决战棋牌

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                  2. 鸦片战争时期英国对舟山的重视探析

                    摘 要: 在中英第一次鸦片战争中, 舟山是英国想夺取的主要对象。在第一次占领舟山后陷入困境, 英国军队才不得不退出舟山而强占香港。英军第二次攻占舟山后, 英国宣布香港和舟山为自由贸易港。在签署《南京条约》之后, 英国又有了用占领的香港换回舟山的想法。最终, 英
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                      摘 要:决战棋牌 在中英第一次鸦片战争中, 舟山是英国想夺取的主要对象。在第一次占领舟山后陷入困境, 英国军队才不得不退出舟山而强占香港。英军第二次攻占舟山后, 英国宣布香港和舟山为自由贸易港。在签署《南京条约》之后, 英国又有了用占领的香港换回舟山的想法。最终, 英国在名义上将舟山交还中国, 实质上仍置于其保护之下。

                      关键词: 鸦片战争; 英国; 舟山; 香港;

                      Abstract: In the first Sino-Britain Opium War, Zhoushan was the object that Britain wanted to seize. After its first occupation of Zhoushan, the British army was forced to withdraw from Zhoushan because of the trouble they met, so they moved to Hong Kong. After its second occupation of Zhoushan, Britain announced that Hong Kong and Zhoushan were free trade ports. After signing the "Treaty of Nanjing", Britain wanted to exchange the occupied Hong Kong for Zhoushan. In the end, Zhoushan was returned to China only in name, and it was actually still controlled by Britain.

                      Keyword: Opium War; Britain; Zhoushan; Hong Kong;

                      YINGGUOTONGGUOYAPIANZHANZHENGZHANLINGXIANGGANG, SHIXIANGGANGCHENGWEIYINGGUOZAIYUANDONGDIQUDEZHIMINDI, ZHEISHIZHONGSUOZHOUZHIDE。BUGUO, ZAIYAPIANZHANZHENGSHIQI, YINGGUOGENGWEIGUANZHUDONGNANYANHAI、ZHANGJIANGLIUYUYIJIGUANGDADEBEIFANGDIQU, CENGJINGDIYIGEYAOQINZHANDEZHONGGUODAOYUJIUSHIZHOUSHAN, YINGGUOZAIJIAOZHANGSHIQINEIDOUMEIYOUJIANGXIANGGANGKANCHENGSHIZUILIXIANGDEZHANLINGMUDEDI。19SHIJI40NIANDAI, ZHOUSHANBUJINCHENGWEIYINGGUOFADONGDUIHUAYAPIANZHANZHENGZUIZHUYAODEGONGJIMUBIAO;ZHANHOU, YOUZHANGQIBEIYINGJUNZHANLING, CHENGWEIZHONGYINGLIANGGUOWAIJIAODEZHENGJIE。YINGGUOZHISUOYIDUOQULEXIANGGANG, QIZHONGJIANGUOCHENGFASHENGLEDUOGEBIANHUA, CAIXINGCHENGLEZHEIGEJIEGUO。ZHEIBIAOMINGLEYINGGUODUIZHOUSHANDERENZHIFASHENGLEZHONGYAOBIANHUA, YEBIAOMINGLEYINGGUODUIZHOUSHANDEZHENGCEZUOCHULEHENDADEDIAOZHENG。

                      一、英国将舟山作为进攻的首要目标

                      1830NIANZHIHOU, ZHONGYINGGUANXIBIANDEYUELAIYUEJIANGHUA, ZHOUSHANQUNDAOCHENGWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUXIANGWULIZHANYOUDEDUIXIANG。47MINGYINGJIFANMAIYAPIANDESHANGRENZAI1830NIAN12YUEGONGTONGXIANGBENGUOYIHUISHANGSHU, TICHU“CAIYONGTONGYINGGUOXIANGFUDEJUEYI, ZHANLINGZHONGGUOYANHAIYIGEDAOYU, QUEBAOYINGGUODUIZHONGGUOZHANKAIDEMAOYIDEDAOBAOHU”。[1]178TAMENDEJITISHANGSHUDEDAOLEYINGGUOZHENGFUDERENKE, JINGUANYINGGUOZHENGFUDASUANZAIZHONGGUOLINGTUSHANGLVEDUOYIGEDAOYU, DANSHIQUEMEIYOUQUEDINGQINZHANMUBIAO, TAMENZAITAIWAN、XIANGGANG、ZHOUSHAN、SHAMEN、FUZHOUZHEIJIGEDIQUZHONGYOUYUBUJUE。

                    决战棋牌   BALUO (John Barrow) SHIDANGSHIYINGGUODEHAIJUNBUCIZHANG, TARENWEI, CONGMIANJISHANGSHUO, TAIWANDEMIANJIGUODA, ZAIZHANGQIZHANYOUSHANGYINGGUODEBINGLIBUGOU。[2]TADEYIJIANDEDAOLEYINGGUOYAPIANMAOYISHANGRENDEZANTONG, YOUYUTAMENCHANGCHANGZAIHUAHUODONG, HENSHUXIZHONGGUODEQINGKUANG, CHADUN (William Jardine) SHIZHEIPIRENYUANDEDAIBIAO。TARENWEIRUGUOXIANGYAOZHANGQIZHANYOUTAIWAN, JIUSHOUXIANYAODEDAODAOSHANGYUANYOUJUMINDEZHICHI, ZHEINANDUFEICHANGDA。1839NIAN10YUE, CHADUNTICHUYIGEFANGAN, ZHANLINGXIANGGANG, YINWEIXIANGGANGCONGMIANJISHANGLAISHUOBURUTAIWANDA, YOUGUANGKUODEHAIWANTINGBO, BINGQIEYIGONGYISHOU, SHUIYUANCHONGZU。[2]39CHADUNDEJIANYIBINGMEIYOUSHOUDAOZHENGFUDEZHONGSHI, TAMENBUXIEYUZHEIGEPIANYUANHUANGPIDEXIAODAOYU。DANGSHIYINGGUOZHENGFUZHONGDEHENDUOZHONGYAORENWU, BUJINDUIXIANGGANG, ERQIEDUIGUANGZHOUYESHIBUXIEYIGUDE。1840NIAN3YUE18RI, MANCHESITESHANGHUIZHUXIMOKEWEIKA (John Macvicar) ZHIHANYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHENBAMAIZUN (Palmerston) , RENWEIGUANGZHOUBUSHIYIGEJINXINGTANPANDEHAODIFANG, ZHEIBUDANSHIYOUYUGUANGZHOUTONGQINGCHAOHUANGGONGJULIJIAOYUAN, ERQIEGUANGZHOUDIFANGZHENGFUHUICAIQUGEZHONGCUOSHIZUNAOHEDIKANGZHONGYINGTANPAN, GENGYANZHONGSHIHUIQIPIANTAMEN。TAZHICHU, RUGUORANGTAXUANZE, TAHUIXUANZEFUZHOU、ZHOUSHANHESHAMEN。BAMAIZUNYEJUEDESHAMENSHIBIJIAOHAODEXUANZEMUBIAO, DANSHIDANGSHIDEYINGGUOZHIMINDIYINDUZONGDUAOKELAN (Auckland) QUERENWEISHAMEN、FUZHOUDENGLIZHONGGUODESHOUDOUTAIYUAN, WEIZHIYOUXIEKAONAN, MEIYOUZUGOUDEWEISHELI。[3]480

                      在选择中, 舟山的地位与优势日渐突出。曾任广州英国商馆负责人的厄姆斯顿 (J.B.Urmston) 、传教士郭士立 (Gützlaff) 等人强烈建议英国当局占领舟山。[4]英国驻华海军上校、商务监督义律 (Charles Elliot) 在1837年11月9日, 采取备忘录的方式把“英国派发武装队伍‘并非在广州, 而是在舟山以及以北的地方创建根据地’”的这一建议提交给巴麦尊。[3]480义律在1839年4月3日写信给海军少将梅特兰 (F.L.Maitland) , 称“舟山群岛良港众多, 靠近也许是世界上最富裕的地区, 当然还拥有一条最宏伟的河流和最广阔的内陆航行网”, 其腹地江浙是当时中国最重要的出口商品丝茶的主产区。如果把舟山辟为自由港, 它将成为“大不列颠的商业中心”, 该中心不但面对中国, 而且面对日本, “所以舟山不久便会成为亚洲最重要的贸易场所, 也许是世界上最重要的商业基地之一”。[5]

                    鸦片战争时期英国对舟山的重视探析

                      英国各方势力广泛认可义律提出的意见。并且奥克兰在战略和政治上补充义律的建议, 他认为, 英国要想向当时的清朝政府施加一定的压力, 就要首先占领舟山, “这样可以更好地获得大海和大运河间的交运控制权, 并且政治影响力会大幅提升”。[3]480巴麦尊指出, 英国在选择占领地的时候, 要充分考虑到既能做到确保安全停泊船只, 还能抵御中华帝国的攻打, 同时还可以依据形势的需要长期占领, 舟山群岛中的某个岛可以符合上述条件。作为坐落在北京和广州中段的舟山群岛, 不但可以满足水路交通的要求, 还可以为远征军建立一个防守有效的据点。[3]470

                    决战棋牌   1839NIAN10YUE18RI, BAMAIZUNCONGYINGGUOWAIJIAOBUFACHUYIFENGMIHANJIYILV, XIANGTAXIADALE“JIKELINGBINGGONGZHANZHOUSHANQUNDAOMOUGEDAO”DEMINGLING, SHIGAIDAOBIANCHENGYINGGUOQINLVEZHONGGUODEXINGDONGGENJUDIHEGONGYINGZHONGXIN, BINGZAIWEILAIDANGZUOYINGGUODESHANGWUANQUANJIDI。BAMAIZUNHAIYOUWEIQIANGDIAO, YAOYIZHANYOUZHOUSHANYAOXIEQINGZHENGFUDAYINGYINGGUOZHENGFUSUOTICHUDEGEZHONGTIAOJIAN:“CHECHUZHOUSHANJUYOUKENENGXINGDETIAOJIANWEI:ZAIZHOUSHANDAOYUZHONG, XUNUOBAMOUZHONGLEISIAOMENDEJULIUDIJIYINGGUO, BINGYONGTIAOYUEDEXINGSHIBAOZHENGSUOYOUYINGGUORENKEZAIZHONGGUODONGBUYANHAIDEQUANBUGANGKOUHUOMOUYILEIZHONGYAOGANGKOUZUOSHENGYI。”[2]44

                      巴麦尊在1840年2月20日写给作为英国政府全权代表的懿律和义律的一封函件中, 除了详细列明军事决战棋牌行动的细节, 包括要封锁广州、占领舟山等, 另外还附有写给中国官员的一封公函。在公函中, 他更直接明确提出要中国将沿海一个或多个海岛给予英国, 让英国人可以居住及自由贸易, 免受不合理的对待和索取。他指出, 虽然自己不太熟悉中国的情况, 但英国政府倾向于永久割让舟山的一个海岛。但是与此同时, 巴麦尊在割让岛屿的问题上又提出另一项选择, 就是如果中国愿意开放新的通商口岸, 那便可以撤除割让海岛的要求。“如果中国政府不愿意将舟山的主权割让给英国, 而是愿意以条约的方式保证英国国民能够在中国领土上进行自由商业活动, 并且保证英国人的安全, 英国政府可以同意这一方案, 并且在这一方案长期有效的前提下, 英国可以做到永不侵占中国沿海岛屿。”[6]

                      1840NIAN2YUEDI, YINGGUOZHENGFUKAISHIDUIZHONGGUOYANHAIFADONGWUZHUANGGONGJI, SHOUXIANSHIJIANGZHUJIANGKOUFENGSUOLE, ZHIHOUYIZHULIGONGDABINGZHANLINGLEZHOUSHAN, JIANGZHOUSHANBIANCHENGJUNSHIDABENYING, ZUIHOUXIANGTIANJINBAIHEKOUJINXINGLEGONGJI。1840NIAN7YUE6RI, YINGJUNJINGGUOSHUXIAOSHIDEJIZHANGONGZHANLEZHOUSHAN。LUNDUN《TAIWUSHIBAO》GAOXINGDIBAODAO:“YINGGUOGUOQIDIYICIZAIZHONGHUADIGUODEYIBUFENTUDISHANGPIAOYANG, ZHOUSHANYU7YUE5RIXINGQITIANLUORUYINGGUORENSHOUZHONG, YINGGUOZHENGFUZAIYUANDONGYOUZENGJIALEYIKUAIZHIMINDI。”[7]ZHICI, ZHOUSHANCHENGWEIDIYICIYAPIANZHANZHENGSHIQIZHONGYINGSHUANGFANGZHENGDUOZUIZHONGYAODEDIQUZHIYI, ZHANHOU, YOUYIDUCHENGWEIZHONGYINGLIANGGUOWAIJIAODEZHENGJIE。

                      二、英军撤出舟山占据香港的缘由

                      1841NIAN1YUE7RI, YINGJUNTURANXIANGGUANGDONGSHAJIAOJINGONG, ZAISHAJIAODESHOUHOUYIXIANGGANGDEMATOUHEHAIANDIAOHUANWEITIAOJIAN, DAYINGCONGDINGHAICHEJUN。QISHANSHANZIZUOZHU, YIYINGJUNGUIHAIZHOUSHANWEITIAOJIANZUOCHUZHONGDARANGBU。20RI, YILVDANFANGMIANGONGBULESUOWEIDE《CHUANBICAOYUE》 (SHIJISHANG, QISHANBINGWEIZAICAOYUESHANGQIANZI, QINGZHENGFUYEMEIYOUPIZHUNZHEIGETIAOYUE) , DAYINGYIPEICHANGYANJIA600WANLIANG, GERANGXIANGGANG, KAIFANGGUANGZHOUDENGWEITIAOJIAN, YINGJUNCHECHUDINGHAI。1YUE26RI, YILVPAIBINGQIANGXINGZHANLINGLEXIANGGANG。2YUE25RI, YINGJUNCHELIZHOUSHAN。YINGGUOZHENGFUHEYIJIANGZHANLINGDEMUBIAOZHUANXIANGLEYUGUANGZHOUXIANGLINDEXIANGGANG, QIYUANYINSHIFUZADE, DUOFANGMIANDE。

                      (一) 传染病给英军继续占领舟山造成了巨大的麻烦

                      “YINGJUNFANGQIZHOUSHAN, DUIYUJUNDUIJIANKANGFANGMIANDEKAOLVKONGPASHIBIJIAOZHONGYAODEYUANYIN。ZHONGGUODANGDIBINGYUANWEISHENGWUHEYINDUHUOLUANJUNSHIZHANZHENGZHONGYINGJUNZAOSHOUCHENZHONGDAJIDEYUANYIN, JIBINGJIUXIANGWUXINGDEDASHOU, DUIZHENGGEZHANZHENGGUOCHENGCHANSHENGLEJUEDINGXINGDEYINGXIANG。”[8]1840NIANXIABANNIAN, ZAIDINGHAIDEYINGJUNZHONGKAISHILIUXINGYANZHONGDEBINGYI。“ZAIYIZHIBUCHAOGUO4000RENDEJUNDUILI, BINGYUANZHUYIYUANLIAOBINGJIUYOU5329RENCI;SIWANGYOU448REN。”[6]301

                      QINHUAYINGJUNSHIGUANBINHAN (J.E.Bingham) ZAI《YINGJUNZAIHUAZUOZHANJI》ZHONGYEXIEDAO:“SUGELANLAIFUQIANGLIANDUIWANQUANXIAOSHOUDAOPIBAOGUTOU, ……WUYI, ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDANGGUIGENYUQUEFAXINXIANERYOUYIDESHIWU, YIZHISHIBINGDETIZHIRONGYIGANRANZHEILISUOLIUXINGDENVEJIHEFAREZHENG, YINWEIWOMENFAXIANJUNGUANZHONGJIANBINGQINGJIAOQING, ERTAMENDESHIWUSHIBIJIAOFENGFUDE。”[9]CONG1840NIAN7YUE13RIZHI12YUE31RI, JIUSIWANGDERENSHUSHUO, YINGJUNZAIZHOUSHANBINGSIDERENSHUSHIQILIANGNIANDUOZHANZHENGZHONGZHANSIRENSHUDE5BEI, YI1841NIAN1YUEZHOUSHANZHUJUNSHULIANG1762RENDEHUA, NEIMEPINGJUNMEIRENZHUYUAN3CIYISHANG。YUCITONGSHI, ZHOUSHANMINZHONGZAIYINGJUNZHANLINGQIJIANJINXINGLEBUQUBUNAODEDOUZHENG, TAMENZAISHUIYUANXIADU, JUJUETIGONGXINXIANSHIWU, HAIYOUXIANGMINZUZHIXIRAOYINGJUN, ZHEIXIEDOURANGZHUSHOUZAIDINGHAIDEYINGGUOJUNDUIDANZHANXINJING。

                      (二) 清政府对于割让舟山的坚决反对

                      1840NIAN8YUE30RI, QISHANZAIYUYILVDETANPANZHONGQIANGDIAO“HUANGSHANGBUKENENGGERANGYIGEDAOYU”JIYINGGUO。ZAITANPANZUICHUJIEDUANZHITONGYIPEICHANGYANJIA500WANYUAN, FENSHINIANCHANGQING, JUJUEQITAYAOQIU, TABIAOSHIRUGUOYINGFANGJIXUZHANLINGZHOUSHAN, ZESHUANGFANGMEIYOUHEPINGDESHANGYEJIAOWANGKEYAN。12YUE11RI, QISHANDEZHAOHUIZHENDUIDINGHAIWENTITEBIEZHICHU:“DINGHAITUDIMIANJIYOUXIAN, RENMINPINQIONG, ……DANSHIZHIYAOGUIGUOJIXUZHANYOUNEIGEDIFANG, BIANBUNENGYOUGONGSHUNZHICHENG, ERQIEBUKENENGZOUQINGHUANGSHANGHUIFUTONGSHANG。DUIGUIGUOLAISHUO, ZHANLINGGAIDIYOUSHENMEHAOCHUHUOLIYI?”[10]801

                      QINGZHENGFUSHENZHIHAIMEINENGNONGQINGCHUYINGGUOFADONGYAPIANZHANZHENGCHUYUHEZHONGMUDE, DANDUIYUQILINGTUDEYAOQIURENGSHIYUYIJUJUE, BINGYIZHONGDUANSHUANGFANGMAOYIWEIYAOXIE。12YUE15RI, QISHANTONGYIZAI500WANYUANDEJICHUSHANGZAIZENGJIA100WANYUAN, DANJIANCHI“GERANGLINGTUSHITIANCHAOQIJINCONGLAIWEIYOUZHISHI——ZHEIYIQINGKUANGSHIWULUNRUHEXINGBUTONGDE”。TAJINERTICHU“KEYIDAIWEIQINGQIUZAIZENGJIAKAIFANGYIGEKOUAN, BINGSHIFANGZAIZHOUSHANBEIFUDEYINGREN, YICIJIAOHUANDINGHAI”。SUIHOU, YILVYUQISHANZHIJIANDEZHAOHUIJIUCHANYUZENGKAISHANGBUDEWENTISHANG, BINGDOUYIGUIHAIZHOUSHANYUFOUZUOWEIBIYAOTIAOJIAN。KEYISHUO, QINGZHENGFUZAIZHOUSHANWENTISHANGDEJIANCHIPOSHIYILVTUIERQIUQICI, JIANGTANPANYAODIANZHUANYIZHIZENGJIAKAIFANGCHUGUANGZHOUYIWAIDEBEIFANGKOUAN。

                      (三) 割让岛屿并非英国的唯一目标, 争取开放贸易才是最终目标

                      1840NIAN2YUE20RI, ZAIBAMAIZUNDEZUIZHONGXUNLINGZHONG, TATICHURUGUOZHONGGUOZHENGFUYUNXUYINGGUOJIANLISHANGGUANBINGWEISHUANGFANGMAOYIZUOCHUYONGJIUANPAIERBUYUANYIGERANGDAOYUDEHUA, NEIMEZAICAONIDETONGZHONGGUODINGLITIAOYUEZHONGGUANYUGERANGDAOYUYITIAOKEYIHULVE, ERZUOWEIMIBUXIANGYINGZENGJIAWUTIAOGUANYUSHANGWUFANGMIANDETIAOKUAN, QINEIRONGBUWAIBAOHUYINGSHANGZAIKOUANDEZIYOUSHANGYEHUODONG, HEZHUNGUANSHUI, DENGDENG。ERBEIZHANLINGDIZUIDADEZUOYONGZEZAIYUCI, JIRUGUOSHUANGFANGDACHENGYOUGUANXIEYI, NEIMEZAILINSHITIAOYUEZHONGYI“NVWANGBIXIADEJUNDUIJIANGJIXUZHANYOUZHOUSHANQUNDAOHUOKENENGYIBEIZHANLINGDEQITADIFANG, YISHIWEIXIE, ZHIDAOZHONGGUOZHENGFUWANQUANLVXINGQIYIQIETIAOKUANWEIZHI”。[11]51YEJIUSHISHUO, YIZHOUSHANZUOWEIJIANDUZHONGGUOLVXINGTIAOYUEDEYIGE“ZHIYA”。

                    决战棋牌   8YUE30RI, YILVYUQISHANZAITIANJINDAGUJUXINGLEDIYICIHUITAN, ZAIHUITANZHONG, QISHANJIANJUEFANDUIJIANGZHOUSHANDEZHUQUANGERANGJIYINGGUO, ZAIZHEIYIBEIJINGXIA, YILVZHITICHULEJIANGZHOUSHANZUOWEILAIHUAYINGJUNDELINSHIJIDI。“ZHANLINGZHOUSHANSHIWEIBUDUIXINGDONGFANGBIANHEXUYAO, ZHEISHIYINZHONGGUOGUANYUANDEBAOXINGERYINQIDE”, ERQIE“YINGGUONVWANGJINGCHANGZHANLINGBIEGUODELINGTUHUOZHEDAOYU, YECHANGCHANGGUIHAI。RUGUOZHONGGUOZHENGFUNENGGOUZUOYIXIERANGBU, GUIHAIZHOUSHANYEBUSHIZUOBUDAODE”。[11]ZHEIWUYISHIDUIYONGJIUZHANLINGZHOUSHANLICHANGDEZHONGYAOXIUZHENG, ERQIESHUANGFANGTAOLUNDEJIAODIANBINGBUZAILINGTU, LINGTU (ZHOUSHAN) ZAIYILVDEBIAOSHUZHONGBINGMEIYOUBEIQIANGDIAOWEIBIYAOTIAOJIAN。

                      (四) 英国政府赋予其中国远征军司令的自由权限

                      ZHANZHENGQIANXI, SHEDINGDIYIMUBIAOWEIZHANJUZHOUSHANZAIYINGZHENGFUZHONGBAOCHITONGYIKOUJING, BUGUO, ZAIZHANJUZHIHOURUHECHUZHIMEIYOUDADAOYIZHIYIJIAN。BAMAIZUNZAI1839NIAN10YUE18RIMINGLINGYILVGONGZHANZHOUSHAN, ZAIZHANSHIZUOWEIJUNYONG, “QIEWEILAIHAINENGZUOWEIYINGGUOSHANGWUDEWENGUGENJUDI”, QUEQIEBIAOMING“XIANGYAOYONGJIUPANJU”DEYEXIN。ZHIQIAN, DABULIEDIANNEIGEYEZHUANMENZHAOKAILEYUCEZAIHUAJUSHIDEHUIYI, BAMAIZUNBINGFEIZHISHIDAIBIAOZIJIDEJIANYI。BUGUOJITIANZHIHOU, BAMAIZUNGAIBIANLEZIJIDESHUOFA, ZAI1839NIAN11YUE14RIBAMAIZUNFACHU“ZHIYAO‘QINGZHENGFUKEYIYUANMANJIEJUESUOYOUDESHIQING’, JIUKEYICONGZHOUSHANCHEBING, ZHEIYIWEIZHEZHOUSHANCHENGWEILESUOQINGZHENGFUDECHOUMA”。LINGWAI, BAMAIZUNHAITICHUBAZHOUSHANBIANWEIYUAOMENXIANGSIZUJIEDIDESHEXIANG。[10]525

                    决战棋牌   AOKELANQIANGLIEFANDUIBAMAIZUNDEZHEIYISHEXIANG, BINGZHICHUCHUANGJIANJINSIYUAOMENDESHOUZHONGGUOZHENGFUYUESHUDE“HUNHEZHENGFU”, HUIBAWOMENXIANGYAOZAIZHEIKUAIZHIMINDISHANGXIANGHUODEDESUOYOULIYIHUIHUAI, TAHAITICHU, YINGDANGBAZHOUSHANCHUANGJIANWEIZAIZHONGGUODULICHULAIDEYIGEDABULIEDIANZHIMINDI。[3]483YINCIDEZHI, YINGGUOZHENGFUTICHULEZUJIEDI、ZHIMINDI、LINSHIZHANLINGDIZHEISANZHONGFANGZHENLAICHUZHIZHOUSHAN。YINGZHENGFUYOUZAI1840NIAN2YUEFEN, BADUIZHONGGUOQUANBUDAOYUSHIXINGZHANJU、QIANGPOGERANG、CHEJUNDEFOUJUEQUANFUYUYINGGUOZHUZHONGGUODAIBIAO。GENJUGAIGUIDING, YILVDENGYINGGUOZHUHUADAIBIAOYIFANGMIANNENGGOUXIANGSHOUDAOZAIHUAXINGDONGDEZIYOUJUEDINGQUAN, LINGWAIYOUXIANRUGEZHIYICIDEJINGDI。GUCI, YILVZAIQUXIANGGANGSHEZHOUSHANSHANGZHANJUZUQINGZHONGDEDIWEI。

                      三、英国宣布舟山和香港为自由贸易港

                      当得知义律自作主张放弃舟山之后, 英国朝野兴起一片反对浪潮, 认为《穿鼻草约》中英国所获太少。奥克兰在1841年2月中旬得到消息后, 就不满意义律采取的举措。4月份, 消息到达英国后引发了较大的反响, 4月12日, 伦敦39家公司和利物浦50家企业的商人分别联名上书巴麦尊, 认为从《穿鼻草约》中“看不见实现了女王陛下政府在去年派遣庞大军队前往中国公开宣布企图达到的任何一项重大的目的”, [12]倡议英国政府对中国事态采取干预措施。英国外交部在20日, 把义律执行政府规定目标情况递交给英政府, 在递交的文书中占篇幅最大的就是与舟山相关的内容, 最后下的结论是义律没有完成使命。最让英政府感到恼怒的是义律竟然为了一个毫无人烟的小岛香港而舍弃了舟山岛, 况且, 当下香港地位也很不确定。既然允许清政府在岛上收税, 那就不是英国的殖民地。4月21日, 巴麦尊急不可待地写了一封私信传给义律, 并告知义律, 英当局在处理中国事务上的最终决定。巴麦尊在信上严厉斥责了义律把命令当废纸的行为, 责备他没有充分利用手中的武装力量去实现全部目的。尤其对义律同意交还舟山感到愤怒。他说, 我国有着全球无人能敌的海军, 一个小小的舟山, 我们想留存多久没有人敢阻拦。巴麦尊表示没有占领香港的意愿。他指出这个坐落在东南沿海的岛屿是在中国发展贸易的最佳区域, 在贸易上香港没有一点价值, 即便在华南地区展开贸易, 也只能是广州, 与香港没有干系。另外, 香港与中国经济、政治中心相距甚远, 香港只有在贸易淡季时为英国商人提供房屋居住的价值。鉴于义律拒不执行政府的训令, 巴麦尊在信末宣布, 他不能将重任托付给义律这样的人, 义律将被撤销他在中国担任的一切职务。[13]随后, 巴麦尊召集内阁会议, 做出停止广东谈判、扩大侵略战争的决议, 改派璞鼎查 (Henry Pottinger) 取代义律, 出任驻华全权使臣兼商务监督, 负责扩大侵华战争以掠夺更多的利益。

                      ZHIHOUYOUXIAOXIZHENGMING, XIANGGANGBINGFEISHIYIWENBUZHIDEHUANGDAO。BAMIANLEYILVZHIHOU, YINGSHANGMADICHEN (James Matheson) DENGRENDANXINXIANGGANGBEIYINGGUOZHENGFUPAOQI, JIAQIANG“XIANGGANGSHIWUKEQUDAIDEMAOYIQU”DEXUANCHUAN, JI“JINZAIXIANGGANGDENGDIQUYINGGUORENCAIHUIBEIZHONGGUORENSHUZHI, ZAIZHOUSHANHUOZHEQITADIQU, ZHONGGUORENJIANDAOYINGGUORENTONGCHANGHUIJIUPAODIAO”。[1]194AOKELANSUIRANDUIYUCHELIZHOUSHANBINGBURENKE, DANBINGMEIYOUSHEQIXIANGGANGDEYIYUAN, ZHICHUXIANGGANG“YONGYOUHESHITINGCHUANDEGANGKOU, QIHOUSHIYI、JUNSHIJIAZHIJIAOQIANG, DUIYINGERYANBAOLIUXIANGGANGYOUBUKEHUOQUEDEYIYI。”。[14]ZAIGEFANGDESHUOFUXIA, YINGGUONEIBUDEQINGXUYIBUXIANGYIWANGNEIYANGQIANGLIE。1841NIAN5YUE31RI, BAMAIZUNZAIJIPUDINGCHADEZHISHIZHONGSHUO, XIANGGANGDAOBUBIFANGQI, GAIDAOZAIXUDUOFANGMIANJUBEIYOULITIAOJIAN, KEYICHENGWEIYINGGUODUIHUAMAOYIDEYIGEJUDIAN。ZHEIJIUGAIBIANLEYINGGUOYUANXIANDUIXIANGGANGDECELVE。BUGUO, BAMAIZUNYIRANJIANCHI, XIANGGANGBIBUSHANGZHOUSHANZHONGYAO, DIDAZHONGGUODEPUDINGCHA, “SHOUYAOJUNSHIXINGDONGSHIZHONGXINZHANLINGZHOUSHAN”, BINGQIEZAIZHOUSHANZHUJUN, TONGQINGZHENGFUZHANKAITANPAN。TADUIPUDINGCHASHUO:“WOMENBUNENGRENWEIZHANLINGXIANGGANGBIZAIZHONGGUODONGHAIANZHANLINGYIGEDAOYUHEQUDEYIXIEDACHENGSHIDEJUZHUQUANGENGWEIZHONGYAO。”[6]794PUDINGCHAZAI8YUE10RIDAODAAOMEN, 22RILINGJUNBEISHANG, 10YUE1RIZHOUSHANZAICIBEIYINGJUNZHANLING。

                    决战棋牌   QIAFENGCISHI, YINGGUOGUONEIZHENGJUCHANSHENGJIDADEBIANDONG。ABODINGZAI1841NIAN9YUEFENJIETIBAMAIZUNCHURENYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHEN, JIUDUIHUAZHENGCEZUOLEYIXIEDIAOZHENG。TAJIPUDINGCHADEXINHANZHONGQIANGDIAO, YINGGUODELIYIZAIYUKUOZHANMAOYIHEHUODEYUCIXIANGGUANDEQUANYI, ERBUZAIYUGEQUZHONGGUOLINGTU;ZANSHIZHANLINGYIXIEDAOYU, BIRUZHOUSHANHEXIANGGANG, ZUOWEIDUIHUAZHANZHENGDEJUNSHIJIDISHIBIYAODE, DANSHITABUZANCHENGYONGJIUZHANLING, YINWEIZHEIJIANGDALIANGZENGJIAYINGGUOZHENGFUDEKAIZHI, ERQIEHUIJIASHENZHONGGUOZHENGFUDEYUANHEN, BULIYUDUIHUAMAOYIDEFAZHAN。1842NIAN1YUE, YINGWAIJIAOBUXIANGPUDINGCHAZHENGSHIXIADAMINGLING:TINGZHIJIANSHEXIANGGANGDIQUDESUOYOUFEIJUNSHIJIANZHUWU;BAZHOUSHANDANGZUOYAOXIEQINGZHENGFUDEFAMA, POSHIQINGZHENGFUDUIYINGFANGZUOCHUZUIDADERANGBU, TONGYIBUPINGDENGTIAOYUE。YINGGUOZHENGFUSIHUXIANGFANGQIZAIHUADUOQUZHANLINGDIDEZHENGCE。

                      DUIYUZHOUSHAN, PUDINGCHAJIBENANLINGXINGSHI。ERDUIXIANGGANG, PUDINGCHAQUEWEIANYINGGUOZHENGFUDEZHIYIXINGSHI, GANGDAODEMINYONGJIANSHEWEIYUTINGZHI, FANERDAGUIMOZHANKAI。PUDINGCHAZAI1842NIAN2YUE16RIMINGMUZHANGDANDEXUANBU:BADINGHAIHEXIANGGANGSHEWEIZIMAOGANG, BUSHOUQUSUOYOUGUOJIADEYIQIECHUANZHIDEGANGKOUSHUI、GUANSHUIYIJIQIYUJUANSHUI。“ZHAODEYUEZHIXIANGGANG, ZHEZHIDINGHAIDENGCHU, DISHUHAIGANG, WEIYANGCHUANLAIWANGZHIQU, YINGZHUNGECHUANZAIBIRENBIANMAOYI。YUANCISHIYANGZHURENZHIXI, RENHEGUOCHUANZHI, JUNNENGJINRUGANGKOUMAOYI。DAIFENGJUNZHUJIANGMINGZHIXIAN, SUOYOUCHUANCHAOHUOSHUI, JIYILVGUIFEIDENGXIANG, BUGUANNAGUOCHUANZHI, JUNBUYONGJIAONA。”[3]535

                      1842NIAN8YUE, GENJUYINGGUOXINNEIGECHUTAIDEFANGZHEN, ZAIZHONGYINGTANPAN《NANJINGTIAOYUE》SHI, YINGGUOXIANGZHONGGUOZHENGFUTICHULEJUKUANPEICHANG, YAOZHONGFANGJIANGSHAMENDEGULANGYU、ZHOUSHAN、ZHENHAIDEZHAOBAOSHANZHEIJICHUBEIYINGGUOZHANLINGDEDIQUZUOWEIDIYA。ZHONGGUOZHENGFURENWEI, LIANGGUOJIRANYIJINGTINGZHANQIANYUE, JIUYAOYIXINRENWEIJICHU, BUNENGJINXINGDANBAO, RUGUODANBAOSHUOMINGLIANGFANGHAIBUGOUXINREN, ZHEIHUIYINGXIANGDAOSHUANGFANGJINHOUDEYOULIHEZUO。YINGFANGZERENWEI, PEIKUANYERUTONGHAIZHAIYIYANG, BUGUANSHIFOUXIANGHUXINREN, DOUYAOLIXIAZIJUBINGQIEJIAOFUDIYAWU, ZHEIYANGCAISUANHESHI, LIANGGUOZHIJIANDESHANGDINGGENGBUZAIHUAXIA。ZAIZHONGGUONULIZHENGQUXIA, YINGGUOYUANYIJIANGZHAOBAOSHANJIANDIAO, BUGUOJUJUEZHONGGUOYAOQIUDE“ZHOUSHANZHIYUKAIBULIANXI, BUYUPEIKUANLIANXI, DENGKAIFANGWUKOUYIHOU, JIUJIAOHAIZHOUSHAN”DEJIANYI。《NANJINGTIAOYUE》QIANDINGSHI, DISHIERKUANGUIDING, ZHOUSHANJIAOHAIRIQIDINGWEI1846NIAN1YUE, JIEZHINEISHI, QINGZHENGFUYAOFUQINGPEIKUAN, BINGKAIFANGWUKOU。“ZHIYOUDINGHAIXIANDEZHOUSHANHAIDAO, SHAMENTINGDEGULANGYUXIAODAO, YIRANGUIYINGJUNZANSHIZHUZHA;DENGDAOSHUANGFANGTAOLUNDEYANGYIN (JIZHONGFANGPEICHANGJIYINGGUODE2100WANLIANGYINZI) QUANBUFUQING, ERZHIQIANSHANGDINGDEGEGEKOUANDOUYIKAIFANG, YIJIYINGRENTONGSHANGHOU, JIUTUICHUZHUSHOULIANGCHUDESHIBING, BUZAIZHANLING。”ER《NANJINGTIAOYUE》DISANKUANZEWANCHENGLEDUIXIANGGANGDAODEFAQUANGERANG。“YINYINGGUOSHANGCHUAN, YUANLUSHEYANG, WANGWANGYOUSUNHUAIXUXIUBUZHE, ZIYINGJIYUYANHAIYICHU, YIBIANXIUCHUANJICUNSHOUSUOYONGWULIAO。JINDAHUANGDIZHUNJIANGXIANGGANGYIDAO, JIYUYINGGUOJUNZHUJISIHOUSHIXIZHUWEIZHE, CHANGYUANZHUZHANG, RENBIANLIFAZHILI。”[15]

                      四、舟山成为英国的一块“保护地”

                      中英两方在1843年年中, 进行《南京条约》文本的互换, 英国内部在对香港和舟山的意见上又有了分歧。随着战事的结束, 军队的撤离, 五口的开放, 香港经济开始慢慢衰落, 其前途变得风雨飘摇。与舟山相比, 香港有着很大的差距, 舟山这块地方地处香港的北部, 物产丰富, 人力资源丰足, 很有发展前景, 远远强过当时的香港, 因此, 舟山受到了更多英国人士的欢迎。前特派委员会主席、日后当上东印度公司董事会主席的厄姆斯顿爵士, 依然力主占领舟山, 抱怨香港“已经被称赞和吹捧到了极其不可思议的程度……从贸易角度看, 在目前的状况和条件下, 这个岛屿不但对我们毫无用处, 也很难设想或指望它有朝一日能变成一个商业中心”。[16]

                    决战棋牌   YIZHAOTIAOYUE, ZHONGGUOZHENGFUZAI1845NIAN8YUEJIANGSHAMEN、GUANGZHOU、SHANGHAI、NINGBO、FUZHOUZHEIWUGETONGSHANGKOUANKAIFANG, BINGBA2100WANLIANGYINZIQUANBUFUJIYINGGUO, YINGGUOZAIYEMEIYOULIYOUJIXUZAIZHOUSHANZHUSHOU。ERZHEISHI, SHAOSHUYINGGUORENQUEYOUYOUJIYUZHOUSHANKENENGDAILAIDEJUDASHANGYESHOUYI、FENGFUTECHANZIYUAN、DUTEDILIWEIZHIDEMIAOTOU, DANGSHIZUIWEIQIANGLIEDESHIRENXIANGGANGCAIZHENGJUJUZHANGDEMENGGEMALI·MADING (R.M.Martin) , TASHIZHONGZHUZHANGFANGQIXIANGGANGERZHANJUZHOUSHAN。1845NIANQIUXIERENHOU, TACENGZHUANCHENGCONGXIANGGANGJINGYINDUFUYINGGUO, YANTUYOUSHUO, “TACIXINGDEMUDESHIQUANSHUOBIXIAZHENGFUJIANGXIANGGANGHAIJIZHONGGUO, DAIZHIYIZHOUSHAN。XIANZAIFAXIANZHOUSHANZAISHANGYEFANGMIANYAOHESHIDEDUO, GENGYOULIYUJIANKANG, ERQIEHAOWUYIWENGENGFURAO。XIANGGANGZHISHIYIPIANPINJIDEYANSHI, ERZHOUSHANZEXIANGFAN, SUOCHANDAOMINENGGOUYANGHUOHENDUORENKOU”。[17]303YISHIJIAN, ZAIYINGGUOBENDI、YINDU、JUZHUZAIZHONGGUOHEXIANGGANGDEYINGGUORENZHONGDUIXIANGGANGHUANZHOUSHANZHEIYITIYIZHANKAIREYI。

                      《YINDUZHIYOU》SHIYIFENYINDUBAOZHI, 1845NIAN9YUE18RIZHEIFENBAOZHISHANGFABIAOLEGUANYUZHOUSHANDEZHUANLUN。ZUOZHEFENXILEBAZHOUSHANJIANCHENGZHIMINDIDEYOULITIAOJIAN, BUDANJUYOUYOUYUEDEQIHOU, GUANGKUODEGANGKOU, CONGDILIWEIZHISHANGSHUO, ZHOUSHANKAOJINLEWUCHANFENGFU、RENKOUMIJIDEJIANGNANSHUIXIANG。ZHUANLUNYUYANCHENG, ZAIDUANQINEIZHOUSHANHUIYIYUECHENGWEISHIJIEJIDESHANGYEZHONGXIN, RUGUOYINGGUONENGZHANYOUZHOUSHAN, JIUKEYIZHIZHIZHONGGUOZHENGFUDECHOUWAIXINGWEI, YINGGUONENGGOUHENHAODITISHENGTADEZONGHEGUOLI, CONGERSHIZISHENZAILIEQIANGZHONGCHUZAIZUIQIANGSHIDIWEI。ZHICHI《YINDUZHIYOU》GUANDIANDEBAOKANYOU《ZHONGGUOZHIYOU》《XIANGGANGGONGBAO》HE《MENGMAIXINSHIBAO》DENG。YULUNGONGJUDEXUANRANZAOCHENGLEZHEIYANGDESHENGSHI:WULUNCAIYONGHEZHONGSHOUDUAN, RUGUOBIYAODEHUA, YIXIANGGANGXIANGJIAOHUAN, YICHENGWEIDANGSHIYINGGUONEIGEYIGEZUIWEIJIXUCHULIDEWENTI。《XIANGGANGGONGBAO》ZHICHU:“ZHOUSHANZHIZHONGYAOCHENGDUYIJIQIZHIYUYIGEZHEMINGSHANGYE、HAIJUNGUOJIADEJIAZHIJUEDUIBUNENGSHIRUOWUDU。” (Chinese Repository, 1845NIAN, 14JUAN12QI) SHANGSHUBAOKANYIZHIRENWEI, JIBIANJIANGYITOURUJUEZIJINDEXIANGGANGFANGQIYEHENHUASUAN, HAOZHAOJINSUOYOUNULI, DUOHUIZHOUSHAN。

                    决战棋牌   BUGUO, YEYOUSHAOSHUYINGGUORENZHICHU, RENMENKUADALEZHOUSHANDESHANGYESHOUYI、QIHOUDENGTIAOJIAN。JISHIZHICONGSHANGYEJIAODUZHEYAN, SHANGHAIDEKAIBUSHIZHOUSHANDEMAOYIDIWEIDAWEIJIANGDI, ZHOUSHANZUOWEIZHUANKOUGANGDEJIAZHIYIZHUJIANXIAOTUI;RUSHELIWEIJUNSHIJIDI, FEIYONGHUIYUANYUAN“CHAOCHUYIHUIYOUYIXIANGFUJIDEYOUGUANFEIYONG”;GENGHEKUANG, QINGZHENGFUBINGWUPOHUAILIANGGUOQIANDINGTIAOYUEDEYIXIANG, GUCIYINGFANGZAIKAOLVZHOUSHANYIJIZHENGGEZHONGGUODEWENTISHIYINGDANGZHANZAIGENGGAODEJIAODUSHANGQUSHENSHI。[17]TAMENZHICHU, RUGUOWEIFANTIAOYUEJUJUEJIANGZHOUSHANJIAOCHU, SHIBIYAOFUCHUJUDADEDAIJIA, ZHEIBIJIANGHUIYINFAQINGZHENGFUDEFANKANG, SHIYIHOUYINGGUOZAIGUOJISHANGDEFAZHANSHOUDAOYINGXIANG, SHENZHIHUIYINQIGUOJIFUMIANYINGXIANG, MEIGUO、FAGUOZHEIXIESHILIXIONGHOUDEGUOJIAHUOXUYEHUIQIANGLIEFANDUIYINGGUO。SUOYI, YINGGUOZHENGFUZAIZHEIZHONGKAOLVZHIXIA, JIUYANSHOUTIAOYUE, ZHONGSHIXINYUYUMINGYU。

                    决战棋牌   ZHEISHI, YINGGUOJINXINGLEDANBAOFANGANDEDIAOZHENG, TICHUZAICHANGHAIQUANBUPEIKUANQIANJIUKEYIBAGULANGYUHAIJIQINGZHENGFU。YINGFANGZHISUOYIZUOCHUZHEIYANGDEJUEDING, YINWEIYAOZHUSHOUGULANGYU, XUYAOPAIBINGZHUZHA, FEIYONGBUFEI, YOUZHOUSHANDANBAOJIUKEYILE。ZHEIZHONGZUOFACHUHUQINGZHENGFUDEYILIAO, TAMENRENWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUZAIYONGYUQINGUZONGDEFANGFA, YIGULANGYUWEIYOUER, YINDAOQINGZHENGFUPOHUAITIAOYUE, WEIZIJIKEYIQIANGZHANZHOUSHANDIANDINGJICHU。HOULAIDESHISHIBIAOMING, QINGZHENGFUDEZHEIYANGKAOLVSHIHENYOUBIYAODE。1845NIAN10YUE, ZHONGFANGPAIRENYUYINGFANGTANPANZHOUSHANDEJIAOHAIWENTI, YINGFANGYILIJIAOHAISHIJIANHAIYOULIANGGEYUEWEIJIEKOUJUJUEJIAOHAI。ZHONGFANGBIANBO, JISHIYINGGUOYAOMASHANGJIAOHAI, ZHONGGUOYEYAOPAIRENJINXINGJIESHOU, QIJIAOJIESHOUXUYEYAOYIDUANSHIJIANWANCHENG。YINGGUOZHENGFUZAIMEIYOULIYOUDEQINGKUANGXIACAITONGYIKAITAN。

                      GENJUTIAOYUESHANGGUIDINGDEQIXIAN, 1846NIAN1YUE22RI, ZHONGGUOTIQIAN4TIANZHIFUWANSUOYOUDEPEIKUAN, YINGGUOQUEJIANJUEBUCHELIZHOUSHAN, LIANGGUOZONGGONGJINGGUOLE40DUOCIDEJIAOSHE。YINGGUOCHULESHIZHOUSHANHEPEIKUANLIANXIZAIYIQI, YOUPANGSHENGZHIJIE。YISHIZAISHANHOUWENTISHANG, YINGFANGYAOQIUZHONGFANGPAICHUDEJIESHOUGUANYUANYAODUIYINGGUORENDEMUDIJINXINGBAOHU, DUIYUYINGGUOYOUWANGLAIDEZHONGGUORENBUDEJINXINGCHENGFA, JIXUBAOCHIZHONGYINGDESHANGYEHUODONG。ERSHIBUDEGERANGZHOUSHANJIDISANGUO, YINGGUOHAIPAQITAGUOJIAYOUQISHIFAGUOXIANGDEDAOZHOUSHANDEZHUQUAN, YINCIJINGGAOZHONGFANGBUDEJIANGZHOUSHANZHUANRANGJIQITAGUOJIA, RUGUOQITAGUOJIAQINZHANZHOUSHAN, YINGGUOJIANGZUOWEIZHONGGUODETONGMENGJINXINGDIYU。SANSHIGUANYUGUANGZHOURUCHENG, SHIZHEICIJIAOSHEZHONGZUIFEIZHOUZHEDEWENTI。YINGFANGJIANJUEYAOQIUJIANGRUCHENGWENTIYUJIAOHAIZHOUSHANWENTIYIQILAITAN, RUGUOYINGGUORENMEIYOUJINRUGUANGZHOU, JIUJUJUEJIAOHAIZHOUSHAN。HENMINGXIAN, YINGGUOJUEDEZISHENFAZHANHELIYIYUZHOUSHANYOUZHONGYAOGANXI, BAZHOUSHANGUIHUADAOZIJIBAOHUQUZHINEI。

                    决战棋牌   1846NIAN4YUE29RI, YINGGUODAIBIAODAIWEISI (J.F.Davis) ZAIHUMENTONGQINGZHENGFUDAIBIAOQIYINGHUIJIAN, ZHONGYINGQIANSHULE《HUMENZHAITEYUE》 (YOUBEIJIAOZUO《YINGJUNTUIHAIZHOUSHANTIAOYUE》) 。DAIWEISIDAIBIAOYINGGUONIDINGDE《HUMENZHAITEYUE》YOUWUTIAOTIAOYUE, QIZHONGDISANTIAO:“YINGGUOZAIZHOUSHANCHEJUNHOU, QINGCHAOYONGYUANBUNENGBAZHOUSHANDENGDAOYUGERANGJIQITAGUOJIA”;DISITIAO:“RUGUOZHOUSHANDENGDAOYUZAOSHOUQITAGUOJIAQINLVESHI, YINGGUOYINGDANGBAOHUQIWUYANG……”。[18]YINGJUNZHONGYUZAI7YUE23RI, JIWEIYUE6GEYUEHOU, BAQUANBUJUNDUICHECHUZHOUSHAN, YINGGUOZAIZHOUSHANYUXIANGGANGZHIJIANDEXUANZEZUIHOUDINGJU。

                      ZAIZHEILI, YINGGUOWEILEWEIHUZIJIZAIHUADEJIDELIYI, LIYONGGAITIAOYUE, BAZHOUSHANFANGZAIBAOHUDIDEWEIZHISHANG, JIZAIMINGYISHANGJIANGZHOUSHANJIAOHAIZHONGGUO, SHIZHISHANGRENGZHIYUQIBAOHUZHIXIA。

                      五、结语

                      YAPIANZHANZHENGQIJIAN, ZHOUSHANDUIZHONGYINGLIANGGUODOUBUSHIYIGEWUZUQINGZHONGDEDIFANG。ZAIZHANZHENGBAOFAQIANXI, YINGGUOZHENGFUXUANZEZHOUSHANZUOWEIJINGONGDESHOUYAOMUBIAO, QIYUANYINYOULIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIZAIZHOUSHANJIANLIJUNSHIJIDI, DUIBEIJINGDEQINGZHENGFUZAOCHENGWEIXIE;ERSHIZAIZHOUSHANJIANLIDABULIEDIANSHANGYEZHONGXIN, KONGZHIZHONGGUODEJINGJIXINZANG——ZHANGJIANGLIUYU。ZHANZHENGBAOFAHOU, YINGJUNLIANGDUGONGZHANZHOUSHAN, ZAIBEIZHANZHANGDA5NIANBANDESHIJIANLI, ZHOUSHANSHIJISHANGCHENGLEZIYOUMAOYIGANG。1846NIAN7YUEYINGJUNCHECHUZHOUSHANJIYIHOUDERIZILI, ZHOUSHANYOUCHENGWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUZAIZHONGGUONAIZHIYUANDONGDEYIKUAI“BAOHUDI”。ZHOUSHANDESHOUHUISHIYIXIANGGANGWEIDAIJIADE, YINGGUORENZHISUOYITUICHUZHOUSHAN, BUJINSHIYINWEISHOUZHONGYOULEYIGEKEYITIDAIDEXIANGGANG, ERQIESHIZAIDANGSHIQINGKUANGXIAYINGGUOCELVESHISHIERBIANDEDIAOZHENG, SHIYIZHONGTUIERQIUQICIDEWUNAIZHIJU。

                      JINDAIBEIYUWEI“HAISHANGZHIWANG”DEYINGGUO, YIKAOZISHENZHIHAIQUANDEYOUSHI, CHIXUXIANGDONGFANGKUOZHANGDEJINCHENGZHONGBUDUANQIANGZHANZHANLVEYIYIZHONGDADEBIEGUOBANDAOHEDAOYU, BAZHEIXIEDIQUHUAZUOWEIJUNSHIJIDIHETONGSHANGJUDIAN, YOU“BANDAOHEHAIDAOSHOUZANGJIA”DECHENGHAO。ZUOWEIHAIYANGMINZU, YINGGUORENSHIYONGHAIYANGSIWEICONGQUANQIUYANGUANGLAIRENZHIZHOUSHAN, TAMENYANZHONGDEZHOUSHANSHIYUANDONGDIQUZUIJIADEZIYOUGANGXUANZHI, SHIDONGXIFANGLIANGGESHIJIEPENGZHUANG、LIANGZHONGWENMINGCHONGTUDEQIANYANDAOYU。YINGGUOSHITUZHANGQIZHANLINGDESHOUYAOMUBIAOJIUSHIZHOUSHAN, SUIRANZHANZHENGJIEGUOMEIYOUSHIYINGGUODECHANGSUOYUAN, DANTAZHAOSHISHIREN, ZHOUSHANDEQUWEIYOUSHIHEGANGKOUZIYUANYOUSHISHIHEDENGZHONGYAO。

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                      [3]中国第一历史档案馆等.鸦片战争在舟山史料选编[G].杭州:浙江人民出版社, 1992.
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                      [7]张馨保.林钦差与鸦片战争[M].福州:福建人民出版社, 1989:204.
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                      [10]胡滨.英国档案有关鸦片战争资料选译:下册[G].北京:中华书局 1993.
                      [11]炎明.浙江鸦片战争史料:上册[G].宁波:宁波出版社, 1997
                      [12]舒国雄.明清两朝深圳档案文献演绎:第3卷[M].广州:花城出版社, 2000:1228.
                      [13] 余绳武, 刘存宽.十九世纪的香港[M].香港:香港麒麟书业有限公司, 1994:57.
                      [14]COSTIN W C.Great Britain and China:1933—1960[M].London:Clarendon Press, 1968:99.
                      [15]龚鹏程.改变中国历史的文献:下册[G].北京:中国工人出版社, 2010:698-700.
                      [16]URMSTON J B.Chusan and Hong Kong[M].London:J.Madden, 1847:56.
                      [17]广东省文史研究馆.鸦片战争史料选译[G].北京:中华书局, 1983:303.
                      [18]王尔敏.五口通商变局[M].桂林:广西师范大学出版社, 2006:261-262.

                      王文洪.鸦片战争期间英国对舟山的认知和政策转变[J].宁波大学学报(人文科学版),2017,30(02):50-56. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282056.html   

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