURENGUANXI"DEGUOSHILUNDUAN,ERQIEYETUXIANLEMAKESIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEZAIYANJIUDUIXIANGFANGMIANDEYOUSHI。TONGGUODUI"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"YUANLIDECHANSHUHEDUISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEZHONGXINDINGYI,WUYIFENGDECHULEMAKESIZAI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONGYANJIUDUIXIANGSHI"ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHETAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI"[30],YIJIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHI"YANJIURENLEISHEHUIGEGELISHIFAZHANJIEDUANSHANGDESHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHESHENGCHANFANGSHIXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXIHUOJINGJIGUANXI"[30]DEJIELUN。HUJUN(1997)[34]、WUXUANGONG(2013)[35]、YUJINFU[36]HELIJING(2009)[36]DEXIANGGUANYANJIUQIANGDIAOLESHENGCHANFANGSHIZAIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGZHONGDEZHONGYAOXING、ZHAOPING(2001)[37]DUIJINNIANLAIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGLILUNGUANDIANSHANGCUNZAIDEFENQIJINXINGLEFENXI。

            决战棋牌   (ER)ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGBENSHENDEQUEDING

              CONGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGTANSUOLICHENGKEYIKANCHU,WOGUOLIANGCIGUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDEYANJIUGAOCHAODOUSHIJIYU"WEISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU"MUDE,SHITUCHONGPOCHUANTONGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAOKESHUDEXIANZHIERCHANSHENG,YINLUNZHONGSUOSHUDEDISANCIRENGZAIJINXINGZHONGDEYANJIUGAOCHAOYEBULIWAI,ZHISHI"WEIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU"DAITILE"WEICHUANTONGSHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU".CONGSANCIYANJIUGAOCHAODEZHUYAOJIELUNKAN,ZHUYAOBAOKUO"ZHUYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,DANYAOLIANXISHENGCHANLIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI""ZHIJIEJIANGSHENGCHANLIYINRUYANJIUDUIXIANG""YANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI"SANZHONGJIELUN,JINGUANZAISHENGCHANFANGSHI、SHENGCHANGUANXI、SHENGCHANLISANGEFANCHOUNEIHANYUWAIYANDELIJIESHANGYOUXIEBUTONG。WOMENYUDAODEDIYIGEWENTISHI,NENGFOUJIANGBUTONGGUANDIANTONGYIZAIYIGEKUANGJIAXIA,DIERGEWENTISHIZHEIGEKUANGJIASHIFOUNENGMANZUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"WEIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU"DEXUYAO,RUGUOBUNENG,DISANGEWENTISHIZAIYIYOUYANJIUDEJICHUSHANG,RUHEGOUJIANZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANG,DISIGEWENTISHIBENWENGOUJIANDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHIFOUYUMAKESIENGESIJINGDIANZUOJIAXIANGYIZHI。

            决战棋牌   DUIYUDIYIGEWENTI,GENJUSHANGWENWUYIFENGCHANSHUDE"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"YUANLI,HENRONGYIBA"ZHUYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,DANYAOLIANXISHENGCHANLIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI""ZHIJIEJIANGSHENGCHANLIYINRUYANJIUDUIXIANG"TONGYIZAI"YANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI"ZHIXIA。CHIYOU"ZHIJIEJIANGSHENGCHANLIYINRUYANJIUDUIXIANG"DEXUEZHE,QIZHUYAOLILUNYIJUSHIWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEJIANLIZAISHENGCHANLIBIJIAOBORUODEJICHUSHANG,CHUYUCHUJIJIEDUANDESHEHUIZHUYIDEBENZHISHIJIEFANGHEFAZHANSHENGCHANLI,DANSHIJIEFANGHEFAZHANSHENGCHANLIBINGBUSHIYANJIUSHENGCHANLIBENSHEN,JIURUTONGWOMENBUNENG"JIANGTONGXIANGCAIFUDEDAOLUDANGZUOCAIFUBENSHENYIYANG",WOMENBUNENGBAYANJIUSHENGCHANLI(MAKESICHENGZHIWEI"GONGYIXUEDESHIQING")ZUOWEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANG,ZHEIYESHI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONGMEIYOUYANJIUSHENGCHANLIBENSHENDEYUANYIN。GENJU"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"YUANLI,YAOSHIXIANSHEHUIZHUYIDEGENBENRENWUJIEFANGHEFAZHANSHENGCHANLI,JIANGSHENGCHANFANGSHILIEWEIZHUYAOYANJIUDUIXIANGJIUKEYILE。JULIERYAN,WOMENYIJINGJINRUXINXISHIDAI,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYINGGAIYIXINFAZHANLINIANWEIZHIDAOYANJIUXINXIJISHUTIAOJIANXIADESHENGCHAN、JIAOHUAN,XINGCHENGYOULIYUSHENGCHANLIFAZHANDEZHIDUANPAI,DANSHI,LIYONGXINXIJISHUGENGHAODI"WEIRENMINFUWU",ERBUSHIYANJIU"XINXIJISHU"BENSHEN。JIYUTONGYANGDEYUANYIN,YOUYUSHENGCHANLIHESHENGCHANGUANXIZHIJIANHAIYOUYIGEZHONGJIANDE"SHENGCHANFANGSHI",YANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYEJIUHANGAILE"LIANXISHENGCHANLIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI",YUSHI"ZHUYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,DANYAOLIANXISHENGCHANLIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI"YEKEYITONGYIZAI"YANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI"KUANGJIAXIA。

            决战棋牌   DUIYUDIERGEWENTI,WOMENRENWEI,ZHENGHEDEKUANGJIA"YANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI"HAIBUZUYIMANZUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"WEIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU"DEXUYAO,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYUZHEIGEYANJIUZHONGMEIYOUJIANG"LIUTONGGUOCHENG"HUOZHESHUO"JIAOHUAN"BAOHANJINLAI,ERWULUNZIBENZHUYISHEHUI,CHUANTONGSHEHUIZHUYI,HAISHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISHEHUI,"LIUTONGGUOCHENG"DOUSHIBUKEHUOQUEDE。XIFANGJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDE"ZIYUANPEIZHISHUO"ZHISUOYIWENTIBIJIAOYANZHONG,CHULEQUEFATESHUDE、JUTIDESHENGCHANFANGSHIDEYANJIUWAI,YEQUEFADUI"LIUTONGGUOCHENG"DEYANJIU,YIZHIWEIGUANSHANGDEZIYUANPEIZHIDEYOUXIAOXINGZAIHONGGUANSHANG"ZIBENZAISHENGCHAN"HE"LAODONGLIZAISHENGCHAN"DESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIANHENNANDEYIMANZU,BUKEBIMIANCHANSHENGJINGJIWEIJI,HONGGUANJINGJIXUEYEZHENGSHIYOUCIERCHANSHENGDE。CHUANTONGSHEHUIZHUYIZHISUOYIKEYIBIMIANJINGJIWEIJI,NEISHI"YOUJIHUAANBILISHENGCHAN"BENSHENMANZULESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN,SHISHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANDEYISHUNLIJINXING。ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISHIYISHICHANGWEIZIYUANPEIZHIDESHICHANGJINGJI,YECUNZAILEISIWENTI,SUOYIBUKEBIMIANYAOYANJIUSHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANSHUNLISHIXIANDETIAOJIAN。

              WOMENCONGDUIDIERGEWENTIDELUNSHUZHONG,YINCHUDISANGEWENTIDEDAAN,NEIJIUSHIKEYIJIANGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGGUIJIEWEI"YANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHETAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN".ZHISUOYIWEIJIANGSHENGCHANGUANXINARUJINLAI,NEISHIYINWEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGZHONGYIBAOHAN"SHENGCHAN、JIAOHUANDEYANJIU",CONGERYEBAOHANLEGUANGYISHENGCHANGUANXIHEXIAYISHENGCHANGUANXIDEYANJIU,WEIBIMIANFANCHOUZHIJIANDEBAOHANHUOTONGYIFANFU,BUYINGGAIZAIJIANG"SHENGCHANGUANXI"BENSHENZHIJIELIERUYANJIUDUIXIANGZHIZHONG,DANSHI"SHENGCHANGUANXI"YIRANSHIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEZHUYAOYANJIUNEIRONG。

              ZHIYUDISIGEWENTI,BENWENGOUJIANDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSHIFOUYUMAKESIENGESIJINGDIANZUOJIAXIANGYIZHI,WOMENCONGMAKESIDECHENGSHUZHUZUO《ZIBENLUN》DEYANJIUJIEGOULAILUNZHENG。《ZIBENLUN》DIYIJUANBIAOTIWEI"ZIBENDESHENGCHANGUOCHENG",ZAIZHEIYIJUANZHONG,MAKESIXIANGXIFENXILEZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIHESHENGCHANDEYISHIXIANDETIAOJIAN。ZAI"XIANGDUISHENGYUJIAZHISHENGCHAN"YIPIANZHONG,MAKESIJIEHEJINGJISHI,YICIDUIXIEZUOFANGSHI、SHOUGONGYEGONGCHANG、GONGCHANGSANZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHI,YIJIYUZHIXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXIJINXINGLEKAOCHA,LIRUYUGONGCHANGSHENGCHANFANGSHIXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXISHI"ZIBENGUYONGLAODONGGUANXI";《ZIBENLUN》DIERJUANDEBIAOTIWEI"ZIBENDELIUTONGGUOCHENG".YOUYUYANJIULIUTONGHEYANJIUJIAOHUANSHIYIZHIDE,DIERJUANYANJIUSHIJISHANGJIUSHIJIAOHUANGUOCHENG,ZHEIYIDIANKEYICONGMAKESIDELUNSHU"LIUTONGBENSHENZHISHIJIAOHUANDEYIDINGDEYAOSU,HUOZHEYESHICONGZONGTISHANGKANDEJIAOHUAN"ZHONGDECHU。ZAI"SHEHUIZIBENDEZAISHENGCHANHELIUTONG"YIPIANZHONG,DUIJIANDANZAICHANSHENGHEKUODAZAISHENGCHANDESHIXIANTIAOJIANJINXINGLEYANJIU;《ZIBENLUN》DISANJUANDEBIAOTIWEI"ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANDEZONGGUOCHENG"(FENWEISHANGXIA)。ZAIZHEIYIJUANZHONG,MAKESIJIANGSHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANZUOWEIYIGEZHENGTIQUYANJIU,ZAIYANJIUSHENGCHANSHI,BUZAIXIANGDIERJUANNEIYANGJIADINGJIAOHUANTIAOJIANBUBIAN,ZAIYANJIUJIAOHUANSHI,YEBUZAIXIANGDIYIJUANNEIYANGJIADINGSHENGCHANTIAOJIANBUBIAN,ERSHIHUIDAOXIANSHI,JINXINGJUTIDEYANJIU,BAOKUOSHENGYUJIAZHIRUHEZHUANHUANWEILIRUN、LIRUNRUHEPINGJUNHUA、LIXIRUHECHANSHENG、WEISHENMETUDINENGCHANSHENGDIZUDENG。ZHEIYIJUANSHIZHISHANGSHIZAISHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANERWEIBIANHUADEKONGJIANLI,DUIFENPEIDEXINGSHIJINXINGLEYANJIU。YOUCIKEYIKANCHU,BENWENGENJU"WEIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU"GOUJIANDEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDUIXIANGYU《ZIBENLUN》YANJIUJIEGOUSHIWENHEDE。

            决战棋牌   NEIWEISHENME《ZIBENLUN》YANJIUDUIXIANGSHI"ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHETAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXIHEJIAOHUANGUANXI"ERBUSHI"ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHETAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXIHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN"NI?WOMENCONGLUOJISHANGBUNANKANCHU"ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHETAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXIHEJIAOHUANGUANXI"YU"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"DEYUANLISHIMAODUNDE,YINWEIYUSHENGCHANFANGSHIXIANGSHIYINGDESHISHENGCHANGUANXIERBUSHISHENGCHANGUANXIHEJIAOYIGUANXI,WULUNSHIMAJIAJUHELINZIRONG(1981)[28]TICHUDE"SHENGCHANGUANXIHEJIAOHUANGUANXI"SHI"GUANGYISHENGCHANGUANXI",HAISHIWUYIFENGXIANSHENGTICHUDE"SHENGCHANGUANXIHEJIAOHUANGUANXISHITONGYIYU",DOUCUNZAILUOJIWENTI。NEISHIFOUBENWENLAIYICUNZAIDE"SHENGCHANLI-SHENGCHANFANGSHI-SHENGCHANGUANXI"DEYUANLIYOUWENTINI?ZHEIYIDIANWUYIFENGXIANSHENG(1997)[30]YIZUOXIANGXILUNZHENG,NEICUOWUYIDINGSHIZHONGWENFANYIBENSHEN!GENJUGUOGUANQING(2015)[10]DEKAOZHENG,《ZIBENLUN》DEYANJIUDUIXIANGYUANWEN"Was ich in diesem Werk zu erforschen habe,ist die kapitalistische ProduktionsweiseunddieihrentsprechendenProduktions-undVerkehrsverh?ltnisse"[39],YINGGAIFANYIWEI"WOYAOZAIZHEIBUSHUZHONGYANJIUDE,SHIZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIHETAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN",ZHEILIGUANJIANSHIJIANGverh?ltnisseJIJUYOU"TIAOJIAN(condition)"YEJUYOU"GUANXI(relation)"DECIYUFANYIWEI"TIAOJIAN"ERBUSHI"GUANXI",YOUCIKEYIDECHU,《ZIBENLUN》YANJIUDESHIZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN,CONGER,ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDESHISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN。

              四、结束语

            决战棋牌   ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANGJIUJINGSHISHENME?SHILIANXISHENGCHANLIYANJIUSHENGCHANGUANXI,HAISHIYANJIUSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGSHIYINGDESHENGCHANGUANXI?SHENGCHANLIJIUJINGSHIFOUYINGGAILIERUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANG?BENWENTONGGUOHUIGUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGDETANSUOLICHENG,DUIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGSUOBAOHANDELISHIJIEDUAN、SHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHI、ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGBENSHENJINXINGFENXI。

              ZAI"LISHIJIEDUAN"YANJIUZHONG,DUICHUANTONGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEBAZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"LISHIXING"YANBIANCHENGGUANGYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEJIANLI,DUIFANGFALUNSHANGLISHIWEIWUZHUYIYUXUSHUZHONGLISHIXUWUZHUYIANRANBINGCUNYUTONGYIBUZHUZUOHUOJIAOKESHUZHONGDEXIANXIANGJINXINGLEFENXIHEPIPAN。ZAI"SHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHI"YANJIUZHONG,JIEHEMAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIADELUOJIZHUXIANHESHEHUIZHUYIDENEIZAIYAOQIU,DUIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEZHONGRUHEGUANCHE"YIRENMINWEIZHONGXIN"DEFAZHANSIXIANGJINXINGLEFENXI。DUIYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGBENSHENDEYANJIU,BENWENYIJINGJISIXIANGSHIDESHIJIAODUIYUCHUANTONGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHAN、WOGUOXUESHUJIELIANGCIYANJIUGAOCHAOJINXINGLEHUIGU,DUIZHENGZAIJINXINGDESANCIGAOCHAOJINXINGLEFENXI,ZAIZHENGHESANCIGAOCHAOZHONGBUTONGGUANDIANDEJICHUSHANG,JIEHEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"WEIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEFUWU"DEXUYAO,TICHULEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"YANJIUDESHISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN",BINGTONGGUODUI《ZIBENLUN》YANJIUDUIXIANGBIAOSHUFANYIDECUOWUXIAOZHENG、《ZIBENLUN》SANJUANNEIRONGDELUOJIFENXIYANJIU,DUIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"YANJIUDESHISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIYUTAXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN"DEJIELUNJINXINGLELUNZHENG。

            决战棋牌   GENJUBENWENDUIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE"LISHIWEIDU"、"SHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHI"HEZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDUIXIANGBENSHENDEYANJIU,BUNANDECHU,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUDESHIZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANSHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJIXIANGYINGDESHENGCHANHEJIAOHUANTIAOJIAN。

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            决战棋牌   [39]KARL MARK,FRIEDRICH ENGELS GESAMTAUSGABE.Das Kapital[M].Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands,Dietz Verlag Berlin,Band 5,1983:12.

              注释
              1该表述与《资本论》德文版和法文版注释中对历史唯物主义的重新表述一样,纠正了我国学者误把《<政治经济学批判>序言》中马克思正在形成中的思想当作经典表述的偏差。文中"哲学"和"经济"的黑体为原文所加。
            决战棋牌   2尽管许多学者都熟知恩格斯在后来的《反杜林论》中,对此进行了更正和重新表述,但是恩格斯的这个定义在许多学者心中根深蒂固。

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            点击查看>>大一政治经济学论文(推荐10篇)其他文章
              刘学梅,郭冠清.中国特色社会主义政治经济学研究对象的探索[J].经济学家,2019(12):14-23. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282009.html   

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