决战棋牌

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                    龙舟竞渡在日本传播的阶段划分及启示

                    摘 要: 运用田野调查等研究方法,对我国龙舟竞渡在日本的传播历史、传播路径、发展历程及其特征进行了考察分析。结果表明:龙舟竞渡在日本的传播主要经历了三个历史阶段。第一阶段为奈良时期,龙舟文化得到了贵族群体的接受和模仿,成为上流社会用于标榜阶层优越性的身份
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                      摘 要: 运用田野调查等研究方法,对我国龙舟竞渡在日本的传播历史、传播路径、发展历程及其特征进行了考察分析。结果表明:龙舟竞渡在日本的传播主要经历了三个历史阶段。第一阶段为奈良时期,龙舟文化决战棋牌得到了贵族群体的接受和模仿,成为上流社会用于标榜阶层优越性的身份符号。第二阶段为室町时代,龙舟文化从宫廷传播到了民间,得到了创造性的发展。第三阶段为江户时代前期,以长崎为中心,龙舟文化得到了广泛发展,呈现出多元形态。

                      关键词: 龙舟竞渡; 海外民族志; 文化传播; 历史考察;

                      Abstract:决战棋牌 With the research method of field investigation, the paper analyses the transmission history, path, process and features of dragon boat racing in Japan and points out that there were three stages of transmission of dragon boat racing in Japan. The first stage is Nara period when the dragon boat racing was accepted and imitated by the aristocratic class and became the symbol of the top social class. The second stage is The Morakami era when the dragon boat was transmitted from the royal to folk and achieved creative development. The third stage is early Edo era when the dragon boat racing culture achieved multiple development based on Nagasaki.

                      Keyword:决战棋牌 dragon boat racing; overseas ethnicity; cultural spreading; historical investigation;

                      ZAIWOGUOFENGFUDUOCAIDECHUANTONGTIYUXIANGMUZHONG,LONGZHOUJINGDUWUYISHIZUINENGDAIBIAOZHONGGUOXINGXIANGDETIYUWENHUAZHIYI。KAOCHAHEFENXIWOGUOTIYUWENHUAZAIHAIWAICHENGGONGCHUANBODEJUTIANLI,KEWEIDANGQIANWOGUOYOUXIUWENHUA“ZOUCHUQU”TIGONGLISHIJIEJIAN。

                      近年来中国学者开始前往海外进行田野调查,这既是我国综合实力增强的体现,也为推动我国人类学学科向前发展贡献了力量。通过对中华民族传统体育文化在不同国家、不同民族中跨文化传播的研究,丰富海外民族志的个案,有利于我们审视自身传统文化的现代传承问题,同时也有利于世界各国理解和接纳中国优秀文化,从而推动人类命运共同体的构建。

                      1 、龙舟竞渡在日本传播的历史阶段划分及特征

                      ZHONGRILIANGGUOYIYIDAISHUI,ZAILIANGQIANDUONIANDEJIAOWANGSHIZHONG,ZHIJINDAIYIQIAN,LIANGGUOYOUGUOJUNCHENZHIFEN,YOUGUO“YIHUAWEISHI”,JINGLILEPINGDENGWAIJIAOJIHEPINGXIANGCHU。LONGZHOUJINGDUZAIRIBENDECHUANBOGUOCHENGYEHENHAODIZHENGSHILEZHEIYIDUANLISHI。BENYANJIUZAIRIBENXUEZHEDEXIANGGUANYANJIUCHENGGUOJICHUSHANG,JIEHEWENXIANFENXIJISHIDIDIAOCHAQINGKUANG,JIANGLONGZHOUJINGDUZAIRIBENDECHUANBOLISHIHUAFENWEISANGEJIEDUAN,JIANBIAO1。

                      1.1 、第一阶段:日本对我国龙舟竞渡的模仿与学习

                    决战棋牌   LISHISHANGZUIZAODUIRIBENLONGZHOUFAZHANCHANSHENGYINGXIANGDEMOGUOYUSUIYANGDIDEDALONGZHOUCHUYOU,SHUIDIANLONGZHOUDEGUSHIGUANGFANLIUCHUAN。RIBENZHIFEINIAOSHIDAIJIUCENGDUOCIPAISHICHENLAIHUATONGHAO,KAIHUANGERSHINIAN(600NIAN)JIUDAISHAMEN(JISENGLV)SHUSHIRENLAISUICHAOXUEXIFOFADENGZHONGHUAWENHUA,YEDAIHUILESHUIDIANLONGZHOUDEGUSHI。

                      从平安时代开始,游乐思潮占据了当时的社会中心,日本的贵族们模仿中国的宫廷文化,建造了宫殿般华丽的大型龙船,配以诗歌管弦乐,歌舞升平、享乐巡游。由此,历代宫廷开始有了乘坐龙舟水上巡游的记载。在大型龙舟出游活动中,皇亲国戚们享受着诗歌乐舞等文艺展演。

                    龙舟竞渡在日本传播的阶段划分及启示

                      JURIBENXUEZHEXIAOSONGYUANSHIDEYANJIU[1]:PINGANCHAOSHIDAIDEZHUQUETIANHUANGSHIQI(GONGLI931NIAN),YOUYUANSHUNZHUANBIANDE《WOMINGLEIJUCHAO》SHOUCIJIZAILESHUISHANGJINGDUHUODONG,DANZHEIBINGBUSHIJIZAIDERIBENGUONEIDEJINGDU,ERSHIJIAOXIANGXIDIJIESHAOLEZHONGGUOHENANLUOYANGDOUDELONGZHOUJINGDUHUODONG。GUANYURIBENGUONEIKAIZHANLONGZHOUJINGDUHUODONGDESHOUCIWENXIANJIZAI,JIANYU《RIBENLVEJI》,“YINGHE5YUE6RITIANHUANGDIANXIALINGSHICHENJINGDU,CIWAI,TIANDEWUNIAN(GONGYUAN961NIAN)1YUE19RIZHI2YUE12RIQIJIAN,JUXINGLESANHUILONGZHOUJINGDU,CUNSHANGTIANHUANGXINGQUANGRANDIGUANKANLEZAILENGQUANYUANZHONGCHIJINXINGDEJINGDU,SHICHENMENJILIEDELONGZHOUJINGSUCHANGMIANSHIFENRENAO。”

                      公元十一世纪左右,三部日本古代文学作品中,都出现了关于龙舟的记载。《落洼物语》《荣华物语》《源氏物语》蝴蝶卷等文献中,也都出现过描写龙舟的篇章。“3月20日左右,春光明媚,仿制大唐朝的龙舟得以完成,积极召集雅乐寮的人们,乘船出游,享受春日之美妙……船上坐樱花般容颜的小童八人,穿着特制的唐装样式服装……手持镀金花瓶中插入樱花枝条,春日阳光从云缝中溢出,霞光满面,微风吹拂,樱花雨飘散开来……”龙船上的一切布置都是为了贵族们的享乐,华丽的龙船既无宗教的意味,也无展示权威的政治决战棋牌意图[2]。“龙舟鹢首,浮吹以娱”,仅仅是一种满足贵族趣味的游乐活动。文献中明确记载了龙舟及其活动,绝不是日本本土的文化创造,而是对中国“龙舟之戏”的文化模仿。

                    决战棋牌   DANGSHI,RIBENZHENGCHUYUQUANMIANCHONGSHANGZHONGGUOWENHUADESHIDAI。ZHONGHUAWENHUABEIDAIHUIRIBENHOU,SHOUXIANSHIZAIGONGTINGGUIZUZHONGLIUCHUANKAILAI。YICHUANZHAOZUOWEITUIJINQIDEJINGDUFENGSU,TONGQITAZHONGGUOWENHUAYIYANG,SHOUXIANDEDAODESHIGUIZUQUNTIDEJIESHOUHEMOFANG,CHENGWEISHANGLIUSHEHUIYONGYUBIAOBANGSHEHUIJIECENGYOUYUEXINGDESHENFENFUHAO。

                      表1 龙舟竞渡在日本传播的阶段划分
                    表1 龙舟竞渡在日本传播的阶段划分

                      1.2、 第二阶段:从宫廷到民间

                    决战棋牌   ZAILISHISHANG,CONGLONGZHOUJINGDUDEFENGSULAIKAN,KEYIFENWEILIANGZHONGLEIXING。YISHIYIHUANGDIGUIZUWEIZHUYAOCANYUQUNTI、YISHUISHANGYULEWEIMUDEDELONGZHOUJINGDU;ERSHIPUTONGMINZHONGCANYUDELONGZHOUJINGDU。DIYIZHONGLEIXINGDEJINGDUHUODONGDUOZAIRENGONGSHUIYUJINXING,ERDIERZHONGLEIXINGDEMINJIANJINGDUZEGUANGFANDIZAIJIANGHEHUHAIZIYOUJINXING,YOUYUCANYUZHUTIDEBUTONG,HUODONGMUDE、JIAZHIQUXIANG、HUODONGXINGSHIDOUDABUXIANGTONG。

                      GUANYUCHONGSHENGLONGZHOUJINGDUDEQIYUAN,ZAILISHIWENXIAN《QIUYANG》ZHONGXIANGXIJIZAILEYIXIASANZHONGLIUCHUANJIAOGUANGFANDESHUOFA[3]。DIYIZHONGSHI:LAIZIFUJIANDEMINREN36XINGYIJULIUQIUHOU,ZAINEIBASHINEIHELIUJIJINHAIKAIZHANLONGZHOUJINGDU,YOUCIJIANGLONGZHOUJIQIWENHUADAIDAOCHONGSHENG。ZAIGONGYUAN1392NIAN,MINGHONGWUERSHIWUNIAN,MINGTAIZUWEIFANGBIANGONGSHIWANGLAI,CIMINZHONGSANSHILIUXINGERBAIYURENYIJULIUQIU。MINRENSANSHILIUXINGZHONGDUOWEIHANGHAIJIA、XUEZHE、GONGJIANGHUOQITAYONGYOUYIJIZHIZHANGDEREN。TAMENLAIDAOLIUQIUHOU,DEDAOSHANGZHIWANGFUXIADAOMINJIANDEJIDAZUNZHONG,DADUOBEIWEIYIZHONGREN,CANYUZHONGYAODEZHENGZHIJINGJIWENHUAHUODONG,BINGSHIDAIXIANGYOUGAOGUANHOULU,CHENGWEILIUQIUWANGGUOZHONGYINGXIANGHENDADEMINGMENWANGZU。YOUYUJUZHUZAIJIUMICUN,GUERBEICHENGZUO“JIUMISHIZU”。KEJIAN,“MINRENSANSHILIUXING”ZUOWEIZHONGHUAWENHUADESHIZHE,DUILONGZHOUJINGDUDEGUOJIHUACHUANBOFAHUILEZHONGYAODELISHIZUOYONG。JUKAOCHA,MUQIANZAICHONGSHENGDEMINRENHOUYIYUEYOU2WANYUREN。

                      DIERZHONGQIYUANSHUOWEI:GONGYUAN1400NIANZUOYOU,NANSHANWANGZHIDIWANGYINGZUCENGZAINANJINGLIUXUE,HUIDAOLIUQIUHOU,ZAIFENGJIANCHENGZHIHUCHENGHESHANGSHOUCIJUBANLELONGZHOUJINGDU。

                      DISANZHONGQIYUANSHUOWEI:18SHIJICHUQI,ZHANGBINDAFUFENGLIUQIUGUOWANGSHANGJINGWANGZHIMING,LUJINGFUJIANQIANWANGNANJINGXUEXILONGZHOUJISHU,GUIGUOHOUFANGZHIJIANZAOLELONGZHOU,WEIQIUGUOTAIMINANERJINXINGLEJINGDUHUODONG。

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                    决战棋牌   ZHONGGUOLONGZHOUZAIRIBENCHUANBODEDIERGELISHIJIEDUANZHONG,QITEZHENGSHICANYUZHUTIZHUJIANCONGHUANGSHIGUIZUZOUXIANGLEMINJIAN。DANGSHI,LIUQIUMINZHONGJIANDAOWANGFUJUXINGLONGZHOUXUNYOUJIJINGDUHUODONGHOU,KAISHISHIYONGZIJIAYUCHUANKAIZHANJINGDU。HOULAIZHUJIANYOUMINJIANZUZHIJIANZAOLONGZHOU,ZAINONGLI5YUE4RIZHI6RIDINGQIJUBANLONGZHOUJINGDU,YANXUSHUBAINIAN。CONG20SHIJI70NIANDAIKAISHI,LONGZHOUZUOWEICHUANTONGWENHUAZAICIHUANFASHENGJI,DEDAOJIAOHAODEBAOHUJICHUANGZAOXINGFAZHAN,XIANYICHENGWEICHONGSHENGDIQUZUIJUDAIBIAOXINGDEWENHUAMINGPIAN。

                      1.3、 第三阶段:以长崎为中心的广泛发展

                      ZHANGQIXIANWEIYURIBENJIUZHOUXIBEIBUDELINHAICHENGSHI,DILIXINGZHUANGHAOSIYIGEYUANXINGJUCHANG,JIANGZHANGQIGANGGUANGKUOWUYINDEHAIMIANZHANXIANZAIWUTAISHANG,SHIDETIANDUHOUDEYOULIANGGANGKOU。RIBENYU1639NIANDI5CIBANBUSUOGUOLINGHOU,JINYUNXUWAIGUOSHANGCHUANJINRUZHANGQIGANG,ZAISUOGUOTIZHIXIA,ZHANGQICHENGWEIRIBENWEIYIDUIWAIDAKAIDEMAOYICHUANGKOU。

                    决战棋牌   JUZHANGQIMINSUZILIAOGUANDEZHANGQIMINSUNIANBIAOJIZAI,“JIANGHUSHIQIDEMINGLIYUANNIAN(1655NIAN),TANGRENCHUCIJUXINGLEJINGDU,CIHOUCHENGWEIZHANGQIDENIANZHONGXINGSHI”。ZHANGQILONGZHOUYOUZHONGGUOCHUANRUDESHUOFAYIZHILIUCHUANZHIJIN。CIWAI,JUXUEZHEGUHESHIERLANGSHIDEYANJIU[4],ZAILIUCUNZHIJINDE《ZHANGQISHIZHIZHIFENGSUPIAN》ZHONG,《ZHANGQISHILUDACHENG》(DISHISIJUANNIANBIAO-MINGLIYUANYIMONIAN)ZHONGXIANGXIJIZAILE,“QUDONGJINCHUN,TINGBOZAIZHANGQIGANGNEIDESHUSOUZHONGGUOCHUANBO,ZAOYUBAOFENGYUTIANQIBUNENGCHUHANGHUIGUO,WEILEPINGXIDAHAIDEFENGLANGJUEDINGJUXINGJINXIANTIANSHENDELONGZHOUJINGDU,YIHUANJIETIANSHENZHINUQI。SUIHOU,ZHAOJILESHUSOUCHUANBOJINXINGLEJINGDUHUODONG。”ZAISHIRENPINGHUSHI(ZHANGQIGANGKOUSUOZAIDI)YINGSHANGGUANZHANGDiary Richard CocksDERIJIZHONG,YEYOURUXIAJIZAI“5YUE28RI,PINGHUZHUMINTONGTANGRENYIQIJUXINGJINGDUHUODONG”。ZAI《ZHANGQISHIZHI》《ZHANGQISHIZHENG65NIANSHI》DENGWENXIANZHONGHAIMINGQUEJIZAILE,ZHONGGUONANBUDERENJISHILAIZIFUZHOUDEZHONGGUOREN。

                      图1 长崎名所图绘(1818-1830年)中的龙舟竞渡
                    图1 长崎名所图绘(1818-1830年)中的龙舟竞渡

                    决战棋牌   JINYIBUCONGCIHUIDUYINSHANGFENXI,ZHANGQILONGZHOULAIYUANYUZHONGGUODELISHIZHENGJUGENGJIAQUEQIE。ZAIZHONGGUOGEDIQUYOUYUFANGYANDEBUTONG,DUILONGZHOUJINGDUDOUYOUGEZIDEZHUANYONGMINGCI,RUSICHUANSHENGSHIYONGDESHI“HUALONGCHUAN”、“PALONG”(HUNAN)、“PALONGCHUAN”(FUJIAN、GUANGXI、GUANGDONG)、“BALONGCHUAN”(TAIWAN)DENG。ZHANGQILONGZHOUSHIYONG“ペーロン”YICI,DUYINJIEJINYUHANYUDE“BAILONG”HUOZHE“PALONG”。ZAIWENXIAN《ZHANGQIMINGSHENGTUHUI》ZHONGDUILONGZHOUJINGDUDEMIAOSHUZHONG,CHUXIANGUOHANZI“YILONG”;《JIAZIYEHUA》ZHONGCHUXIANGUOHANZI“ZELONG”。HOULAI,JIEHEZHANGQIGEDIDEFANGYAN,ZHUJIANYANBIANWEITONGYISHIYONGDE“ペーロン”YICI。

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                      ZHANGQILONGZHOUJINGGUO360YUNIANDELISHIFAZHAN,JINGDUJIXIANGGUANWENHUAXINGSHICHENGXIANCHUDUOYANGXING,CONGJINGDUXINGSHISHANGKAN,LONGZHOUDEXINGZHUANG、YANSE、ZHUANGSHI、TONGLUODENG,YIJIHUASHOURENSHUDENGDOUFASHENGLEHENDADEBIANHUA;CONGWENHUAXINYANGJILIYISHANGKAN,WEISHIYINGBENDISHENGHUOERFAZHANCHUDUOYUANXINGTAI。JUSHIDIDIAOCHA,ZHANGQIGEDIXIANCUNDELONGZHOUJINGDU,MEINIANCONG5YUECHIXUDAO9YUE,BINGFENBIEYUBENDIDEGEZHONGCHUANTONGJIERIXIANGRONGHE。RUNONGLI5YUECHUDELONGGONGJI、YUJI;6YUEZHI7YUEDENONGYEJI、YULANPENJIE;8YUECHUDECHUEJIJI9YUEDEZHOUJIDENG。SHIZHIJINRI,CONGZHONGGUOCHUANRUDELONGZHOUYUZHANGQIGEDIDEWENHUAJISHENGHUOCHUANTONGJIEHEHOU,FAZHANCHUXINGSHIDUOYANGDEJISI、LIYI,JINGDUDEGONGNENG、MUDEYEFENWEIQIUYU、BAOPINGAN、BAOFENGDIAOYUSHUN、BAOCHUHAIANQUANDENG。ZAIFANGTANZHONGHAILEJIEDAO:JUZHUZAINEILUSHANDI、YINONGYEWEIZHUDEDIQU,LONGZHOUJINGDUQIANJUXINGQIUYUYISHI;ERBUYUANCHUYANHAIDIQUDELONGZHOUJINGDUSHIYAOBAOCHUHAIANQUAN、JINXINGDEJIANSHAOFENGYUDEJIBAIYISHI。YINJINGDUMUDEBUTONG,SHUANGFANGHAIFASHENGKOUJIAOZHENGZHIDENGCHONGTU。

                      图2 长崎龙舟文化的传播过程
                    图2 长崎龙舟文化的传播过程

                      ZHANGQILONGZHOUDEZHENGGEFAZHAN,JINGLILEXUEXIJIEJIAN—XISHOUYINJIN—GAIZAOSHIYING—JICHENGFAYANGDEBIANQIANGUOCHENG。YONGADAIBIAOZHONGGUOLONGZHOU,BDAIBIAOZHANGQILONGZHOU。ADAOBDEGUOCHENGJISHILONGZHOUCHUANBOYANBIANDEGUOCHENG。TU2ZHONGDEaDAIBIAOZHONGRILIANGGUOGONGTONGDEBUFENZHONGDIE、CHENDIAN、DINGXING;bDAIBIAOBEIQUSHEDIAODEBUFEN,SHISHOUZHONGQUNTIGENJUBENDISHENGHUOTEZHENGDUIZHONGGUOLONGZHOUZHEIYICHUANBOZHUTIJINXINGXUANZEHEGUOLV;cDAIBIAODESHIRIBENBENTUZIYOUDESHENGHUOWENHUAXISU。a+cJIWEIB,YEJIUSHIZHANGQILONGZHOUXIANZAIDEXINGTAI。

                    决战棋牌   GENJUKUAWENHUACHUANBOJIZHI,YIBANCUNZAIYIZHIXIANGBUHETONGZHIXIANGXILIANGZHONGQINGKUANG。LONGZHOUJINGDUNENGGOUZAIRIBENZHANGXIAOCHUANBODEZHONGYAOYUANYINZAIYU,ZAISHENCENGDEWENHUAJIEGOUCENGMIAN,LONGZHOUWENHUADECHUANBOTONGSHIMANZUYIZHIXIANGBUHETONGZHIXIANGXILIANGZHONGQINGKUANG,ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGSHENCENGDEJIEGOUXUYAOFUYULELONGZHOUJINGDUZAIRIBENDEWENHUARONGHE,BINGZHAGENBENTU。

                      2 、反思与启示

                      2.1、 重视和加强我国古代体育在海外传播的历史研究

                      JINDAIYILAI,YOUYUSHOUDAOWENHUABUZIXINDELISHIWENHUAXINTAIDEYINGXIANG,DUIYUWOGUOLISHISHANGYOUXIUTIYUWENHUASHUCHUDESHIZHENGYANJIU,JIAOSHAODEDAOXUEJIEDEGUANZHUHEZHONGSHI。ZHENGRUXUEZHECAIYITIDAODE:“JIAQIANGHANZIWENHUAQUANDETIYUWENHUALISHIDEYANJIU,BUJINKEYIMINGQUEZHONGGUOCHUANTONGTIYUWENHUAZAIDONGBEIYADEYUANTOUDIWEI,HAIYUANBUFENZHONGGUOCHUANTONGTIYUWENHUADELISHIZHENSHI,HAINENGWEIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGTIYUWENHUAZOUCHUGUOMENTIGONGLISHIJIEJIAN”[6]。

                      YOURIBENXUEZHETICHU,RIBENZIGUYILAIJIUYOUZHOUCHUANJINGDUDEXISU,RUWENXIAN《XUFENGTUJISHIYI》ZHONGJIZAILE,GONGYUANSHISHIJIZUOYOU,ZAISHENDAOSIMIAOZONGXIANGDASHE、ZONGXIANGGONGDENGDI,JUXINGGUOJISISHENCHUANDEXUNYOUJIJINGDUHUODONG。ERQIE,ZAIXIONGYE、SHANYIN、JIZHOU、LAIHUNEIHAIDENGDI,GEDIFANZHUZUJIANDESHUIJUNZHONG,ZUOWEISHIZHANLIANXIYECENGJUXINGGUOZHOUCHUANJINGSAI。JIEHEBENDIZIGUYILAIDEYUYESHENGHUO,CHUANZHIDUOYANGQIESHIYONGPINFAN。KEJIAN,ZHANGQILONGZHOUDEYUANTOUYUYISHANGYINSUYEYOUYIDINGGUANLIAN,YINCIBINGBUNENGKENDINGDISHUOLAIZIZHONGGUO[7]。ZHEIYANGDEYANLUNJIYIZAOCHENGMOHU、DANHUA,SHENZHIWAIQULISHIZHENSHIDEZHUANGKUANG。YINCI,JIAQIANGDUIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGTIYUWENHUAZAIHAIWAICHUANBODELISHIKAOCHAJIYANJIU,ZHENGBENQINGYUANNAIDANGWUZHIJI。

                      2.2、 为中国优秀文化“走出去”提供历史参考

                      中国在历史上,曾以一种胸怀广阔、兼收并蓄的天下主义情怀,引领着人类文明的走向。龙舟竞渡即是在我国用天朝大国的怀远施仁之心,在中日两国之间仁义交往的过程中传入兴起的。龙舟在日本的传播历史,彰显出文化传递、沟通、共享的强大功能,无论是传播方还是接受方都在多个层面收益颇丰。2013年以来,习总书记提出了构建“人类命运共同体”的主张,积极展开“一带一路”的建设。“一带一路”是一个开放的合作体系,“开放包容”、“互学互鉴”的理念植根于中华民族的悠久历史之中,所蕴含的深厚历史渊源与文化底蕴,是当代中国贡献给世界的重要哲学范畴与思想理念[8]。研究和探索我国传统体育文化在海外传播的历史、路径、机制,旨在为当前我国实现中华民族伟大复兴进程中,更好地将中华优秀传统文化向世界传播,为世界繁荣和人类文明做出贡献。

                      参考文献

                      [1] 小松原涛.ぺーロンの祭日について[M].长崎论(第四十辑),1988:63-65.
                      [2] 小松原涛.天草のぺーロン志.[M].长崎:天草民报.天草民报社,1985.
                      [3] 秋山一,白鸟芳郎编.冲縄船漕ぎ祭祀の民族学的研究[M].东京:勉诚社,1995.
                      [4] 古贺十二郎氏.长崎市史风俗篇-特殊的行事[M].东京:清文堂出版株式会社,1971:54.
                      [5] 古贺氏十二郎.长崎市史风俗篇[M].东京:清文堂出版株式会社,1971:291-293.
                      [6] 蔡艺.我国体育史研究的“厚西薄东”现象及其成因与反思[J].体育学刊,2018(6):7-11.
                      [7] 桜井満.船祭りの系谱[J].大阪:国学院雑志,1998(11):268.
                    决战棋牌   [8] 第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛圆桌峰会联合公[N].人民日报,2018-04-28.

                      李凌.龙舟竞渡在日本传播的历史考察[J].体育成人教育学刊,2019,35(05):8-11+2. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282011.html   

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