决战棋牌

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                              1. 国际法视角下的网络攻击问题分析

                                国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)之第四篇 摘要: 本文先指出判断网络攻击是否属于使用武力的现有标准均存在不足之处, 提出应综合多种因素进行判断, 其次进一步限缩属于武力攻击的网络攻击的范围, 而后探讨了国家行使自卫权时必须遵循必要性和相称性原则, 提出了反对预
                                阅读技巧Ctrl+D 收藏本篇文章

                                  国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)之第四篇

                                  摘要:本文先指出判断网络攻击是否属于使用武力的现有标准均存在不足之处, 提出应综合多种因素进行判断, 其次进一步限缩属于武力攻击的网络攻击的范围, 而后探讨了国家行使自卫权时必须遵循必要性和相称性原则, 提出了反对预先防卫并对累积效应的适用进行严格限制的观点;最后提出私人在国家控制下发动的网络攻击的归因应遵循有效控制标准, 而与国家无关的私人发动的网络攻击的归因应依据国家是否尽到审慎义务来判断。

                                  关键词:网络攻击,使用武力,武力攻击,自卫权,归因

                                国际法热点论文

                                  随着科技的发展, 计算机网络攻击逐渐走进国际法的视野。由于其作用机理、手段、后果等都与传统军事力量大相径庭, 网络攻击对现有国际法体系发起了不小的挑战。本文主要从《联合国宪章》第2 (4) 条和第51条展开, 论述何种网络攻击构成“使用武力”和“武力攻击”, 并根据《国家责任草案》进行网络攻击责任的归因分析。

                                  一、构成“武力威胁”的网络攻击

                                决战棋牌   WULIWEIXIESHIZHITONGGUOSHENGMINGHUOXINGDONGZUOCHUDE、YAODUIBIEGUOFEIFASHIYONGWULIDEMINGSHIHUOANSHIDEBIAOSHI, QISHIXIANYUFOUQUJUEYUWEIXIEZHEDEYIYUAN。WULIWEIXIEDEMUDESHIYAOPOSHIQITAGUOJIAQUFUYUBENGUODEYIZHI, DANBUSHEJIWULIDESHIJISHIYONG。NEIMEFACHUYUSHISHIWANGLUOGONGJIDEWEIXIESHIFOUGOUCHENGDI2 (4) TIAOSUOJINZHIDEWULIWEIXIE?

                                  ZAI“GUANYUHEWUQIHEFAXINGWENTIDEZIXUNYIJIAN” (1996NIAN) ZHONG, GUOJIFAYUANZHICHU:“RUGUOJIASHEYAOSHIYONGDEWULIBENSHENSHIFEIFADE, NEIMESUOSHUODEYAOSHIYONGZHEIZHONGWULIJIUGOUCHENGDI2 (4) TIAOSUOJINZHIDEWEIXIE。YINCI, YAOXIANQUEDINGYUSHISHIDEWANGLUOGONGJISHIFOUGOUCHENG“SHIYONGWULI”CAINENGJIEJUEZHEIGEWENTI。

                                  二、构成“使用武力”的网络攻击

                                决战棋牌   SHOUXIANBIXUQUEDINGMEIYOUSHIYONGCHUANTONGJUNSHIWUQIRUQIANGPAODENGDEWANGLUOGONGJISHIFOUNENGGOUCHENG“SHIYONGWULI”。ZAI“GUANYUHEWUQIHEFAXINGWENTIDEZIXUNYIJIAN”ZHONG, GUOJIFAYUANRENWEI:《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》2 (4) TIAO、DI51TIAOHEDI42TIAO“BINGWEITEZHIJUTIWUQI, TAMENSHIYONGYUYIQIESHIYONGWULIDEQINGKUANG, ERYUSUOSHIYONGDEWUQIWUGUAN。”SUOYISHIYONGBINGDUDENG“WUQI”DEWANGLUOGONGJIYENENGGOUCHENG“SHIYONGWULI”。

                                  GUANYUJIEDINGHEZHONGWANGLUOGONGJISHUYU“SHIYONGWULI”DEFANWEI, MUQIANXIFANGXUEZHETICHULELIANGZHONGJUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDEXUESHUO。

                                  “破坏性后果”标准, 由沃尔特·夏普提出。他认为:“所有故意在别国主权领土中造成任何破坏性后果的计算机网络攻击, 都是第2 (4) 条意义上的非法使用武力。”他将“破坏性后果”定义为物理上的人身、财产损害和威胁到国家主权独立和领土完整的政治和经济胁迫手段。该理论的缺陷在于, 首先国际社会就政治和经济胁迫手段是否属于“使用武力”的范围目前仍然没有达成一致。国际法院在“军事和准军事活动案”中为了依据国际习惯法确定禁止使用武力的范围也未提及不得使用经济和政治等胁迫。其次, 同样的后果, 既可以通过使用武力产生, 也可以通过非武力手段产生, 通过后果并不能区分“武力”和“非武力”。

                                  “WUZHUANGLILIANGTEZHENG”BIAOZHUN, YOUMAIKE·SHIMITETICHU。TARENWEI, DI2 (4) TIAODEZHUYAOMUDEZAIYUFANGZHIYIGUODUIWAISHIYONGCHUANTONGJUNSHILILIANGSUOZAOCHENGDESUNHAIHOUGUODEFASHENG;RUGUOWANGLUOGONGJIZHIJIEDAOZHIHUOKENENGDAOZHIXIANGTONGDEHOUGUO, JIWULISHANGDERENYUAN、WUTISUNSHANG, WUYIYINGDANGGOUCHENG“SHIYONGWULI”。ERWULIPOHUAIHESHANGHAIHENXIAODEZHENGZHIHEJINGJIXIEPOQUEBUSHUYU。TATICHULELIUTIAOBIAOZHUNYIPANDUANHEZHONGWANGLUOGONGJISHUYU“SHIYONGWULI”———YANZHONGXING、JISHIXING、ZHIJIEXING、QINLVEXING、KEHENGLIANGXINGHETUIDINGHEFAXING。DANDaniel B.SilverPIPINGDAORENHEJISUANJIWANGLUOGONGJIDOUFUHECHU“YANZHONGXING”ZHIWAIDEQITAWUXIANGBIAOZHUN, HENGLIANGJISUANJIWANGLUOGONGJISHIFOUGOUCHENG“WULI”DEBIAOZHUNZUIZHONGHAISHIQUJUEYUGUIMOHEHOUGUO。 (1)

                                  ZONGSHANGSUOSHU, ZHEILIANGZHONGLILUNDOUCUNZAIBUZUZHICHU, ERQIEDOUWEISHEJIWANGLUOGONGJISUOZAOCHENGDEFEIWULISUNHAI。ERFEIWULISUNHAIQIAQIASHIDUOSHUWANGLUOGONGJISUOZAOCHENGDESUNHAI, RUSHIJUNSHIKONGZHIXITONGTANHUAN。PANDUANWANGLUOGONGJISHIFOUSHUYU“SHIYONGWULI”XUYAOZONGHEMUDE、GONGJU、GUIMOHEHOUGUODENGDUOZHONGYINSUZONGHEKAOLV。

                                  三、构成“武力攻击”的网络攻击

                                  GENJUGUOJIFAYUANDUINIJIALAGUAANDEPANJUE, ZHIYOUNEIXIEZUIWEIYANZHONGJUYOUXIANZHEGUIMOHEHOUGUODESHIYONGWULICAINENGGOUCHENG“WULIGONGJI”, ERQIE“WULIGONGJI”SHIXINGSHIZIWEIQUANDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN。YINCI, “SHIYONGWULI”BAOKUO“WULIGONGJI”, DAN“WULIGONGJI”BINGBUDENGYU“SHIYONGWULI”。ZHIYOUZAOSHOUDAO“WULIGONGJI”SHI, SHOUHAIGUOCAINENGHEFADIXINGSHIBAOKUOSHIYONGWULIZAINEIDE“DANDUHUOJITIZIWEIZHIZIRANQUANLI”。FANZHIRUGUOYIXIANGCUOSHIJINGOUCHENGLE“SHIYONGWULI”DANBINGWEIGOUCHENG“WULIGONGJI”, SHOUHAIGUOZHINENGCAIQU《GUOJIAZERENTIAOKUANCAOAN》SUOGUIDINGDEFEIWULIXINGFANCUOSHI。TONGSHIGUOJIFAYUANBURENTONGNIJIALAGUAANZHONGMEIGUOTIGONGWUQIHUOHOUQINHEQITAZHICHIDEXINGWEIGOUCHENG“WULIGONGJI”。YOUCIKEJIAN, ZUZHI、XIEZHU、SHANDONG、ZIZHUHUOZHEZONGRONGWUZHUANGHUODONG, SUIRANKENENGGOUCHENG“SHIYONGWULI”HUOGANSHETAGUONEIZHENG, YU《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》DEZONGZHIHEYUANZEBUFU, DANQIYANZHONGCHENGDUWEIDADAO“WULIGONGJI”。

                                  目前为多数学者所接受的关于“武力攻击”的定义是“相当数量和烈度的武装力量的一次或一系列行为的开始, 其后果是对目标国的重要目标产生实质破坏, 包括对人员、经济和安全设施的破坏, 对政府管理的破坏 (即政治独立) , 以及对物理因素 (即领土) 的损害或削弱”。

                                  MEIGUOXUEZHEDINGSITANJULIDUIGOUCHENG“WULIGONGJI”DEWANGLUOGONGJIJINXINGLESHUOMING, RU“JISUANJIKONGZHIDESHENGMINGZHICHIXITONGSHILINGBINGNIANGCHENGZAINAN、DAMIANJIGONGDIANZHONGDUANCHANSHENGYANZHONGPOHUAI、JISUANJIKONGZHIDEGONGSHUIHEDIBAXITONGGUANBIBINGDAOZHIJUMINQUHONGSHUIFANLAN、ZHIMINGSHIGU”YIJI“HEDIANCHANGFANYINGDUIRONGHUI, HEWUZHISHIFANG, RENYUANMIJIDEXIANGLINDIQUCHANSHENGZHONGDASHANGWANG”。ZONGZHIZHIYOUZAOCHENGZHONGDARENSHENSHANGWANGHEYANZHONGCAICHANSUNSHIDEWANGLUOGONGJICAINENGBEICHENGWEI“WULIGONGJI”。ZHENGRUHUANGZHIXIONGJIAOSHOUHEMEIGUOXUEZHESHAHETESUORENWEIDE, GOUCHENG“WULIGONGJI”DEWANGLUOGONGJIZUOKUODAJIESHIDEGUANDIANKENENGDAOZHIZIWEIQUANDEGUODUXINGSHI。

                                  四、对构成“武力攻击”的网络攻击的自卫权

                                  《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》FUYUGUOJIAZIWEIQUANSHICHUYUSHIHOUSHIMIANZAOZHANHUOHEWEIHUGUOJIHEPINGYUANQUAN, SUOYIZIWEIQUANBIXUZAIYIDINGXIANDUNEIXINGSHI, ZUNXUNYIDINGDEYUANZE。

                                决战棋牌   (YI) BIYAOXINGHEXIANGCHENGXINGYUANZE

                                决战棋牌   ZAI“NIJIALAGUAAN”ZHONG, GUOJIFAYUANRENWEI:“CUNZAIZHEYIXIANGJUTIDEGUIZE, YIJUGAIGUIZE, ZIWEIZHONGSUOCAIQUDECUOSHIWEIYOUSHIYUWULIGONGJIXIANGCHENGDE, BINGQIESHIBIXUDUIWULIGONGJIZUOCHUFANYINGDE, FANGWEIZHENGDANG, ZHEISHIYIXIANGZAIGUOJIFASHANGJIUYIQUELIDEGUIZE。”QIZAI“GUANYUHEWUQIDEHEFAXINGWENTI”ANDEZIXUNYIJIANZHONGYEQIANGDIAO:“ZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIXUZUNSHOUBIYAOXINGHEXIANGCHENGXINGDETIAOJIAN, ZHEISHIGUOJIXIGUANFADEYIXIANGGUIZE。”YOUCIKEJIANZIWEIQUANDEXINGSHIBIXUZUNXUNBIYAOXINGYUANZEHEXIANGCHENGXINGYUANZE。

                                决战棋牌   (ER) YUXIANFANGWEI

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                                  (SAN) LEIJIXIAOYING

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                                  五、网络攻击的归因

                                  (YI) SIRENZAIGUOJIAKONGZHIXIAFAQIDEWANGLUOGONGJIDEGUIYIN

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                                决战棋牌   (ER) YUGUOJIAWUGUANDESIRENFAQIWANGLUOGONGJIDEGUIYIN

                                  “ZHUANJIAZEREN”ZHUZHANGRENWEIRUGUOYIGUOWEINENGCAIQUBIYAOCUOSHIYUFANGCONGGAIGUOJINGNEIFAQIDEWANGLUOGONGJI, NEIMEZHEIXIEWANGLUOGONGJIJIANGBEIZHUANJIAYUGAIGUO, BINGYOUCICHANSHENGGAIGUODEGUOJIAZEREN。

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                                点击查看>>国际法热点论文(8篇完整版范文)他文章
                                  徐小媛.论网络攻击引起的国际法问题[J].法制博览,2018(20):56-58. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282012.html   

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