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                            1. 西方当代社会理论对我国教育社会学研究的影响

                              摘 要: 通过对21世纪以来我国教育社会学文献的收集与分析,本研究回顾了近20年来我国教育社会学领域学术研究的主要内容与特点。从学术研究内容上看,随着社会经济改革的深化及对发展质量的追求,教育公平成为了我国教育社会学研究的重要议题之一。从学科理论发展上看,这
                              阅读技巧Ctrl+D 收藏本篇文章

                                摘 要: 通过对21世纪以来我国教育社会学文献的收集与分析,本研究回顾了近20年来我国教育社会学领域学术研究的主要内容与特点。从学术研究内容上看,随着社会经济改革的深化及对发展质量的追求,教育公平成为了我国教育社会学研究的重要议题之一。从学科理论发展上看,这一时期,我国教育社会学界与国际同行的理论关注点更加趋同,并结合国际上具有较大影响力的社会理论深入分析和解释我国的教育现实与问题,尤其体现在教育研究中的文化关注与布迪厄理论的广泛应用上。本文有助于我们理解和把握教育社会学领域的学术发展趋势,为未来的研究方向提供思路。

                                关键词: 教育社会学; 教育公平; 文化研究; 资本;

                                Abstract: The article provides a comprehensive review of the research development in sociology of education in China in the past 20 years. With the deepening of China's social and economic reforms and the pursuit of development quality, research in this field, especially those in the first decade of the new century, mainly concentrated on the equity in education. Looking at the theoretical development of the discipline during this period, there was a convergence in research focus between Chinese and international scholars, and a tendency to apply internationally influential theoretical framework and methodologies to explain the situation and issues in China's education. Two highlighted research orientations were the cultural concern in educational research and the application of Bourdieu's theory in various analysis. This paper helps us understand the development of sociology of education in China and provides ideas for future studies.

                                Keyword: sociology of education; equity in education; cultural studies; capital;

                              西方当代社会理论对我国教育社会学研究的影响

                                BANSUIZHEXINZHONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANG,JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDENGSHEHUIKEXUEZAIJINGLILEJIN30NIANDETINGZHIQIHOU,KAISHIBURUZHONGJIANDELISHIJINCHENGZHONG。ZHIJIN,JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEDEXUEKEJIANSHEYIJINGJIBENCHENGSHUHEWENDING。XUEZHEMENYEZAIBUTONGSHIQIDUIXUEKEDEHUIFUHEFAZHANLICHENGJINXINGLEXITONGHUIGUYUFANSI。1TAMENDADOURENWEI,SHIJIZHIJIAOSHIXUEKEFAZHANJIAOWEIZHONGYAODESHIJIANJIEDIANZHIYI。21SHIJIYILAI,WOGUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUQUXIANGZHUYAOWEIBENXUEKEYANJIULINGYUHEZHUTIDETUOZHAN,XUESHUFABIAODESHULIANGYEXIANZHEZENGJIA(JIANTU1)。CONGYANJIUZHUTILAIKAN,XUDUOYUANYU20SHIJI***SHINIANDAIDEYANJIUZHUTIHEXUEKEFENZHILINGYUYANXUXIALAI,DANGUANYUXUEKEDEGAILUNXINGYANJIUYIBUZHANZHUYAOWEIZHI,XUEKEYANJIUGENGDUODIWEIRAOYIXIEZHONGDADESHEHUIXIANSHIHEJIAOYUXIANXIANGKAIZHAN,YANJIULILUNHESHIJIAOSHANGYECHENGXIANCHUMINGXIANTEZHENG。

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                                一、核心话题:教育公平与社会分层

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                                (一)当代中国社会阶层与教育不平等

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                                在第一种路径中,现有研究指出,更为广阔的制度变迁是影响教育与社会分层关系的重要因素之一。具体来说,学者们解释了在不同的历史阶段和政治背景下,家庭的经济资本、文化资本与政治身份等因素在多大程度上如何影响了子女的受教育机会与教育获得。其中,李煜将中国社会发展进程划分为建国初期(1949年-1965年),***期间(1966年-1976年),改革初期(1977年-1991年)和改革深化期(1992年-至今)四个阶段。他基于社会调查数据分析指出,在***期间,个人的受教育机会主要是由自己及其父母的政治身份决定的。在改革开放初期,高考制度的重建改变了此前牺牲教育机会公平的绩效法则的局面。这一时期与随后到来的改革深化期最主要的区别在于教育与社会再生产机制的改变,即从文化再生产转向了文化再生产与资源转化模式共存的局面。2这意味着,家庭的社会与经济资源对子女教育的影响特别是对高等教育决战棋牌入学机会的影响与日俱增。来自不同社会阶层的孩子在高等教育学校分层与专业分层中呈现不均衡分布的特征。如刘精明发现,自高等教育扩招以来,尽管高等教育入学机会差距在不断减小,但在这一过程中却隐藏着不断加深的教育不平等。在高等教育等级制度的背景下,优势阶层在地位取向明确的本科教育中扩大了自己的相对优势,而下层社会群体则主要在成人高等教育中获得了自己的教育机会。3刘云杉等人指出,高等教育的扩张使得高等教育从“奢侈品”变为“必需品”,而看似能力主导的精英选拔过程实则掩盖了招生录取场域中的身份、地域与资本等先赋性因素的作用。4

                                在第二路径中,多数学者认为教育维持与再生产了阶层不平等。其中,学者大多借鉴了布迪厄的实践理论,特别是运用“资本”这一重要概念对不公平背后的原因进行挖掘。5除此之外,部分学者侧重于阐述在学校教育中社会再生产的过程机制。例如,李涛等人通过课堂观察,揭示出在西部偏远农村教室内的座次安排如何影响学生的身份建构过程:为塑造榜样,八年级以“中心-边缘”为规则编排座次,而九年级则根据学生的毕业升学预期能力与职业选择倾向对座位做出功能分区型编排。这种安排在一定程度上完成了学校对不同学生职业选择的主体性分流和机制性筛选,而教育再生产逻辑也在偏远农村学校中得以展开。6

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                                (二)城乡二元体制与教育不平等

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                                (三)民族与性别视角下的教育公平

                                JIN20NIANLAI,MINZUYUXINGBIESHIJIAOXIADEJIAOYUBUPINGDENGWENTIWANGWANGYUSHEHUIJIECENG、CHENGXIANGERYUANTIZHIYUJIAOYUBUPINGDENGYANJIUXIANGGUANLIAN。XUEZHEMENZHICHU,ZAIJIECENG、CHENGXIANG(HUKOU)、XINGBIEJIEGOUZHONGCHUYUDUOZHONGRUOSHIDIWEIDENONGCUNNVXING,WANGWANGZAIJIAOYUJIHUIYUJIAOYUHUODEZHONGBUDUANBEIBIANYUANHUA,QIZHONGNONGCUNNVXINGDEDAXUESHENGBILIMINGXIANDIYUQITAQUNTIJIUSHIYIGETUCHUBIAOXIAN。15HAIYOUYANJIUBIAOMING,21SHIJICHUQIDEJIAOYUJINBUGENGDUODIBIAOXIANWEICHENGZHENDEJINBU,ERZHONGXIBUDIQUNONGCUNNVXINGDEPINGJUNSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANYUANYUANDIYUPINGJUNSHUIPING,NONGCUNNVXINGDEPINGJUNSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANYEYUANDIYUNONGCUNNANXINGHECHENGZHENNVXING。16YINCI,ZAICHENGXIANGYUXINGBIESHUANGZHONGSHEHUIYINSUDEZHIYUEXIA,JIAOYUDEJUNHENGFAZHANMIANLINSHENKETIAOZHAN。SUIRANCHENGZHENNVXINGDEJIAOYUJIHUIDEDAOLEDAFUTISHENG,DANNONGCUNNVXINGRENGSHOUXIANYUCHUANTONGXINGBIEGUANNIANHEQITASHEHUIJIEGOUXINGYINSU,ZAIJIAOYUHUODE,TEBIESHIGAODENGJIAOYURUXUEJIHUIHUODESHANGMIANLINZHEJUDAKUNNAN。CIWAI,YOUXUEZHEHAIJIANGXINGBIESHIJIAOXIADEJIAOYUGONGPINGYANJIUZHUJIANCONGJIAOYUHUODEDEJIEGOUXINGCHAYIZHUANXIANGJIAOWEIYINXINGDEXUEXIAOJIAOYUZHONGBUPINGDENGDEXINGCHENGGUOCHENG。LIRU,ZHANGDANFAXIANJIATINGYINSUCHUCIYINGXIANGLEERTONGSHOUJIAOYUGUOCHENGYUZHILIANGDEXINGBIECHAYI,ERJIAOSHIZAIKETANGJIAOXUEZHONGDAIYOUXINGBIEDAOXIANGDEPINGJIAZEQIANGHUALEERTONGDEXINGBIECHAYI:JIAOSHIJIYUNANSHENGGENGDUOGUANZHU,DUINANSHENGDEPINGJIAYIGULICHUANGZAOWEIZHU,DUINVSHENGZEQIANGDIAOQIGUAIQIAOTINGHUADEPINZHI。17LINGWAI,XUEZHEMENFENXILENVXINGZAISHOUJIAOYUGUOCHENGZHONGBUDUANBEIKEBANYINXIANGSUOQIANGHUADERENZHICHAYI、SHEHUIFENGONGCHAYI、ZHIYEXINGBIEQUGEDENGYINSU,RUHEYINGXIANGGAODENGJIAOYUZHUANYEXUANZEDEXINGBIEJULUO,SHENZHIZAOCHENGQUGEXIANXIANGDEXINGCHENG。18

                              决战棋牌   MINZUSHENFENTONGYANGSHIYINGXIANGWOGUOJIAOYUGONGPINGDEYIGEZHONGYAOYINSU。YOUYANJIUZHEZHICHU,DUOYUANWENHUABEIJINGXIADESHAOSHUMINZUDIQU,JIAOYUGONGPINGWENTIHAICUNZAIZHEBUTONGYUZHULIUWENHUADIQUDETEDIAN。19ZONGDELAISHUO,YUWAICHUWUGONGHEJINGTANGJIAOYUXIANGBI,DUISHAOSHUMINZUXUESHENGERYAN,XUEXIAOJIAOYURENGSHIZUIYOUXIAODESHEHUILIUDONGTUJINGZHIYI。RANER,ZHEIYILUJINGZAISHIJISHENGHUOZHONGWEINENGFAHUIQIYINGYOUDEZUOYONG。YANGZHANGSUOFENXIRENWEI,CHENGSHIDAOXIANGDEJIAOXUEGUOCHENGHUSHILEDUIMINZUWENHUADEBAOHUHECHUANCHENG,ZAOCHENGLEJIAOYUWENHUAZHONGDUAN。ZHEIYIGUOCHENGZUSAILESHAOSHUMINZUXUESHENGXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEQUDAO,SHITAMENZAISHEHUIDIWEIHUODEGUOCHENGZHONGCHUYUBULIDIWEI。20HAIYOUXUEZHEJINYIBUJIESHILEXUEXIAOQIANZAIKECHENGYUSHAOSHUMINZUWENHUAJIANDECHONGTUGUANXI:XUEXIAOQIANZAIKECHENGCHUANDIDEXIANDAIXINGDEZHISHIGUANNIANHEXINXIZAOCHENGLEMINZUWENHUADEDUANLIEHESHAOSHUMINZUXUESHENGMINZUYISHIDEDANHUA,SHIDETAMENZAIZHULIUWENHUAYINGXIANGXIAMIANLINSHENFENDEZHONGGOU21,ERZHEISHIZUAIBUFENSHAOSHUMINZUXUESHENGQUDEXUEYECHENGJIUDEZHONGYAOTIAOZHAN。CIWAI,YUZUQUNSHENFENXIANGBI,HUJIZHIDUDAOZHIDECHENGXIANGERYUANJIEGOUDUIBUTONGMINZUXUESHENGSHOUJIAOYUJIHUIDEYINGXIANGGENGDA。WOGUOMINZUJIANGAODENGJIAOYUBUPINGDENGZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIJUYOUNONGCUNHUKOUDESHAOSHUMINZUHEHANZUJIAN,ERCHENGSHIHUJIDESHAOSHUMINZUYOUYUTONGSHIXIANGYOUYOUZHIJIAOYUZIYUANHEMINZUYOUHUIZHENGCE,ZAIGAODENGJIAOYUJIHUIFENPEIZHONGYUCHENGSHIDEHANZUXUESHENGJIBENMEIYOUCHAYI。22

                                (四)教育分流与教育公平

                                JIAOYUFENLIUSHIZHIYIJUXUEYEKAOSHICHENGJI,JIANGXUESHENGFENCENGBIELEI,RANGXUESHENGJINRUBUTONGDEXUEXIAO,ANZHAOBUTONGDEYAOQIUHEBIAOZHUN,CAIYONGBUTONGDEFANGFA,JIAOSHOUBUTONGDENEIRONG,SHIQICHENGWEIBUTONGGUIGEHELEIXINGDERENCAI。23XUEZHEMENDUIJIAOYUFENLIUDEYANJIUZHUYAOJIZHONGZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHITAOLUNJIAOYUFENLIUDUIYUJIAOYUGONGPINGDEYIYI,ERSHIDUIHELIJIAOYUFENLIUDEGOUXIANGHETANTAO。

                                首先,关于教育分流对于教育公平的意义,学界存在正反两方面的意见。一部分学者认为,无论是基础教育还是高等教育,抑或是职业教育,我国学校教育都具有显着的等级特征。尽管在2006年义务教育阶段学校分层已被禁止,但事实上这一等级秩序仍对学生及其家庭有着明显影响。24伴随着“重点学校”“划区就近入学”等分流制度的建立,社会阶层间受教育机会与教育获得的差距不断扩大。一方面,优势阶层的教育资源的配置影响力更高,更可能利用资源优势帮助子女享受质量较优的教育。例如,刘精明发现,自高等教育扩招以来,优势阶层的教育投资向正规大学本科教育转移,而受过良好教育的体力劳动者的子代也逐渐占据入学机会优势。25另一方面,各阶段优质教育机会的阶层不平等具有累积性,通常早期阶段优质教育的获得对后续教育分流有决定性影响,这种暗含“精英主义”取向的教育分流体制成为了强化教育不平等的一项制度安排。26

                                部分研究者则认为教育分流在一定情况下有助于维系教育平等,不能单纯以教育平等为价值目标否定教育分流。27在教育扩张和教育市场转型背景下,教育分流体制——尤其是升学考试选拔制度和重点中学制度——对教育公平具有一定的庇护作用。例如,邵岑发现在教育分流体制下,城乡子弟在获得较高质量的教育机会方面不存在统计学决战棋牌上的显着差异,以考察才智和能力为目标的升学考试选拔制度在一定程度上维护了高中教育机会的城乡公平。28此外教育的市场转型前后并没有呈现重点中学中城乡子弟升学机会的显着改变,也就是说,重点学校制度较好地庇护了农村子弟,使其免于市场化对城乡教育不平等的撕裂。29

                                CIWAI,YIBUFENXUEZHETICHUXUEXIAOJIAOYUTONGGUOFENLIUWEISHEHUIGEXINGYESHUSONGBUTONGGUIGEHELEIXINGDERENCAI,PEIYANGRENMENSHIYINGBUTONGXINGYEHEZHIYEDEPINZHIYUNENGLI30,YINCIGENGYINGDANGGUANZHURUHESHIXIANHELIDEJIAOYUFENLIU。ZAIDONGZEFANGDENGRENKANLAI,JIAOYUGONGPINGGUANSHIYIGELISHIDEGAINIAN,WOGUOSHEHUIZHUANXINGQIDEJIAOYUGONGPINGGUANYINGYUWOGUODEJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGXIANGYIZHI。31ZAICIJICHUSHANG,TAMENJIEHEWOGUODANGXIASHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANBEIJING,TICHULECUJINWOGUOJIAOYUHELIFENLIUDECELVEYULUJING,JIJIAOYUFENLIUHESHEHUIFENHUAXUXIANGHUXIEDIAO,JIANCHIZHENGTIXIEDIAO、NEIWAISHIYINGDEFAZHANGUAN,YOUHUAFENLIUDEBILIJIEGOU,JIANCHIDUOYUANJINGZHENG、CHIXUYOUXUDEFAZHANGUANZHIDAOFENLIUJIGOUDEHELIDINGWEI,ZUIZHONGCUJINGAODENGJIAOYUHELIFENLIU。32

                              决战棋牌   ZONGSHANG,XUEZHEMENCONGJIECENG、CHENGXIANG、XINGBIE、MINZUDENGFANGMIANGUANZHULESHEHUIFENHUARUHEYINGXIANGJIAOYUJIHUIYUJIAOYUHUODE。XIANYOUYANJIUZHENGSHILEWOGUODEZHIDUBIANQIANZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGZAOCHENGLEZHEIXIESHEHUIYINSUDUIJIAOYUDEBUTONGYINGXIANGFANGSHI,SHIQICHENGXIANJIEDUANXINGTEZHENG。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,YANJIUKAISHICONGDANYIYINSUYUJIAOYUGONGPINGGUANXIDEDINGXINGFENXIYUJINGYANYANJIUZHUANXIANGLEZAIDUOZHONGYINSUJIAOHUYINGXIANGXIAXINGCHENGDEFUZAJIAOYUXIANXIANGDEJINGYANYANJIU。SUIRANZHEILEIYANJIUSHANGCHUYU“MENGYAQI”,DANSHIDANGXUEZHEMENSHENRULIJIETEDINGSHEHUI、WENHUA、LISHITIAOJIANXIADEJIAOYUYUSHEHUIFENCENGWENTISHI,BIANNENGGOUWEIJIAOYUBUPINGDENGWENTITIGONGGENGDUOKEXINGDEJIEJUESILUHEFANGAN。

                                二、西方当代社会理论对我国教育社会学研究的影响

                              决战棋牌   CONGXUEKELILUNFAZHANDESHIJIAOLAIKAN,21SHIJIYILAI,YIXIEXIFANGSHEHUILILUNDUIZHONGGUODEJIAOYUYANJIUYINGXIANGJINYIBUJIASHEN,QIZHONGYOUYIBUDIEDEWENHUAZAISHENGCHANLILUNDEYINGYONGFANWEIJIAOGUANG。CIWAIBUFENXUEZHEKAISHISHENRUGUANZHUJIAOYUYUWENHUAJIAOCHALINGYUDEYANJIU,TEBIESHIYIXIEXINXINGSHEHUIQUNTIDEWENHUAXINGCHENGJIQIYUJIAOYUZHIJIANDEGUANXI。

                                (一)教育社会学与文化研究

                              决战棋牌   JINNIANLAI,WOGUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEJIEDUIYUJIAOYULINGYUDEWENHUAYANJIURIYIZHONGSHI。YIFANGMIAN,ZHEIGENWOGUOSHEHUIDEWENHUADUOYUANHUAFAZHANXIANGGUAN,ZHEIDUANSHIQIZHONGGUOSHEHUICHUXIANXUDUOXINDESHEHUIRENQUNYUWENHUAXINGSHI。LINGYIFANGMIANSHISHOUDAOGUOWAIXIANGGUANLILUNLIUPAIDEYINGXIANG,QIZHONGBIJIAOYOUDAIBIAOXINGDESHIYINGGUOBOMINGHANWENHUAYANJIUXUEPAIDEJINGDIANJIAOYUZHEZUO《XUEZUOGONG》YISHUZHONGWENBANDEMIANSHI,YIJIGAISHUZUOZHEWEILISIBENRENQINZIZAIZHONGGUODERENJIAOHETUIJIE,JIDADIKUODALEWENHUAYANJIUZAIZHONGGUOJIAOYUXUESHUJIEDEYINGXIANG。ZHEIZHONGYINGXIANGDEYIGEDIANXINGLIZIJIUSHIJINNIANLAIXUEJIEJIANGYANJIUJUJIAOYULAIZISHEHUIDICENGJIEJIXUESHENGDEFANXUEXIAOWENHUA。BUSHAOXUEZHEYANYONGBOMINGHANXUEPAIDEWENHUAYANJIULUJING,JIJIDIYU《XUEZUOGONG》JINXINGDUIHUA,WAJUELEZHONGGUOCHENGXIANGJIAOYUQINGJINGZHONGFANXUEXIAOWENHUADETESHUNEIHAN。RUZHOUXIAOZHICHU,NONGMINGONGZIDIBUTONGYU《XUEZUOGONG》ZHONGDE“JIAHUOMEN”,TAMENDE“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”YUQISHUOSHIDUIJICUNSHEHUIZHIXUYUZHIDUDEDONGCHAYUKANGZHENG,BURUSHUOSHIYIZHONGJIEGOUHUADEZIWOFANGQI,NONGMINGONGLAODONGLIZAISHENGCHANDEDICHENGBENZUZHIMOSHIZAOCHENGLENONGMINGONGZIDIBIANYUANHUADESHENGCUNZHUANGTAI。YUSHI,ZIDIMENZAIXUEYEBIAOXIANBUJIADEQINGXINGXIAFANGQIJIESHOUZHISHI,JIAOYUYIRANWUFACHENGWEITAMENSHIXIANJIECENGXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEQUDAO,JINERWANCHENGLEGONGRENJIEJIZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENG。33XIONGYIHANZEDUIBILEJIUDUYUGONGBANXUEXIAOYUNONGMINGONGZIDIXUEXIAODENONGMINGONGZIDI。QIANZHECUNZAIMINGXIANDE“TIANHUABANXIAOYING”,ZIDIMENRENTONGZHULIUYISHIXINGTAI,QUEBUDEBUZHIDUXINGDIZIWOFANGQI;HOUZHEZESHENGCHANLE“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”。YINCI,ZHEILIANGZHONGQINGXINGJUNDAOZHILEJIEJIZAISHENGCHANDEJIEGUO。34

                                LINGYIBUFENXUEZHEZEGUANZHULELIUDONGERTONGQUNTIHUOZHEDAGONGZIDIXUEXIAOZHONGDEXUESHENGWENHUA——TEBIESHI“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”DESHENGCHENGGUOCHENG。RUXIONGCHUNWENFAXIAN,“YI”SHINONGMINGONGZIDIRICHANGSHENGHUOSHIJIANZHONGDEHEXINXINGQINGQINGXIANG,YESHIQUNTINEIBUZHONGYAODECHUSHIYUANZE。YIZHIXINGJIAOQIANGDEXIAOXINGTONGCHAIQUNTISHI“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”DEZUZHIJICHU。TONGGUO“YIYI-GUIZE-XINGDONG”XITONG,NONGMINGONGZIDIDEQUNTIWENHUADEYISHIJIANYUQIANGHUA。ZHEIYISHITAMENBIAODASHENGMINGYIYI,YOUXUANPAISHENGHUODEZHONGYAOLUJING。35ZHOULEYIJINYIBUKAOCHALE“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”DEYUBEIXIDEGUOCHENG:ZAIDAGONGZIDIXUEXIAOZHONG,XIAOXUELIUNIANJIJIEDUANSHI“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”DEYUBEIGUANJIANQI,XUESHENGCONGFANKANGQUANWEI、QUNTIGUANXI、WEILAIQIWANGDENGSANGEFANGMIANXIDELE“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”,ZHEIZAIZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGQIDAOPUDIANZUOYONG。36CIWAI,LITAOCONGQINGJINGHUADEDUOYUANZHUTIHUDONGGUANXIZHONGFAXIANLEZHONGGUODICENGNONGJIAZIDIDESHEHUIZAISHENGCHANJIZHI。YANJIUFAXIAN,YOUYUDICENGXUEXIAOJIAOSHISHOURUCHA、SHEHUIDIWEIDI、SHEHUIZIBENDANBO、SHEJIAONENGLIBUZU,SHAONIANMENFOUDINGZHEIXIEZHISHIDAIYANZHEJIQISUOCHIYOUDECHANGGUIJIAZHI,YIXIANXINGHUOYINXINGDEXIAOJIXINGWEIBIAOXIANDUIKANGKETANGJIAOXUE。TONGSHI,SHAONIANMENCHANGBAOYUANZUOXISHIJIANANPAIBUHELI,ZHEIZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGLETAMENDUISHIJIANQUANWEIDEFANKANG。TAMENYECHANGGUYIDIZAISHEXIANGTOUXIAJINXINGGONGGONGXINGBIAOYAN,ZHEIZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGLETAMENDUIKONGJIANQUANWEIDEFANKANG。SHANGSHUZHEIXIEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGLESHAONIANMENDUI“TAZHEHUAGUANFANGGUIZE”JUCHI,XUNZHAOBINGJIJISUZAOZHUTIXING“ZIWO”37。

                                DANGRAN,BINGFEISUOYOUYANJIUZHEDOUTONGYISHEHUIDICENGDEWENHUASHENGCHANDEZUIZHONGDAOXIANGJUNWEISHEHUIZAISHENGCHAN,ERSHILITUJIESHIDICENGWENHUADUIYUZHEIBUFENXUESHENGDESHEHUISHANGSHENGLIUDONGDEZHENGMIANCUJINZUOYONG。LIRUPENGYONGJUNZAIQIYANJIUZHONGTIDAO,WOGUONONGCUNDAXUESHENGZHIJIANCHANGCHANGYOUZHEJIAOWEIMIQIEDEXUEYUAN、QINYUANGUANXIHUOJIYUYISHIWENHUADELIANXI。TONGGUOZHEIYIGUANXINIUDAI,DUIGAODENGJIAOYUHUODEYOUYIDEJIAOYUGUANNIANYUSHIJIANCAIKENENGDEYIFAZHANCHENGWEIYIZHONGGONGXIANGWENHUA。ZHEIZHONGDIFANGXINGWENHUADUILAIZINONGCUNJIATINGDEXUESHENGSHIXIANSHEHUILIUDONGCHANSHENGLEJIJIYINGXIANG,YETIGAOLELINLIDUIGAODENGJIAOYUDERENTONG。ZHEIZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGQUBIEYUQITAYANJIUZHEDUINONGCUNDILIHUANJINGHEJINGJITIAOJIANDENGYINSUDUINONGCUNXUESHENGDESHEHUILIUDONGDEZHIYUEXINGDEQIANGDIAO。38XIONGHENITANTAOLELAODONGJIECENGJIATINGJIAOYUSHIJIANZHONGDEWENHUASHENGCHAN,WEIWANGWANGBEI“WUMINGHUA”DELAODONGJIECENGDEJIAOYUGUANNIANZHENGMING。39CIWAI,HAIYOUBUFENXUEZHEYINRUBUDIEDE“GUANXI”GAINIANDUIZHEIZHONGSHEHUILIUDONGGUOCHENGJIAYIDUTEDECHANSHI。

                                DUOYUANWENHUACHONGTUYURONGHEBEIJINGXIAXUESHENGDESHENFENJIANGOUYUJIAOYUSHIJIANSHIXUEZHEMENGUANZHUDELINGYIZHUYAOYANJIUHUATI。ZHEISHIDEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEZHONGWENHUAYANJIUDESHENDUYUGUANGDUDEYIYANSHEN。LIRUZHUXINZHUOKAOLVLECHENGXIANGWENHUACHONGTU,FENXILENONGCUNCHUZHONGSHENGYINXINGCHUOXUEWENTIDEZHUDONGXINGYUBEIDONGXING。QIANZHEYIZHIZAI“XINDUSHUWUYONGLUN”DEYINGXIANGXIA,XUESHENGZHUDONGFANGQIXUEYE,ZHUIZHUXIANGWANGDEXIANDAICHENGSHIWENHUA;HOUZHEYIZHIXUEXIAOWENHUAHENONGCUNXUESHENGBEIHOUDELAOGONGWENHUAYUXIANGCUNWENHUAJIANDECHONGTUCHENGWEILETAMENHUODEXUEYECHENGJIUDEZHANGAI,CONGERSHIQIXINGCHENGLEYANXUEDENGFUMIANQINGGAN。40HAIYOUBUFENXUEZHESHITUTANTAOTEDINGDEXUESHENGQUNTI,BIRUZHONGTINGSHENGJIANGOUZISHENSHENFENDELUJING。41JINGUANZHEIXIEYANJIUZAIYANGEYIYISHANGBINGBUSHUYUWENHUAYANJIUFANCHOU,DANSHITAMENDEYANJIUYEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGCHUJILEXUESHENGSHENFENRENTONGJIANGOUGUOCHENGZHONGDEWENHUACENGMIAN。

                                ZONGZHI,JINRU21SHIJIYILAI,WOGUOXUEZHEDUIJIAOYULINGYULIDEWENHUAXIANXIANGRIYIGUANZHU,TEBIESHIDUIBUTONGXUESHENGQUNTI——YOUQISHICHUYURUOSHIDIWEIDEXUESHENGQUNTIWENHUAYOUQIGUANZHU。BUSHAOXUEZHEJIANGYANJIUJUJIAOYUNONGMINGONGZIDIHENONGCUNXUESHENGDEQUNTIWENHUADEBIAOXIANHEXINGCHENG,BINGJIANGQIYUWEILISIBIXIADE“XIAOZIMEN”DE“FANXUEXIAOWENHUA”JINXINGDUIZHAO,ZHEICONGCEMIANYINZHENGLEJINNIANLAIXIFANGSHEHUILILUN——TEBIESHIBOMINGHANDEWENHUAYANJIUXUEPAIDUIWOGUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEJIEDEYINGXIANG。

                                (二)“文化资本”与“社会资本”:布迪厄理论的广泛运用

                                近十几年来,“资本”一词越来越频繁地出现在学术期刊文章中,包括许多教育社会学者在内的我国教育研究者根据社会学、经济学决战棋牌理论家的相关理论和研究,运用不同形式的“资本”概念来解释和分析教育现象。其中,对布迪厄概念体系下的“文化资本”和“社会资本”概念的引介和运用最为常见。从一定程度上说,布迪厄的理论体系在我国教育社会学研究中日益增长的影响,与布迪厄理论体系在世界各国学术界产生的广泛影响是基本同步的。42

                                BUDIEDE“WENHUAZIBEN”GAINIANWEIYANJIUWOGUOJIAOYUBUPINGDENGWENTITIGONGLEXINDELILUNSHIJIAO。ZAIXIANYOUYANJIUZHONG,CHULEYIBUFENDUIBUDIELILUNDEJIESHAOXINGLUNSHUWAI,FENXIDANGQIANWOGUOJIAOYUXIANSHIDEJINGYANXINGYANJIUDADOUYANZHENGLEBUDIEDEYANJIUJIELUN。XIANGJIAOYUNEIXIELAIZIDICENGJIATINGDEFUMU,SHEHUIZHONGSHANGCENGJIATINGCHULEGENGKENENGTOUZIJIAOYUYIWAI,TAMENZISHENYONGYOUDEYOUZHIWENHUAZIBENYEGENGKENENGBEIQIZINVSUOJICHENG,BAOKUOLIANGHAODEXINGWEIXIGUAN、BIAODAFANGSHI、SIKAOMOSHIDENG。43TONGSHI,YANJIUZHEPUBIANRENWEIWENHUAZIBENDECHAYISHIZHONGGUOJIAOYUCHENGXIANGERYUANJIEGOUDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,ERXIANXINGJIAOYUZHIDURENKELEXUEXIAOJIAOYUDECHENGSHIWENHUAQUXIANG44,ZHEIYIWEIZHELAIZICHENGSHIZHONGSHANGCENGJIEJIDEHAIZIGENGKENENGHUODEXUEYECHENGGONG。ZAIZHEIYIBEIJINGXIA,XUDUOXUEZHEJIANGYANJIUMUGUANGFANGZAILESHENCHUCHENGSHIXUEXIAOZHONGDELIUDONGERTONGQUNTISHANG,BINGCONGWENHUAZIBENDEJIAODUTANTAOLETAMENDEXUEXIAORONGRUKUNJING45、KEWAISHENGHUOANPAIZHONGDEXUANZEQUGE46DENGWENTI。YANJIUZHEJINYIBUZHICHU,LIESHIDEWENHUAZIBENDUILAIZINONGCUNHUOCHENGSHIDICENGJIATINGXUESHENGDEYINGXIANGKEYANSHENZHIGAODENGJIAOYUJIEDUAN。RUQINHUIMINDENGRENMIAOSHULENONGCUNDAXUESHENGZAISHEJIAOHUATI、SHENMEIQUWEI、XIAOFEIXIGUAN、KETIYANJIUDENGFANGMIAN,YINWENHUACHONGTUHUOQUEFAJINGJIZHICHIERBIAOXIANCHUDEKUNHUOYUZHENGZHA,FENXILETAMENZAIJUYOUXUESHUCHANGHEQUANLICHANGSHUANGZHONGSHUXINGTEZHENGDEDAXUECHANGYUZHONGDERUOSHICHUJING47。

                              决战棋牌   XUYAOZHICHUDESHI,GUONEIXUEZHEMENZAIJIEJIANBUDIEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUELILUNDETONGSHI,MEIYOUWANQUANZHAOBANBUDIEDELILUNGUANDIANYUYANJIUGONGJU,ERSHIJIEHEZHONGGUOSHEHUIFAZHANZHUANGKUANGHEJIAOYUXIANSHI,CHANGSHIJIANLIBINGWANSHANDUIZHONGGUOJIAOYUXIANXIANGGENGJUJIESHILIDELILUNTIXIYUGENGSHIQIEDEYANJIUGONGJU。JUTIBIAOXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

                                DIYI,LIZUZHONGGUOJIAOYUYUWENHUAXIANSHI,SHENRUFANSISHEIDEWENHUANENGGOUCHENGWEIZIBENDEZHONGYAOMINGTI,BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGDUIZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHONGDEYIXIEDUTEJIAOYUXIANXIANGJINXINGCHUANGZAOXINGDIJIESHI。YOUXUEZHEZHICHU,ZAIWOGUODESHEHUIZHIDUYUWENHUACHUANTONGZHONG,DICENGQUNTISUOYONGYOUDEWENHUAXINGTAIBINGFEIBIRANDUIGETISHEHUILIUDONGCHANSHENGZHIYUEXIAOYING。LIRU,NEIXIENENGQUDEGAOXUEYECHENGJIUDENONGJIAZIDI,WANGWANGSHIYOUYUQICHONGFENLIYONGLEDICENGWENHUAZIBEN,CHUANGSHENGCHULEXIANFUXINGDONGLI、DAODEHUASIWEIYIJIXUEXIAOHUADEXINLIPINZHI,CONGERZHICHENGQITONGGUOJIAOYUSHIXIANSHEHUISHANGSHENGLIUDONG。48 XIANGSIDI,XIONGHENIZAIXILIEYANJIUZHONGTICHU,XIANYOUYANJIUDUOHUSHILELAODONGJIECENGJIATINGJIAOYANGFANGSHIDENEIZAIJIAZHI:LAODONGJIECENGZINVZAITONGGUOJIAOYUSHIXIANXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,WANGWANGYUJIATINGLIANJIECHENG“MINGYUNGONGTONGTI”,ZHEIGEGONGTONGTITEZHIBIAOXIANWEIZHONGSHIJIAOYU、QINFEN、NULIDENG,ZHEIYESHILAODONGJIECENGZINVSUOJUBEIDETEDINGDEWENHUAZIBEN。49

                              决战棋牌   DIER,WOGUOXUEZHEHAIFANSILECHUANTONGDEWENHUAZIBENCELIANGGONGJUZAIZHONGGUOSHEHUIXIANSHIZHONGDESHIYONGXING。ZHENGYAJUNRENWEI,ZAIZHONGGUOYUJINGXIA,“GAOYAWENHUACANYUPINLV”BINGBUSHIHENYOUXIAODEWENHUAZIBENZHIBIAO。50ERSUNYUANTAIJINYIBUJIANYANLEXIANYOUYANJIUZHONGBAOKUOWENHUAHUODONGCANYU、JIATINGWENHUAFENWEI、JIATINGXUEXIZIYUANHEKEWAIBUXIPEIXUNSIXIANGCELIANGZHIBIAOZAINEIDEWENHUAZIBEN,ZAICHUSHENGYUBUTONGSHIQIDEJUMINJIAOYUZHUANHUANZHONGFAHUIDEZUOYONG。YANJIUXIANSHI,WENHUAZIBENDEJIAZHISHIYOUSHEHUIHUANJINGJUEDINGDE,BUTONGSHIQICHUANDIDAIJIYOUSHIDEWENHUAZIBENBUJINXIANGTONG。SUOYI,YUQISHUOWENHUAZIBENSHIYIGECHOUXIANGDELILUNGAINIAN,BURUSHUOTASHIYUWOGUOJIAOYUSHIJIJINMILIANXIZAIYIQIBINGFAHUIZUOYONGDE。51

                                DISAN,ZHENDUI“SHEHUIZIBEN”ZAIZHONGGUOSHEHUISUOJUYOUDETUCHUZUOYONG,GENGYOUXUEZHECHANGSHIJIANYANHEJIANGOUZHONGGUOYUJINGXIADESHEHUIZIBENLILUN。LIRUZHAOYANDONGHEHONGYANBITONGGUOXIANGXIDESHULIHESHUJUFENXI,ZHICHU“WANGLUOZIYUAN”YU“SHEHUIBIHE”ZHEILIANGZHONGSHEHUIZIBENDECHAYIJIQIZUOYONGYUJIAOYUHUODEJIEGUODEJIZHI52。CHENZHUOZEZHENDUIZHONGGUOSHEHUIDETEZHENGTICHU “CHAOSHEHUIZIBEN”HE“QIANGSHEHUIZIBEN”LIANGGEDUTEDEGAINIAN,RENWEIERZHESHIKAOCHAWOGUOJIAOYURUHEYINGXIANGSHEHUIFENCENGGUOCHENGZHONGDEBUKEHUSHIDEYINSU。ZAITAKANLAI,“QIANGSHEHUIZIBEN”ZHUYAOZHIJIANLIZAIRENQINGMIANZI(JI“QINGMIAN”)ZHISHANGDESHEHUIGUANXIWANG,ER“CHAOSHEHUIZIBEN”ZESHIJIANLIZAIDUIJINGJIZIBEN、SHEHUIZIBENHEWENHUAZIBENDEQUANMIANZHANYOUDEJICHUZHISHANGDE,CHAOYUEFALVHEZHIDUXUKEFANWEIDE,NENGDUISHEHUIZIYUANDEZHANYOUHEFENPEICHANSHENGJUEDINGXINGZUOYONGDEYIZHONGTESHUZIBENXINGSHI。ZAIZHEILIANGZHONGSHEHUIZIBENDEZUOYONGXIA,JIAOYUDUISHEHUIFENCENGCHANSHENGDEXIAOJIZUOYONGYUANYUANDAYUJIJIZUOYONG,JIAOYUGONGPINGSHOUDAOJIDAPOHUAI。53

                                ZONGDELAISHUO,CONGJINNIAN“ZIBEN”GAINIANZAIWOGUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUZHONGDEYINGYONGLAIKAN,BUDIEDEWENHUAZAISHENGCHANLILUNSHIDADUOSHUYANJIUZHECAIYONGDELILUNKUANGJIA,QIZHONGYIWENHUAZIBENSHIJIAOZUIJUDAIBIAOXING,WENHUAZIBENZHUJIANCHENGWEIXUEZHEMENCHANGSHIJIEJUERIYIYANJUNDEJIAOYUBUPINGDENGWENTIDEZHONGYAOFENXIGONGJUYUSHIJIANLUJINGZHIYI。HENDUOYANJIUZHEGUANZHUDAONONGCUNBEIJINGXUESHENGZAIWENHUAZIBENFANGMIANDELIESHIJIQIDAOZHIDEJUDADEJIAOYUHESHEHUICHAJU,BINGHUYUSHEHUIHEZHENGFUZHONGSHIJIAOYUGONGPINGWENTIHEJIAOYUGONGPINGXIANGGUANZHENGCE。CIWAI,XIANYOUYANJIUYUELAIYUEQUXIANGYUCHAOYUEDUIMOUYIZHONGZIBENXINGSHIDEGUANZHU,ERSHIZONGHEWENHUAZIBEN、SHEHUIZIBEN、JINGJIZIBENDENGYINSULAIJIESHIWOGUOJIAOYUXIANSHI。ZAIYANJIUFANGFASHANG,YIXIEYANJIUZHECHANGSHICAIYONGZHIXINGYANJIUCELVESHENRUWAJUEBUTONGGETIHUORENQUNSUOJUBEIDEDUTEWENHUAZIBENYANGTAI。ZUIHOU,HAIYOUYIXIEXUEZHETICHULERENGEZIBEN54、PINWEIZIBEN55DENGYANSHENGAINIAN,DANZHEIXIEXINGAINIANDEYUNYONGZAIDUODACHENGDUSHANGNENGGOUCHENGLI,SHANGZHIDEJINYIBUTANTAO。

                                三、总结

                                JINRU21SHIJIYILAI,WOGUODEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEXUEKEFAZHANJINRUXINDEFAZHANJIEDUAN。ZAIZHEIYIJIEDUAN,XUEKELINGYUNEIDEWENZHANGFABIAOBIQIANYIJIEDUANYOULELIANGJISHANGDETISHENG,TONGSHIZHEIYIJIEDUANXUEKELINGYUNEIDEYANJIUBIAOXIANCHULIANGGEXIANZHETEZHENG:YISHICONGYANJIUNEIRONGSHANGLAIKANSHOUDAODANGQIANWOGUOSHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANZHUANGKUANGDEXIANZHEYINGXIANG, JIAOYUZHONGDEGONGPINGWENTICHENGWEIYANJIUDEZHONGYAOZHUTI。SUIZHEWOGUOJINGJIFAZHANZHUJIANGAOBIEDUANQUEJINGJISHIDAI,SHEHUIDEFAZHANYEGENGJIAGUANZHUZHENGTIDEPINGHENG,RENMENRIYIZHUIQIUBAOKUOJIAOYUZHILIANGZAINEIDEGENGGAODESHENGHUOPINZHI。ZAIZHEIYANGDESHIDAIBEIJINGXIA,JIAOYUSHEHUIXUEZHEMENDUIJIAOYUGONGPINGWENTIDEGUANZHUDUZENGJIAYEJIUBUNANLIJIELE。ERSHICONGGAINIANKUANGJIAHELILUNFAZHANSHANGLAIKAN,WOGUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEJIESHOUDAODEWAILAIYINGXIANGGENGWEISHENRU,DANCONGLINGYIGEJIAODULAIKANYESHUOMINGZAICIJIEDUANWOGUODEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEJIEYUTONGSHIQIDEGUOJITONGXINGDELILUNGUANZHUDIANGENGJIAQUTONG。HUANYANZHI,YU20SHIJIMOXIANGBI,WOGUODEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUZHEGENGJIAPINFANDISHIYONGDANGQIANZAIGUOJIXUESHUJIETONGXINGZHONGYOUYINGXIANGDESHEHUILILUNLAIFENXIHEJIESHIWOGUOSHEHUIZHONGDEJIAOYUWENTIHEXIANSHI,SHENZHISHIWOGUODUTEDESHEHUIJIAOYUXIANXIANG,LIRUCHENGXIANGERYUANFENGEWENTI、QIANGSHEHUIZIBENXIANXIANGDENG。

                                MOUZHONGYIYISHANGLAISHUO,WOGUODEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUYIJINGCONGZAOQIDEJIANDANJIESHAOHEYINRUGUOWAILILUNZHUJIANBURUXIAOHUAWAILAILILUNSHENRUFENXIWOGUOSHEHUIXIANSHIDEJIEDUAN。DANGRANHUANYIGEJIAODULAIKAN,ZHEIYESHUOMINGWOGUODEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEJIESHANGWEICHANSHENGBIJIAOYOUGUOJIYINGXIANGDEBENTULILUNTIXIHUOLIUPAI,JIMEIYOUSHIXIANZHENZHENGDE“LILUNSHUCHU”。ZHEIYIJIEDUANWOGUODEJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUDUOGUANZHURUHEJIEHEDANGQIANYIXIEXUESHUJIEZHONGDALILUNTIXIHEGAINIANKUANGJIA,SHENRUFENXIHEJIESHIWOGUODUTEDEJIAOYUWENTIHESHEHUIXIANSHI,ZHEIYEXUJIUSHIWOMENCHANGSHUODE“JIANGHAOZHONGGUOGUSHI”。DANGRANZHEIBUYIDINGSHIHUAISHI,YUZHIXIANGFAN,DANGQIANJIEDUANDEZHONGGUOJIAOYUSHEHUIXUEYANJIUDEFAZHANQIAQIAYINGDANGCHAOYUE“ZHONGGUOGUSHI”YU“SHIJIELILUN”ZHIJIANDEERYUANDUILIRENSHI,JIANGZHONGGUOXUEJIEZHISHENYUGUOJIXUESHUJIEZHIZHONG,JIYUDUIDANGQIANWOGUOSHEHUIXIANSHIDESHENKEBAWOYUFENXI,DUIQUANQIUFANWEINEIDEZHONGYAOSHEHUILILUNZHANKAIYINZHENG,CONGERYUBAOKUOZHONGGUOXUEZHEZAINEIDEGUOJIXUEZHEJIANLISHENKEDUIHUA。ZAIZHEIZHONGDUIHUAZHONGBUDUANFENGFU、FAZHANHECHAOYUEJIYOUDESHEHUILILUN,HUOXUJIUSHI“JIANGHAOZHONGGUOGUSHI”YU“JIANGOUZHONGGUOLILUN”DEZUIHAOTUJINGZHIYI。

                                注释

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                                杜亮,牛丽莉,张莉莉.21世纪以来我国教育社会学研究进展述评[J].清华大学教育研究,2019,40(05):40-48. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282044.html   

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