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              1. 教育数据分析的三个层次分析

                摘 要: 在大数据时代,很多国家已经把教育大数据的重要性提升到国家战略层面,目前人们主要是从技术的角度研究教育大数据。基于教育数据的特殊性,从专业发展内涵的角度研究教育数据分析,提出教育数据分析的三个层次:第一层是基于个别指标的分析;第二层是基于模式的
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                  摘 要: 在大数据时代,很多国家已经把教育决战棋牌大数据的重要性提升到国家战略层面,目前人们主要是从技术的角度研究教育大数据。基于教育数据的特殊性,从专业发展内涵的角度研究教育数据分析,提出教育数据分析的三个层次:第一层是基于个别指标的分析;第二层是基于模式的分析;第三层是基于对象的分析。探讨每个层次的特征及其在教育领域中的使用,以便人们对教育数据分析的专业发展内涵有清晰的结构化认识。

                  关键词: 教育大数据; 指标分析; 基于模式的分析; 基于对象的分析;

                  随着计算机的普及和信息技术的快速发展,数据的收集和处理方式也发生了根本性的改变,联合国在2012年发布的大数据白皮书《Big Data for Development:Challenges&Opportunities》中指出大数据时代已经到来,大数据的出现将会对社会各个领域产生深刻影响[1]。大数据的方法和技术已经成功地应用于商业、金融业和市场营销决战棋牌等领域。大数据得到了世界各国学术界、工业界和政府机构的高度重视。

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                  虽然很多国家已经把教育大数据的重要性提升到国家战略层面,但是人们对教育大数据的研究及使用依然是处于起步阶段。国内外关于教育大数据的文献主要是从技术的角度去分析大数据方法怎么应用于教育领域,文献中出现比较频繁的词是:数据挖掘、学习分析、智慧校园,表明人们关注的主要是如何收集更加详细的信息,并对这些信息进行有效管理,或者模仿大数据在商业中的应用模式,对某些教育行为进行数据挖掘。但由于教育数据的独特性,使这些应用很难得到推广,这个问题在基础教育领域更加明显。

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                  一、基于个别指标的分析及其使用

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                  在教育测量与评估的发展过程中,人们很大程度上受自然科学领域测量方法的影响,习惯把测量的对象分解成不同的维度(或者影响因素),每个维度都有可量化的指标,然后设计相应的量表对这些指标进行测量并赋值。例如,最早的智力理论之一是英国心理学家和统计学家查尔斯·斯皮尔曼(Charles Spearman)在1927年提出的双因素理论。斯皮尔曼认为智力包含两个因素:一般智力,他称之为g因素;以及某个具体测试中包含的某种因素,他称之为s因素[2]。又如,我国教育部基础教育质量监测中心自2015年起,每三年一个周期开展国家义务教育质量监测工作,监测以四年级、八年级学生为对象。监测中心组织研发了义务教育阶段德育、语文、数学、科学、体育与健康、艺术六个学科领域的监测指标体系。其中,数学学业质量监测分为运算能力、推理能力、空间想象力、问题解决能力、数据分析能力等五个维度[3]。

                教育数据分析的三个层次分析

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                  二、基于模式的分析及其使用

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                  (一)理论实验模式

                  理论实验模式主要是指先提出理论假设,然后通过实验数据进行论证。教育和心理现象中的数量关系与空间形式是非常复杂的,大量因素或变量很难清晰界定、关联性复杂多变,于是人们往往是先通过理论研究提出某种模型假设,然后设计实验来检验理论假设。检验的方式之一是定量分析,即通过收集样本资料,使用统计方法寻求整体性规律。

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                  理论实验模式的使用在学术界比较常见,因为实验是教育与心理研究的一种重要实证方法。例如,在认知能力研究中,心理学家们从各种不同的角度对人的智力提出假设,然后通过因子分析方法来确定智力不同的维度,形成了众多不同的理论。

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                  (二)数据挖掘模式

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                  ZAIDASHUJUSHIDAIDAOLAIZHIQIAN,JIAOYUSHUJUFENXIZHUYAOSHISHUYUJIAOYUTONGJIXUEDEFANCHOU,JIAOYUTONGJIXUESHIDUIJIAOYUXIANXIANGJINXINGDINGLIANGFENXIDETONGJIXUEYUJIAOYUXUEHUXIANGRONGHEDEJIAOCHAXUEKE。XIANZAIJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIYOUYUSHUJUKEXUEZHEIGEXINXINGDEYANJIULINGYUCHANSHENGRONGHE。BINGQIEZHEIZHONGRONGHEBUJINJINSHIJISHUSHANGDE,HAIYOUSIWEISHANGDE。LIRU,SHUJUWAJUEYINGYONGYUJIAOYULINGYU,BUDANFENGFULEJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIDEJISHUFANGFA,YEJIJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIDAILAILEXINDESHIJIAO。

                  SHUJUWAJUEYINGYONGYUJIAOYULINGYUDEYIGEDIANXINGANLISHIZAIXIANXUEXIXITONGDEYANJIUHEKAIFA。YANJIUZHETONGGUOCAIJIXUEXIZHEYUZAIXIANXUEXIXITONGDEJIAOHUSHUJU,BAOKUOXUEXIZHEXITONGYINGDAZHENGQUELV、HUIDAWENTIHUAFEISHIJIAN、QINGQIUBANGZHUDESHULIANGHEXINGZHI,YIJICUOWUYINGDADEZHONGFULVDENG,ZHEIBUFENSHUJUKEYISHIKECHENGCENGMIANDE、XUEXIDANYUANCENGMIANDEHUOZHISHIDIANCENGMIANDE。TONGGUOSHUJUWAJUEHEFENXI,GOUJIANXUEXIZHEZHISHIMOXING,RANHOUTONGGUOZIDONGHUORENGONGFANKUI,WEIXUEXIZHEZAIHESHIDESHIJIAN,XUANZEHESHIDEFANGSHI,TIGONGHESHIDEXUEXINEIRONG[6]。ZHEIFANGMIANDEYANJIUWEIJIANGLAISHIXIANDAFANWEIDEGEXINGHUAXUEXITIGONGLEJISHUSHANGDEBAOZHANGHEFAZHANDEFANGXIANG。ZHEIXIEXUEXIZHEXINXIZAICHUANTONGKETANGZHONGSHIHENNANSHOUJIDE,BINGQIERUGUOBUJIEZHUDASHUJUDEJISHUFANGFA,HENNANCONGZHEIXIESHUJUZHONGWAJUECHUDUIXUEXIZHEYOUYONGDEXINXI。

                决战棋牌   SUIRANSHUJUWAJUEZAIMOUXIEJIAOYUQINGJINGZHONGDEYINGYONGYIJINGYOUCHENGGONGDEANLI,DANSHISHUJUWAJUEZAIJIAOYULINGYUSUOCHANSHENGDEXIAOYIHAIYUANYUANBIBUSHANGQIZAISHANGYELINGYUZHONGDEYINGYONG。YINWEIJIAOYULINGYUXUDUODUIXIANGDESHUXINGNANYILIANGHUAMIAOSHU,DADUOSHULIANGHUAXINXIYEJUYOUYINHANXINGHEMOHUXING,HENDUOQINGKUANGXIAJISHITONGGUOSHUJUWAJUENENGGOUHUOZHIXUEXIZHEDEXINGWEIFANGSHI,YEHENNANJIESHIXUEXIZHECHANSHENGZHEIZHONGXINGWEIDEYUANYIN,CONGERTIBUCHUHELIDEYUCEHEJIEJUEFANGAN。ZHEIXUYAORENMENZHANZAIGENGGAODECENGMIANLAIZHENGHEJIAOYULINGYUDEZHISHI、FANGFAHEXINGWEI,CONGKELIANGHUADEJIAODUQULIJIEHEFENXIJIAOYUDENEIZAIGUILV,CAINENGSHIDESHUJUWAJUEGENGHAODIWEIJIAOYUJIAOXUEFUWU。

                  三、基于对象的分析及其使用

                决战棋牌   JIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXISHIZHIBAXIANGGUANDESHUJUHEFANGFAZUZHIWEIYIGEZHENGTILAIKANDAI,CONGGENGGAODECENGCIJINXINGXITONGJIANMO,SHIFENXIJIEGUOGENGTIEJINSHIWUDEZIRANYUNXINGMOSHI。JIANDANLAISHUO,JIUSHIYONGSHENMESHUJUHESHENMEFANGSHILAIMIAOSHUHEFENXIYIGEDUIXIANG。DUIXIANGKEYISHIKEGUANSHIJIEZHONGCUNZAIDEREN、SHI、WUTIDENGSHITI,YEKEYISHIXINGDONGHUOSIKAOSHIDEMUBIAO。DUIXIANGKENENGBAOHANGEZHONGSHUXINGDEZHIBIAO、GEZHONGXINGWEIFANGSHIDEYIGEHUODUOGEMOXING,GUANJIANSHIRUHEBAZHEIXIEGOUCHENGTONGYIDEZHENGTI。CONGJIAOYUPINGJIADEJIAODU,JIUSHIYAOGUANZHUHUOSHENGSHENGDEREN、BAXUEXIAOKANZUOYIGEYOUJIDEZHENGTI。

                  JIYUGEBIEZHIBIAODEFENXIZHUYAOSHIFENXIDUIXIANGDEMOUXIESHUXING;JIYUMOSHIDEFENXIZHUYAOSHIFENXIDUIXIANGDEJIEGOUTEZHENGHUOMOUXIEXINGWEIFANGSHI。SUIRANJIYUMOSHIDEFENXIJINGCHANGHUIJIANLIGEZHONGMOXING,ZHEIXIEMOXINGYEKEYIKANZUOYIGEDUIXIANG,DANHENDUOSHIHOUJIANLIMOXING(DUIXIANG)BUSHIZUIZHONGMUDE,ZUIZHONGMUDESHIZHEIGEMOXINGSHIFOUNENGJIESHIHUOJIEJUEXIANSHIWENTI。ERJIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIBUWANQUANSHIWEILEJIESHIMOUXIEXIANXIANG,ZHUYAOSHIWEILECUJINDUIXIANGDEFAZHAN。YINCI,YUQIANMIANLIANGGECENGCIXIANGBI,JIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIGENGDUODESHIGUANNIANDETISHENG,QICICAISHIJISHUSHUIPINGDETIGAO。SUOYIJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIDEDISANGECENGCIZHUYAOSHIHUIGUIJIAOYUDEBENZHI,DANZHEIBINGBUSHIPAOKAISHUJU,HUIDAOJINGYANZHUYI,ERSHIZAICHONGFENDESHUJUFENXIDEJICHUSHANG,SIKAORUHEPEIYANGREN,RUHECUJINRENDEFAZHAN。YOUXIERENKENENGRENWEIZHEISHISHUJUFENXIJIEGUOSHIYONGZHEKAOLVDEWENTI,SHUJUFENXIZHIXUTIGONGXIANGGUANJIEGUO。DANBIZHEZAISHIJIANDEGUOCHENGZHONGYISHIDAO,RUGUOMEIYOUJINGLISHUJUFENXIDEGUOCHENG,JIUHENNANDUISHUJUDENEIZAILIANXIXINGCHENGSHENKEDEGANSHOU,CONGERHENNANCHANSHENGDUISHUJUDEDONGCHALI。TONGYANG,RUGUOSHUJUFENXIGONGZUOZHEBUJUBEIYIDINGDEJIAOYUXUEHEXINLIXUEDEXUEKESUYANG,JIUHENNANLIJIEJIAOYUSHUJUBEIHOUDEHANYI,CONGERDAOZHISHUJUJIEGUOHENNANSHUOMINGWENTI。SUOYI,ZHIBAJIAOYUZHUANJIAHESHUJUFENXISHICUOHEZAIYIQIHENNANJIEJUEJIAOYULINGYUDEGENBENXINGWENTI。

                  JIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIZAIJISHUFANGMIANDETISHENGZHUYAOSHIJIAOYULINGYURENGONGZHINENGDEYANJIUJIYINGYONG,YEJIUSHIJINKENENGMONIRENLEIDESIWEIFANGSHI,SHIDESHUJUFENXIJINKENENGJIEJINRENLEIRENSHISHIJIE、JIEJUEXIANSHIWENTIDEFANGFAHEGUOCHENG,CHENGXIANDEJIEGUOJINKENENGYUKEGUANSHIJIEZHONGDESHITIXIANGYIZHI。DANJIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIYEBUSHIWANQUANYITUORENGONGZHINENG,YINWEIRENGONGZHINENGCEZHONGDESHIJIQIMOFANGRENLEIDESIWEIFANGSHIJIEJUEXIANSHIZHONGDEWENTI,ERBUSHIRANGJIQILAIYANJIURENRUHEPEIYANG。RENGONGZHINENGZHUYAOSHIZAIJIEJUEWENTIDEFANGSHIHEFANGFASHANGJIJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIDAILAIXINDESHIJIAO,CUSHIJIAOYUSHUJUFENXICHAOZHEZHINENGHUADEFANGXIANGFAZHAN,ZHEIYANGCHANSHENGDEFENXIJIEGUOGENGJIARONGYIBEIRENMENJIESHOU。JISHIJIAOYULINGYUWANQUANSHIXIANLEZHINENGHUA,GUANYURENDEFAZHANDEWENTIYOUJIANGHUIMIANLINXINDETIAOZHAN。YINCI,JIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIBUSHIZAIJISHUCENGMIANJIUNENGWANQUANJIEJUEDEWENTI。TASHIYIGELUOXUANSHANGSHENGDEGUOCHENG,ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONGXUYAOBUDUANTISHENGLINIAN,LAOLAOZHUAZHUWENTIDEBENZHI,ZONGHESHIYONGDUOZHONGSHUJULAIYUAN,CONGBUTONGDEJIAODUDUIMUBIAODUIXIANGJINXINGFENXI。SUIRANHENDUOSHIHOUWOMENHAIBUNENGDUIMUBIAODUIXIANGJIANLIWANQUANDEMOXING,DANSHITONGGUOBUTONGJIAODUDEZONGHEFENXI,WOMENKEYIDUIMUBIAODUIXIANGXINGCHENGXIANGDUIWANZHENGDEGANZHI,BINGZAIZHEIGEJICHUSHANGZUOCHUXIANGDUIHELIDEPANDUANHUOJUECE。SUOYI,JIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIBINGBUYIDINGSHIYAOJIMUBIAODUIXIANGJIANLIYIGEDULIDEMOXING,ERSHIYAOYIMUBIAODUIXIANGWEIZHONGXINKAIZHANXIANGDUIQUANMIANDEFENXI,BINGZAIFENXIDEJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGDUIMUBIAODUIXIANGDEZHENGTIXINGRENSHIHUOZHERENSHIDESHENHUA。

                  MUQIAN,ZAIJIAOYULINGYUZHONGJIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIDEANLIHAIBIJIAOSHAO,DANRENMENYIJINGZHUJIANYISHIDAOZHEIFANGMIANDEZHONGYAOXING。LIRU,JINGJIHEZUOYUFAZHANZUZHI(OECD)ZAIYANJIUGUOJIHUADEJIAOYUCEPINGFAZHANQUSHISHIZHICHU:“PINGGUHECELIANGDEQUANBUQIANLIZHIYOUZAIKUANGJIABEIWANQUANZHENGHEBINGBEISHIWEIYIGETONGYIZHENGTISHI,CAINENGSHIXIAN。ZHEIXUYAOYIGEZHENGTIDEFANGFALAIJIANLIYIGETONGYIDEPINGGUHECEPINGKUANGJIA,YIQIZAIQIZUCHENGBUFENZHIJIANCHANSHENGXIETONGZUOYONG,BIMIANCHENGXUZHONGFUHEMUBIAOBUYI。”[4]CEPINGKUANGJIADEZHENGTIXINGQISHIJIUSHIYAOYICEPINGDUIXIANGWEIZHONGXIN,SHIYONGDUOZHONGFANGFAZHENGHEDUIXIANGGEFANGMIANDEXINXI,ZUOCHUZHENGTISHANGKEKAODEPANDUAN。

                  SHIYONGJIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIDEYIGEDIANXINGANLISHIZHIHUIXIAOYUANJIANSHE。ZHIHUIXIAOYUANJIANSHESHIYIXUEXIAOWEIDUIXIANG,TONGGUOXINXIHUASHOUDUANYOUXIAOJICHENG、ZHENGHEHEYOUHUAXIAOYUANNEIGELEIZIYUAN,SHIXIANZIYUANDEYOUXIAOPEIZHIHECHONGFENLIYONG、XIAOWUGUANLIGUOCHENGGENGYOUHUAXIEDIAO。2018NIAN6YUE,GUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJUZHONGGUOGUOJIABIAOZHUNHUAGUANLIWEIYUANHUIGONGBULE《ZHIHUIXIAOYUANZONGTIKUANGJIA(GB/T36342-2018)》,DUIZHIHUIXIAOYUANDEZONGTIJIAGOUJIJIANSHEJINXINGLEMINGQUEGUIFAN。CONGWENJIANZHONGDEZHIHUIXIAOYUANZONGTIJIAGOUTU(RUTU1SUOSHI)KEYIKANCHU,SHUJUCHULIYUSHUJUGUANLISHIZONGTIJIAGOUDEHEXIN,WEIZHIHUIXIAOYUANDEGELEIYINGYONGFUWUTIGONGQUDONGHEZHICHI[8]。ZAIZHIHUIXIAOYUANDEZONGTIJIAGOUZHONG,SHUJUFENXISHIWEILECUJINXUEXIAOGEZUCHENGBUFENDEXIETONGFAZHAN,ERBUJINJINSHIWEILEJIEJUEMOUYIFANGMIANDEWENTI。

                  图1 智慧校园总体架构图
                图1 智慧校园总体架构图

                  MIANXIANGWEILAIDEZHIHUIXIAOYUANSHIJIAOYUXINXIHUAFAZHANDEZHUYAOQUSHI,DANMUQIANHAICHUYUJISHUSHIXIANJIEDUAN。RUGUOBUZHANZAIJIAOGAODECENGCILAISHENSHIJIAOYULINGYUDEWENTI,NEIMEHENDUOJISHUXINGDEGONGZUOZHISHIDADAOTIGAOXIAOLVDEMUDE,ERMEIYOUJIEJUERENZAIGAOXIAODEHUANJINGZHONGRUHEGENGHAOFAZHANDEWENTI。LIRU,XUDUOJIAOYUKEJIGONGSITUICHUDEZHIHUIKETANGDUIZHISHIDECHENGXIANQUESHIBICHUANTONGKETANGYAOGAOXIAOHEFENGFU,KETANGBIAOXIANDEFANKUIYEGENGJIAJISHI。DANXUESHENGDUIZHISHINENGNEIHUADUOSHAO、NENGLIBIYIWANGSHIFOUYOUDADETISHENG,ZHEIXIEHENDUOSHIHOUZHISHITINGLIUZAIRENMENDEXIANGXIANGZHONG,HAIQUEFACHONGFENDESHIZHENGYANJIU。GAOXIAOYOUSHIHOUDAILAIDEZHISHIPIYUYINGDUIGENGDUODEXINXILAIYUAN,ERMEIYOUXIANXIASIKAOZHEIXIEXINXIDENEIHANYUGONGNENG。

                决战棋牌   JIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIYAOBIMIANMIANMIANJUDAODEFENXIFANGSHI,LEISIYUSHUXUEJIANMODEGUOCHENG,SHUXUEMOXINGYIBANBUSHIFANYINGXIANSHIWENTIDEYIQIEJUTITEZHENG,TADEJIANLICHANGCHANGJIXUYAORENMENDUIXIANSHIWENTIZUOXIWEIDEGUANCHAHESHENRUDEFENXI,YOUXUYAORENMENDUISHIWUTEZHENGHEBIANHUAGUILVJINXINGJIANHUAHECHOUXIANG,SHIDEMOXINGGENGPUBIAN、GENGJIZHONG、GENGSHENKEDIMIAOSHUSHIWUDETEZHENG。MIANMIANJUDAODEFENXIWANGWANGRONGYISHIRENJIUJIEYUYIXIEFEIBENZHIDEXIJIE,SHIQUDUIZHUYAOGUANXIDEBAWO,CONGERJUEDEWENTIWUZHANGKEXUN。

                  四、结语

                决战棋牌   BENWENZHUYAOSHICONGJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIDECENGCIXINGJIAODULIQINGJISHU、FANGFAHEGUANNIANZHIJIANDEGUANXI。ZAISHIJIYINGYONGZHONG,ZHEISANGECENGCIBINGMEIYOUJUEDUIDEYOULIEZHIFEN,ZHISHIZAIBUTONGDEXUQIUHEQINGJINGZHONGFAHUIGEZIDEZUOYONG。LIRU,RUGUOZHISHIPANDUANYIGEXUESHENGDETIZHONGSHIFOUZHENGCHANG,KENENGJIYUZHEIXIANGZHIBIAODEFENXIJIKE。LINGWAI,ZHEISANGECENGCITONGCHANGSHIXIANGHUZHUANHUA、XIANGHUYICUNDE。LIRU,JIYUMOSHIDEFENXIJIANLIHAOYIGEYUCEMOXINGHOU,ZAIMOXINGSHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,KENENGZHIXUJISUANXIANGYINGDEZHIBIAOZHI(HUOCANSHU),RANHOUDAIRUMOXINGJIKEJINXINGYUCE;ERJIYUDUIXIANGDEFENXIWANGWANGYEXUYAOJISUANGEZHONGZHIBIAOZHI,HUOJIANLIGEZHONGMOXING。

                决战棋牌   WULUNRENLEISHEHUIFAZHANDAOSHENMECHENGDU,DOUBUKENENGWANQUANJIEJUERENDEFAZHANDEWENTI,CONGBUTONGDEFANGMIAN、YONGBUTONGDEFANGSHIJIEJUEJIAOYULINGYUZHONGDEWENTIJIANGSHIYIGEZHANGQIDEGUOCHENG。DANZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,GUANZHUYANJIUDUIXIANGDEZHENGTIXINGJIANGDUIJIAOYUSHUJUFENXIGONGZUOQIDAOYINLINGXINGDEZUOYONG。

                  教育数据分析的第三个层次主要是体现了教育领域的特殊性。与一般的商业行为不同,教育行为的最终指向是人的发展,而人的发展是一个缓慢且复杂的过程,很难有快速的投入产出模式。这是目前为什么很多大数据方法在教育领域没有产生明显效益的原因之一。而这里也关系到教育数据分析的人才需求和培养。在很多行业,做数据分析可能只要熟悉相关的业务,和掌握一定的大数据分析方法或工具即可。但在教育领域,只熟悉相关业务和掌握大数据分析方法或工具很多时候还不够,必须要对人的发展规律有较广泛的了解和深入思考,形成一定的教育直觉,才能从数据中分析出更多有用的信息。正如耶鲁大学计量经济学决战棋牌家伊恩·艾瑞斯所说:“超级大数据分析的崛起并不意味着直觉判断的消亡,也不是说工作中累计的经验不重要。相反,我们将看到一个崭新的时代:最优秀、最聪明的人对于运用统计与直觉都游刃有余。”[9]例如,进行教育测评数据分析时,如果只是熟悉教育测评流程和数据统计要求,并掌握了相关的统计方法和工具,而对数据的内涵没有深入的理解,可能得出的数据结果很难有效地说明问题或解决问题。当我们从培养的人的角度重新审视教育测评,就会发现很多结果不是那么绝对的,我们应该在结果相对可解释的范围内寻求改进教学的更有效的方法,而不是给事情下定性的结论。所以,教育数据分析的人才需求和培养必须结合教育领域的特殊性,才能充分发挥教育大数据的价值。

                决战棋牌   ZAIDASHUJUSHIDAI,JIAOYUSHUJUFENXIDESHEJIMIANJIANGYUELAIYUEGUANG,KENENGHAIYOUHENDUOLINGYUMEIYOUGUANZHUDAO,BIZHEJIANGZAIHOUXUDEYANJIUZHONGJIAYIWANSHAN。

                  参考文献

                  [1]United Nations Global Pulse.Big Data for Development:Challenges & Opportunities[DB/OL].(2011-05-01)[2018-11-25].http://www.unglobalpulse.org/sites/default/files/BigDataforDevelopme nt-UNGlobal Pulse June2012.pdf.
                  [2](美)罗伯特·M.桑代克,特雷西·桑代克-克莱斯特.教育评价(第八版)[M].方群,吴瑞芬,陈志新,译.北京:商务印书馆,2018:399.
                  [3] 教育部基础教育质量监测中心.中国义务教育质量监测报告[R].北京,2018:1-9.
                  [4][7]经济合作与发展组织编.为了更好的学习---教育评价的国际新视野[M].窦卫霖,等译.上海:上海教育出版社,2019:87,108.
                  [5]李婷,傅钢善.国内外教育数据挖掘研究现状及趋势分析[J].现代教育技术,2010(10):21-25.
                  [6]徐鹏,王以宁,刘艳华,张海远.大数据视角分析学习变革---美国《通过教育数据挖掘和学习分析促进教与学》报告解读及启示[J].远程教育杂志,2013(6):11-17.
                  [8]中国国家标准化管理委员会.智慧校园总体框架(GB/T36342-2018)[S].
                  [9](美)伊恩·艾瑞斯.大数据思维与决策[M].宫相真,译.北京:人民邮电出版社,2014:18.

                  郑焕.教育数据分析的层次性及其使用[J].教育导刊,2020(01):35-41. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282021.html   

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