决战棋牌

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        • 宋代药材的栽培技术发展及原因

          摘 要: 宋代的药材种植已与日常食物生产相分离,出现了专业化种植模式,种植的药材种类逐渐增多,形成了若干地道药材的种植中心。宋人发现土质、播种时机、肥料的使用都会对药材的药性产生影响;宋代将间作法、肉引法运用于药材栽培,提高了药材的产量与品质;经过嫁
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            摘 要: 宋代的药材种植已与日常食物生产相分离,出现了专业化种植模式,种植的药材种类逐渐增多,形成了若干地道药材的种植中心。宋人发现土质、播种时机、肥料的使用都会对药材的药性产生影响;宋代将间作法、肉引法运用于药材栽培,提高了药材的产量与品质;经过嫁接的药材会使药性下降,有的甚至不堪入药,这些技术体现了宋人在药材种植时“以药性为核心”的思想。宋代种植技术,对元、明、清乃至今天都产生了直接的影响,在中国药材栽培史上具有重要地位。

            关键词:决战棋牌 宋代; 药材; 种植技术;

            Abstract: 决战棋牌Separated from daily food production, the cultivation of medicinal herbs in the Song Dynasty had a specialized planting pattern. As the variety of medicinal herbs grew gradually, a number of planting centers of authentic herbs were formed. People of the Song Dynasty found that soil quality, seeding time and fertilizer use had an impact on the medicinal nature of medicinal herbs; they applied interplant method and meat introduction method into the cultivation of medicinal herbs, which improved the yield and quality of medicinal herbs; they also found that the medicinal nature of medicinal herbs would decline after grafting, some of which would even not be used as medicines. All these techniques embody the idea of “taking medicinal properties as the core” behind planting medicinal materials in the Song Dynasty. The planting techniques of the Song Dynasty had a direct impact on the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties and even today, playing an important role in the history of Chinese medicine cultivation.

            Keyword:决战棋牌 the Song Dynasty; medicinal herbs; cultivation techniques;

          决战棋牌   WOGUOYAOCAIZHONGZHILISHIYOUJIU,ZAOZAICHUNQIUSHIQIYIJINGKAISHIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHI,CHUTUDEJIAGUWENWENXIANZHENGMINGWOGUODEZHONGYAO(YIYI)ZHISHAOYOU6000~10000NIANDEZHONGZHILISHI[1](P95)。ZHANGQIANCHUSHIXIYUHOU,DAIHUILEDALIANGWAILAIYAOCAI,RUHONGHUA、DASUANDENG,ZHEIXIEYAOCAIZHUJIANZAIZHONGYUANZHONGZHI。WEIJINNANBEICHAOSHIQI,YAOCAIDEZHONGZHIGENGJIAGUANGFAN,CHUXIANLEZHUANMENZHONGZHIYAOCAIDE“YAOPU”“YAOYUAN”。《QIMINYAOSHU》YISHUJIZAILE20YUZHONGYAOCAIDEZAIPEIFANGFA,RUDIHUANG、ZHIZI、ZHUYUDENG。DANZHEIYISHIQIYAOYONGZHIWUDEZHONGZHIDUOYIGUANSHANG、SHIYONG、RANSEWEIMUDE。ZISUIDAIKAISHI,YAOCAIZHONGZHIZHUJIANJINRUZHUANYELINGYU,CHUXIANLEZHUANYEZHONGZHIYAOCAIDESHUJI,RU《ZHONGZHIYAOFA》《ZHONGSHENCAO》DENG,KEXIZHEIXIETUSHUZAOYIWANGYI。TANGDAI,SUIZHESHANJUNONGSHUDEXINGQI,RENMENKAISHIZHUZHONGDUIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJINGYANDEZONGJIE,ZHEIYISHIQISHIWOGUOYAOCAIZHUANYEZHONGZHIDECHUSHIJIEDUAN。DAOSONGDAI,YAOCAIDEZHONGZHICHUXIANDAGUIMOZENGZHANG,XINGCHENGLEXIANGDUIJIZHONGDEYAOCAIZHONGZHIQUYU,YAOCAIZHONGZHIDEZHUANYEHUAZHUJIANXINGCHENG,YAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUHUODEKONGQIANDEFAZHAN。WUCUNHAO《ZHONGGUONONGYESHI》ZHONGZHICHU:“YAOCAIZAIPEILIDAIBUDUAN,DANZHENZHENGYAOCAIZAIPEIZHUANYEHEZHONGXINDECHUXIANKONGPAYAOZAISONGDAI。”[2](P845)

            目前学界对宋代药材的研究多从经济学医学决战棋牌的角度来探讨,从农学角度来探讨药材种植的成果较少,仅有的一些成果只是学者们在论述其他问题时略有涉及。如:唐廷猷在《中国药业史》中简单提到南宋种植茯苓的方法[3](P240)。漆侠在《宋代经济史》中提到附子种植时对土壤的要求[4](P163)。韩迎迎在《宋代药材产地、市场及相关问题研究》中对药材的栽培技术略有涉及[5](P23-25)。许文刚在《宋诗与宋代药材研究》中概括了宋代药材种植的时令、方法、过程及种药群体,但对其栽培技术则未涉及[6](P19-25)。

            XUEJIEWEIRAOSONGDAIYAOCAIJINXINGDEXIANGGUANYANJIUZHUYAOKEGAIKUOWEILIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIZHENDUIYAOCAIZUOWEISHANGPINDEJINGJIGONGNENGZHANKAITANTAO;ERSHICONGYAOCAIDEYIXUESHUXINGJINXINGTANTAO。ERCONGNONGYEJIAODU,ZAIZHONGZHIJISHUCENGMIANDUIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJINXINGYANJIUZEFEICHANGQIANQUE。YINCI,BENWENJIANGCONGNONGYEZHONGZHIJISHUDEJIAODULAITANTAOSONGDAIYAOCAIDEZAIPEIJISHU。

            一、宋代药材种植的发展概况

            隋唐时期,种植药材的多为隐居的山居人士,他们出于养生的目的,需要大量服用某些药物[7](P414),其中一些草木类药材多依靠采集,但随着对药材需求的不断增加,药材的来源便由野外采集过渡到人工种植。到了宋代,由于药材的需求增加,情况发生了转变,人工种植成为药材的主要来源,药材种植规模与专业程度都远远超过唐代,药材种植进入了一个新阶段。

          宋代药材的栽培技术发展及原因

            (一)出现了以种药为生的药户

            ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,SONGDAINONGYEDEZHUANYEHUACHENGDUZHUJIANTIGAO,XIANGCHA、HUACAO、SHUIGUO、SHUCAI、YAOCAIDENGDOUYIJINGKAISHIJINXINGZHUANYEHUAZHONGZHI,QIZHONGZHUANMENCONGSHIYAOCAIZHONGZHIDENONGHUBEICHENGWEI“YAOHU”。FUGONGZAI《XIEPU》ZHONGTIDAO“(XIEHU)RUOJINTAIZHIYAOHU、QIHU,MUZHIQIHUBIYE。”[8](XIAPIAN,P14)CICHU“YAOHU”DANGZHILIANGZHELUTAIZHOUDEYAOCAIZHUANYEZHONGZHIHU。KEJIAN,ZHISHAOZAIBEISONGSHIQI,ZAINONGYESHENGCHANLINGYU,YAOCAIDEZAIPEIYIJINGCHUXIANZHUANYEHUASHENGCHAN。WANGXIANGZHIZAI《YUDIJISHENG》ZHONGJIZAILEDANGSHIKUIZHOULULIANGSHANJUNGAODOUSHANBAIXINGZHONGJIANGDEQINGKUANG,“DIHUANGRANGERYU,MINZHONGJIANGYIWEIYE”[9](P426),JIANGJIKESHIYONG,YEDUOZUOYAOYONG,SHEHUIXUQIULIANGDA,YIZHONGJIANGWEIYE,MUDEXIANRANBUSHIZIYONG,ERSHINADAOSHICHANGJIAOYI,YOUCI“YISHIQUJIYAN”。KEJIAN,SONGDAIYIJINGCHUXIANGUIMOHUA、ZHUANYEHUADEYAOCAIZHONGZHI。ZHUANYEZHONGZHIHUDECHUXIAN,BIAOMINGYAOCAIZHONGZHIYICHENGWEIYIMENDULIDEZHUANYEXINGNONGYEHUONONGYEFENZHI。

            (二)药材种植种类增多,对药材的甄别逐渐精细化

          决战棋牌   YAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONGLEIZAISONGDAIDADAZENGJIA。YOUXUEZHEZUOGUOTONGJI,TANG《XINXIUBENCAO》ZHONGJIZAIRENGONGZHONGZHIDEYAOCAIJIN40ZHONG,DAOLESONGDAI,《BENCAOTUJING》(CHUQUYUQITAWENXIANZHONGFU)SUOJIZAIDERENGONGZHONGZHIYAOCAIYIDA138ZHONG,CHUQULIANG、GUO、SHUZHILEI,RENGYOU79ZHONG[3](P239),YAOCAIZHONGZHIDEZHONGLEIBITANGDAIZENGJIALEJIANGJINYIBEI。CHULEYAOCAIZHONGLEIZENGJIAWAI,SONGRENDUIYAOCAIDEZHENBIEGENGJIAJINGXI。SONGDAIDUITONGYIZHONGCAOMUDEBUTONGPINZHONGNAXIESHIYAOCAI,NAXIEBUSHIYAOCAIYOULEZHUNQUEDEQUFEN。LIRUSHANGLUZHEIWEIYAOCAI,CAIZIYESHENGZHEHENSHAO,“DUOSHENGYURENJIAYUANPUZHONG”[10](P303)。《BENCAOTUJING》JIZAI,SHANGLU“YOUCHIBAIERZHONG:HUACHIZHEGENCHI,HUABAIZHEGENBAI。CHIZHEBURUYAO”,QUQIGENBAIZHERUYAO。YOUXIEYAOCAI,XUYAORENGONGZHONGZHI,QIPINZHICAIYOUBAOZHENG。RUXINGHE,“XINGZIRUYAO,JINYIDONGLAIZHEWEISHENG,RENGYONGJIAYUANZHONGZHE。SHANXINGBUKANRUYAO”[10](P550)。

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            BEISONGYANGTIANHUISUOZHE《ZHANGMINGFUZIJI》ZEYU《BENCAOTUJING》YIJIANBUTONG,QIGENJUFUZISHENGZHANGDEQINGKUANGJIANGQIFENWEIQIPIN,“QIZHONGZHIHUAZHEWEIWUTOU,FUWUTOUERPANGSHENGZHEWEIFUZI,YOUZUOYOUFUEROUSHENGZHEWEILIZI,YOUFUERZHANGZHEWEITIANXIONG,YOUFUERJIANZHEWEITIANJIA,YOUFUERSHANGCHUZHEWEICEZI,YOUFUERSANSHENGZHEWEILOULAN:JIEMAILUOLIANGUAN,RUZIFUMU。ERFUZIYIGUI,GUDUZHUANFUMING,ZIYUBUDEYUYAN”[11](P32),RENWEI“BAJIAOZHEWEISHANG”DEYAOPINLUNDUANSHICUOWUDE。YANGTIANHUIYIFUZIDEDAXIAOZHONGLIANGYIJIFENGMANYUFOUZUOWEIYAOPINYOULIEDEPANDUANBIAOZHUN,“XIAOZHEGUNANYONG,YAOZHIBANLIANGYISHANGJIELIANG,BUBIJILIANGNAIKE”[11](P33)。JINGUANLIANGZHEDEFENLEIBIAOZHUNBUTONG,DANDOUKESHUOMINGYIGEWENTI,JISONGRENDUIYAOCAIPINZHONG、YAOXINGYIYOUXIANGDANGRENSHI,ZAIQUFENYAOCAIYUFEIYAOCAI、YAOCAIYAOXINGDECHAYIFANGMIANYISHIFENJINGXI。

            (三)药材种植面积扩大,形成了若干道地药材种植中心

          决战棋牌   QIXIAZAI《SONGDAIJINGJISHI》ZHONGTIDAO,YAOCAIZIBEISONGKAISHILEDAMIANJIDEZHONGZHI[4](P162)。WANGXIANGZHIZAI《YUDIJISHENG》ZHONGJIZAILEYUHUACHENGYINJUSUIHANSHAN,ZAISHANSHANGZHONGYAO,MIANJIHENDA,PENGCHENGYISHIZENGZHIYUE:“BUJIANLINGYANGYUHUACHENG,LINGRENXIWANGYUSHANGSHEN。JINWENYANGSUDUOZAIYAO,GENGPOQINGSHANSHILICHUN。”[9](P4040)YIZHONGZHIFUZIWEILI,YANGTIANHUIJIZAISICHUANMIANZHOUSHIDANGSHIZHEMINGDEFUZIZHONGZHIZHONGXIN,ZHANGMINGXIANGONG20GEXIANG,QIZHONGCHISHUI、LIANSHUI、HUICHANG、CHANGMINGSIXIANGZHONGZHIFUZI,GAISIXIANGGONGYOUTIAN520QING,ERFUZIZHONGZHIMIANJIZHANZONGMIANJIDE20%,JI104QING,NIANCHANFUZIDA16WANJINYISHANG,QISUOCHANCHUDEFUZIDADUOXIAOWANGSHANFUMINZHEDENGCHU,“SHANFUZHIJIACAISHIQIXIAZHE,MINZHEZHIJIACAISHIQIZHONGZHE。QISHANGPINZEJIESHIDAFUQIUZHI”[11](P33)。YINWEISICHUANCHANCHUDEFUZIZHILIANGSHANGDENG,SHIDEZHANGMINGXIANFUZICHENGWEIDANGSHIDEDAODIYAOCAI。CHUSICHUANWAI,SONGDAIZHEMINGDEDAODIYAOCAIHAIYOUSHANGDANGRENCAN、QIZHOUBANXIA、HUAZHOUXIXINDENG,ZHEIXIEDAODIYAOCAIYINGGAIYETONGSICHUANFUZIYIYANG,XINGCHENGLEDAGUIMODEZHONGZHIZHONGXIN,ZAIZHEIZHONGZHONGZHIJICHUZHISHANG,SONGDAICHUXIANLETESEZHONGZHIYAOCAIDEDIYUHUAQUSHI,XINGCHENGLERUOGANZHONGDAODIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIZHONGXIN。

            (四)对药材种植技术的经验总结获得了进一步发展

            SONGDAI,YOUYUYINSHUAJISHUDECHENGSHUYUPUJI,SHUJIDALIANGYINSHUA,YAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUGUANGFANCHUANBO,SHIDESONGDAIYOUGENGDUODEQUNTIGUANZHUYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIJISHU。SUITANGSHIQIJIZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDESHUJIBUWAIHUNONGSHUYUYISHULIANGZHONG。DAOLESONGDAI,SHIDAFUZHUZHONGYANGSHENG,DADUOQINZIZHONGZHIYAOCAI,BINGJIANGZHONGZHIJINGYANXIEJINWENJI,RUSHENKUO《MENGXIWANGHUAILU》ZHONGCHAOLULEGOUQI、BAIHE、HEHUAN、HUANGJING、NIUBANG、WUJIA、GANJU、MUXU、LIANZI、OU、QINGXIANG、DIHUANGDENG12ZHONGYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIFANGFA,ZHOUMIZAI《GUIXINZASHI》ZHONGJIZAILEZHONGZHIDAFULINGDEFANGFA,ZHANGSHINAN《YOUHUANJIWEN》JIZAILEDINGXIANGDEZHONGZHIFANGFA。CHUCIZHIWAI,LIANGSONGSHIQIKAISHIDALIANGBIANZUANNONGSHU,YINANSONGWEIZUI,LIRU《CHENFUNONGSHU》《FENMENSUOSUILU》《ZHONGYIBIYONG》DENG,QIZHONG《CHENFUNONGSHU》YINANFANGSHUIDAOSHENGCHANWEIZHU,JIANJISHUCAI、YAOCAIZHONGZHI,SHISONGDAIZUIJIECHUDESIZHUANNONGSHUDAIBIAO。ER《FENMENSUOSUILU》YU《ZHONGYIBIYONG》JIQIBUYIZEJIZAILEXUDUOYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIFANGFA,ZUINENGTIXIANDANGSHIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIJISHUSHUIPING。YIZHUWEILI,TANGDAI《SISHIZUANYAO》ZHONGZHIJIANYITIAOZHONGZHUFA,BEISONGSHENKUODE《MENGXIWANGHUAILU》ZHONGZENGWEILIANGTIAO,NANSONGDENONGSHU《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZEZENGZHISHILIUTIAO,ER《ZHONGYIBIYONGBUYI》CHULEFANGFAZENGDUOWAI,SHANGBIJIAOLEQIANDAIGEZHONGZHONGFADEYOULIE,ZHICHU“《MENGXIWANGHUAILU》ZHIFAYOUMIAO”[12](P222)。TONGYIZHONGYAOCAIDEDUOZHONGZHONGZHIFANGFAFANYINGLESONGRENZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUFANGMIANDETANSUO,ZHEIZHONGTANSUOZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGCUJINLESONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDEFAZHAN。

            ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,WULUNSHIYAOCAIZHONGZHIDEZHUANYEHUACHENGDU、ZHONGZHIZHONGLEIYUGUIMO,HUOSHIDUIZHONGZHIJISHUDEJINGYANZONGJIE,SONGDAIDOUBIQIANDAIQIANJINLEYIDABU。SONGDAISHIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGYAOCAIZHUANYEZHONGZHIFAZHANFANRONGDESHIQI,ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIZHONGCHUBUFANRONGDEBEIJINGZHIXIA,SONGDAIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIJISHUHUODELEKONGQIANFAZHAN,QUDELEXUDUOQIANDAISUOBUJIDECHENGJIU。

            二、宋代药材的种植技术

            YAOCAIDEZHONGZHIJISHUSHIZHANGQISHIJIANZHONGDEJINGYANJILEI。SUITANGSHIQIYOUGUANYAOCAIDEZHONGZHISHIJIANYUNONGSHU,SONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUJINYIBUFAZHAN,QICHENGJIUZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

            (一)药材种植时注重对土质的选择

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            (二)播种前采用浸种、磨皮、泥封等法对药材种子进行处理

            ZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHIQIAN,DUIZHONGZIJINXINGSHIDANGDECHULIKETIGAOFAYALV,HAIKESHIYOUMIAOSHENGZHANGJIANZHUANG。SONGRENDUIYAOCAIZHONGZIDECUYAFANGSHICHANGJIANDEYOUJINZHONGFA、MOPIFA、NIFENGFADENG。JINZHONGFASHIYONGJINPAODEFANGSHILAICHULIZHONGZI,JIKECUYA,YOUKESHASICHONGLUANHEZHONGZIXIEDAIDEXIJUN。RUSONGRENZAIZHONGBOLENGSHI,“XIANYISHUIJIAOQIZI,SIYA,HEYILONGKANG,XUETUZHONGZHI”[12](P208)。ZHONGLUOBUSHI,“YIMANLIYUTOUGUZHUZHIZIZHONG,YOUSHAN”[12](P209)。SONGRENHAIYONGNIFENGFACUYA,ZAIZHONGGOUQISHI,“LONGZHIZHONGFUCAOZHUN,RUBEIZHANG,YUQIDENG,JIYINITUCAOZHUNSHANG。YIGOUQIZIBUYUNISHANG,JIYIXITUGAI,LINGBIAN,YOUYILANNIUFENYIZHONG,YOUYITUYIZHONG,LINGQIPING。DAIMIAOCHU,SHUIJIAOZHI”[12](P209)。NANSONGCHENGSHUDE《ZHONGYIBIYONG》ZHONGTIDAOZHONGLIANZISHI,“QUJIANHEIZI,WASHANGMOJIAN,ZHILINGPIBO。QUJINTUZUOSHUNIFENG,SANZHIDAZHANGSHIDAITOUJIANZHONGLINGMOXUJIANNI。YUZHONGSHI,ZHIZHICHIZHONG,ZHONGTOUXIANGXIA,ZINENGZHOUZHENG。BOPISHANGYISHENG,SHURIJICHU。BUMOBUCHU”[12](P218)。ZHEIZHONGMOPIFAZHUYAOZHENDUIWAIPIJIANYING、BUYIMENGYADEYAOCAIZHONGZI,JIEMOCAZHONGZIWAIPISHIQIYIYUMENGCHU。

            (三)掌握了各类药材的不同播种时间

          决战棋牌   SONGRENDUIGELEIYAOCAIDEXIXINGFEICHANGLEJIE,WANGWANGGENJUGELEIYAOCAISHENGZHANGSHIJIAN,XUANZEHESHIDEBOZHONGJIJIE。DABUFENYAOCAIZAICHUNTIANBOZHONG,RUJU、OU、ZIYU、BIANXUDENG,DANYEYOUQIUDONGJIANBOZHONGCAIFANSHENGDE,RUYINGZISU,“JIUYUEBUZI,SHEDONGZHICHUNSHISHENG,MIAOJIFANSHENGYI。BUERZHONGZHIDUOBUCHU,CHUYIBUMAO”[10](P609-610)。XUSUIZI,“QIUZHONGDONGZHANG,CHUNXIUXIASHI”[10](P317)。HONGHUAYUFUZIDOUZAIDONGZHIQIANHOUBOZHONG,《FENMENSUOSUILU》JIZAI:“FANZHONGHUAYAO,XUDONGZHIHOULICHUNQIAN。”YOUCIZHICHULEYAOCAIDATIDEBOZHONGSHIJIAN。ER《ZHONGYIBIYONG》ZHONGZELIECHULESHIYIZAIDONGTIANBOZHONGDEYAOCAI:“ZHENGYUEZHONGBIDOU、CONG、YU、SUAN、GUA、HU、KUI、LIAO、MUXU、QIANGWEIZHILEI。”[12](P207)

            ZAIZHUZHONGBOZHONGSHIJIANDETONGSHI,SONGRENYEFEICHANGZHUZHONGDUIYAOCAIZHONGZIDEBAOCUN,YIBANDUOCAIYONGGANZAODEFANGFABAOCUNZHONGZI。SONGRENDUIYAOCAIZHONGZIJINXINGGANZAODEFANGFAYOUSHAIGANFA、YINGANFADENG。RUHUAIZI,“SHOUBOQUZI,SHUPUGAN”[14](P83)。QIEZI,“SHUITAOZI,QUCHENZHEPUGANGUOZHI”[14](P177)。ZHUYU,“ZHONGYANGRISHOUZI,YINGANWEIMIAO”[14](P190)。ZHONGZIDEGANZAOBUJINKEYIJIANSHAOZHONGZINEIDEHANSHUILIANG,FANGZHIZHONGZICHONGZHUHEMEIBIAN,ZAIXIAZHONGHOUHAINENGGENGDUODIXIQUTURANGZHONGDESHUIFEN,CONGERCIJIZHONGZIDEHUOLI,YILIYUZHIZHUDEHOUQISHENGZHANG。

            (四)扩大肥源,选择与药材生长相适应的肥料

          决战棋牌   SONGDAIDUIYAOCAIJINXINGHELIDESHIFEIDADAOLEJIWEIJIANGJIUDECHENGDU[2](P808)。ZAIYAOCAISHENGZHANGJIEDUAN,SUOSHIYONGFEILIAOZHONGLEIDAWEIZENGJIA,CHUYUANYOUDEFENFEI、LVFEI、HUIFEIDENGJIBENFEILIAOWAI,SONGDAIYIKUOZHANZHIRENCHUQINFEN、BINGFEI、NIFEI、TUFEI、XUNFEI、KUANGWUFEI、HUOFEI、ZHAFEIHEZAFEIDENGSHIYUZHONG。QIYONGFEITESEZAIYUGUANGPIFEIYUAN,YONGFEIDEYI。CHENFUZAI《NONGSHU·FENTIANZHIYIPIANDIQI》ZHONGZHICHU,“JIEXIANGSHIQITUZHIXINGLEI,YISUOYIFENERFENZHI”[15](P6)。YAOHUZAIZAIPEIZHONGHUIGENJUYAOCAIDETEXINGLAIXUANZEHESHIDEFEILIAO。RUZHONGLIANSHI,“YONGLAZAOSHAOXUGUOOUZHONG,LAINIANFAHUASHENG”[14](P109)。“YONGXUNZHUTANGJIAOMOLI、SUXIN,HUAZEFEI”[14](P125)。“PUTAODANGYONGMIGANSHUIHEHEIDOUPI”[14](125)。“YOUYIZHUOXIBUYIHUIZHIJIAORUIXIANG,NENGQUQIUYINQIEFEIHUA。GAIRUIXIANGGENTIAN,DEHUISHUIZEQIUYINBUSHI,ERYIFUGOUNIYOUZIFEIYE”[14](P125)。

          决战棋牌   LVFEIHEFENFEISHIZUICHANGYONGDEFEILIAO,JIHUSUOYOUDEYAOCAIDOUKEYONGDAO。SONGRENYIJINGFAXIANYAOCAIDUIFENDEZHONGLEIYOUSUOQUBI,BIRUJIFEN,“YONGMOLIZESHENG,YONGBAIHEZESHENZISHENG”[14](P125)。MUXISHIHEYONGZHUFEN,ZHONGLIANSHIYIYONGYANGFEN,MAIMENDONGYONGQUANFEN,“SHENGBICONGMAO”[14](P189)。ZHENGSHIYOUZHEIXIEQUBI,《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZHONGYAN:“HUAMUYOUBUYIFENHUIZHESHENDUO,YOUYISHENWENYONGZHI,FEIQIYIZEQIMULIGAO。”[14](P125)

            ZHIDEYITIDESHI,SONGRENKAICHUANGXINGDISHIYONGNIFEI。NIFEIHANYOUZHONGDUOWEISHENGWU,KEYIGAILIANGTURANGJIEGOU,JUYOUBAOFEIXINGNENG,DUINONGYEDEFAZHANQIDAOZHONGYAOZUOYONG。YOUYUNANFANGTANGCHIZHONGDUO,GUNIFEIZAINANFANGDALIANGSHIYONG。NANSONGWANGXUZAI《WUMENTIANJIASHIYONG》ZHONGSHENGDONGDITIDAOLENIFEIDESHIYONGGUIMO,“ZHUZENGLIANGLIANGJIAHENI,JINJIAOGOUQUCIZUIFEI”。《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZHONGTIDAOYAOCAIZHONGZHISHI“RIZHONGBUBIJIN,YIBUBITIANFEITUJIAN,YONGGOUNISHUIJIAOZHIBUFANG”[14](P147)。ZAIZHONGDAMEISHUSHI“QUQIZHISHAO,DAQIGENPAN,WOYIGOUNI,WUBUHUOZHE”[14](P147)。SONGDAINIFEIDESHIYONG,KUODALEFEIYUAN,DUIYAOCAIZHONGZHI、SHENGZHANGJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

            (五)使用间作、肉引等栽培技术,提高药材的产量及品质

            SONGDAIZAIDAGUIMOZHONGZHIYAOCAIDESHIJIANZHONG,JIJITANSUOXINDEZHONGZHIJISHU,JIANGGEZHONGZHONGZHIJISHUYONGYUYAOCAIDESHENGCHANZHIZHONG,TIGAOYAOCAICHANLIANGJIPINZHI。SHOUXIAN,JIANZUOFADELIYONGTIGAOLETUDILIYONGLV,ZENGJIALEYAOCAICHANLIANG。JIANZUOSHIBAJIZHONGZUOWUTONGSHIBOZHONG,LIYONGBUTONGZHIWUJIANDEHULIYINSULAICUJINSHENGZHANG,CONGERTIGAOZHIWUCHANLIANGDEZHONGZHIFANGFA。JIANZUOFAZAI《QIMINYAOSHU》ZHONGYIYOULEMINGQUEJIZAI,DAOLESONGDAI,JIANZUOFAQUYUFENGFUHUA。CHENFU《NONGSHU》ZHONGJIZAILESANGZHUDEJIANZUO:“LINGQILONGCHAKUO,QIXIABIANZAIZHU,YINFENZHUJISANGYIHUOFEIYIYI,SHILIANGDEZHIYE。SANGGENZHISHEN,ZHUGENZHIQIAN,BINGBUXIANGFANG,ERLIBEICHA。”[15](P21)SANGYUZHUJIANZUOKEYISHILIANGZHEJUNSHOUYICHU,CONGERDADAO“YONGLISHAOERJIANGONGDUO”DEXIAOGUO。SONGRENZAIBUTONGYAOCAIZHIJIANYESHIYONGJIANZUOFALAITIGAOCHANLIANG。RUZHONGLIANSHI,“YIMAIMENDONGZIJIAZHONG,MAOSHENG”[12](P218)。SHUCAIYUHUAYAOZHIJIANYEKEYONGJIANZUOFA:“CAIYUANZHONGJIANZHONGMUDAN、SHAOYAO,ZUIMAO。”[14](P110)JIANZUOFAYONGYUCAOBENYAOWUDEZHONGZHITIXIANLESONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIDUINONGZUOWUZHONGZHIJINGYANDECHONGFENJIEJIANHEFAZHAN,FANYINGCHUDANGSHIDEZHONGZHIJISHUYIDADAOYIDINGDESHUIPING。

          决战棋牌   QICI,FAMING“ROUYINFA”ZHONGZHIFULING。NANSONGSHIQIZHOUMIZAI《GUIXINZASHI》ZHONGJIZAILEYIZHONGYONG“ROUYINFA”LAIZAIPEIDAFULINGDEFANGFA。“FULINGSHENGYUDASONGZHIGEN,SHANGYI。JINSHICUNMINNAIZEQIXIAOZHE,YIDASONGGENPOERXIYUQIZHONG,ERJINSHUZHI,SHIZHIYESHENRUYUNEI,RANHOUZEDIZHIWOZHE,KANERYIZHI。SANNIANNAIQU,ZECHENGDALINGYI。DONGXIAOSHANZUIYIFULING,WANGWANGMINDUODAOZHONG,MIZHIZHIERQU,SHUNIANHOUNAIQUYAN。”[16](P159)ZHEIZHONGZHONGZHIDAFULINGDEFANGFA,YIZHIDAOJINDAIDOUZAISHIYONG。

            (六)认识到药材经过嫁接后药性有所减弱,甚至不堪使用

            SONGDAIYUANYIJISHUFADA,JIAJIEJISHUGUANGFANYUNYONGYUGUOMU、HUAHUISHENGCHANLINGYU。JINGGUOJIAJIEHOUDEHUAHUIGUANSHANGXINGQIANG,GUOSHIGENGJIATIANMEI。《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZHONGJIZAILEYONGSHAOYAOJIAJIEMUDANDEFANGFA:“MUDANYUSHAOYAOGENSHANGJIE,YIFA。WUGUOYIERNIAN,MUDANZISHENGBENGEN,ZEXUANGEQUSHAOYAOGEN,CHENGZHENMUDANYI。”[14](P121)DUICI,《BENCAOTUJING》ZHONGMINGQUEZHICHU:“PURENYUQIHUAZHIGUIYI,JIEQIUDONGYIJIE,PEIYIRANGTU,ZHICHUNSHENGKAI,QIZHUANGBAIBIAN。GUQIGENXINGSHUSHIBENZHEN,YAOZHONGBUKEYONGCIPIN,JUEWULIYE。”[10](195)YOURUTAOZI,QIGUOROUFEIMEI,ZHIDUOWEITIAN,DUOZUOSHUIGUOSHIYONG,QIRENZERUYAO。SONGDAISHI,TAOSHULISHUKEYIHUXIANGJIAJIE,“TAOSHU,LIJIEZHIZEHONGERGAN;LIJIETAOZHI,SHENGZIZEWEITAOLI”[14](P154)。《BENCAOTUJING》ZHONGTONGYANGZHICHU:“TAOHEREN……DADOUJIAGUODUOSHIPURENYITAMUJIEGENSHANGZAIZHI,SUIZHIFEIMEI,SHUSHIBENXING。CIDENGYAOZHONGBUKEYONGZHI。”[10](P551)ZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONG,SONGRENFAXIANJIAJIEHOUDEYAOCAI,QIYAOXINGWANGWANGHUIXIAJIANG,BUSHIHERUYAO,SHENZHIBUKANRUYAO。

            ZAISONGDAI,SUIZHENONGYEJISHUSHUIPINGDEFAZHANYUTIGAO,WENSHIZHONGZHIJISHU、QIANCHAJISHU、YATIAOJISHUDENGYIJINGCHENGSHU,YINYAOCAISHENGCHANDUIYAOXINGYAOQIUDETESHUXING,ZHEIXIEJISHUSHIFOUSHIYONGYUYAOCAIZHONGZHI,HAIXUYAOYOUXIANGGUANSHILIAOLAIZUOZHENG。

            ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,SONGDAIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIBUTONGYUQITANONGZUOWU,QIHEXINSHIYIZHUZHONGYAOXINGWEIZHU,GUANZHUYAOXIAO,SUOYIZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUZHONG,DUIZHONGZHITUZHI、BOZHONGSHIJIYIJIFEILIAODEXUANZE,DOUYAOYIJUYAOXINGDEBUTONGDEQISUOYI。SONGRENZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONGGUANGKAIFEIYUAN,CAIYONGJIANZUO、ROUYINFADENGJISHUTIGAOYAOCAIPINZHI,ZHEIXIEFANGFADUIHOUSHICHANSHENGLESHENYUANYINGXIANG。

            三、宋代药材种植技术发展的原因

            SONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONGLEIDUO、GUIMODA,JISHUXIANJIN,JIUQIYUANYINSHISONGDAIYAOCAISHICHANGXUQIUSHIRAN。SONGDAIJINGJIFANRONG、SHEHUIYANGSHENGFENGQISHENGXINGJIGEDIGUANFANGYAOJUDECHENGLI,SHISHEHUIDUIYAOCAIDEXUQIULIANGZENGDA,ZHIKAOYEWAICAIJIHEGERENKAIPIYAOPUDEFANGSHIYIBUNENGMANZUZHEIZHONGXUQIU,GUCHUXIANLEYAOCAIDEZHUANYEHUAZHONGZHI。LINGWAI,YOUYUSONGDAIKESHUYEDEFADA,BENCAOXUE、YUANYIXUEZHEZUODALIANGKANXING,YOULICUJINLESONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDEFAZHAN。

            (一)民间药市的繁荣使药材种植向专业化发展,有利于提高种植技术

            SONGDAISHANGYEFADA,CHENGSHIFANRONG,YAOSILINLI,KAIFENG、HANGZHOUYIJISUZHOU、CHENGDOUDENGCHENGSHI,YAOYEYOUQIFANSHENG。《DONGJINGMENGHUALU》JIZAILEBEISONGSHIQIDEKAIFENG,JINGUIMOJIAODADESHENG、SHUYAOPUJIUYOU23JIA[17](P12-23)。SICHUANDEZIZHOUYAOSHI、CHENGDOUYAOSHI、YIZHOUYAOSHIDENG,JUNYIMAIMAIYAOCAIWEIZHU,MAOYIXIANGDANGFANSHENG。YICHENGDOUWEILI,QIYAOSHIZHUYAOYOUSANGE:GUANJIEYAOSHI、DACISIYAOSHI、YUJUGUANYAOSHI。YAOSHIKAIFANGSHIJIANGEBUXIANGTONG,QIZHONGGUANJIEYAOSHIYOUERYUEBARI、SANYUEJIURILIANGTIAN,DACISIYAOSHIWEIWUYUEWURI,YUJUGUANYAOSHIWEIJIUYUEJIURIZHONGYANGJIE。QIZHONGGUIMOZUIDADEYAOSHUZHONGYANGJIEYUJUGUANYAOSHI,ZHUANGCHUOZAI《JILEIBIAN》ZHONGJIZAI:“ZHIZHONGJIUYAOSHI,YUQIAOMENWAIZHIYUJUHUAWUMEN,SHESIYIHUOBAIYAO,XISHEZHILEIJIEDUIJI。FUYIN、JIANSI,JIEBUXINGYIYUE。YOUYUWUMENZHIXIASHEDAZUN,RONGSHUSHIHU,ZHIBEISHAO,FANMINGDAORENZHE,JIEZIYIN。RUSHIZHEWURI。”[18](P21)LUYOUZAI《LAOXUEANBIJI》ZHONGJIZAI:“CHENGDOUYAOSHIYIYUJUHUAWEIZUISHENG,YONGJIUYUEJIURI。”[19](P80)YINWEIYAOCAIZHONGLEIFENGFU、PINZHONGQIQUAN,CHUSHOUDALIANGMINGGUIYAOCAI,CHENGDOUYAOSHIXIYINQUANGUOYAOSHANGWUSHU,SUOHUOLIYIYEXIANGDANGKEGUAN。

            YAOSHIFANRONG,YAOCAIDESHICHANGXUQIULIANGDA,DUIYAOCAIPINZHIDEYAOQIUHUIYUELAIYUEGAO,ZHEIYANGJIUCUSHINONGHUHUOYAOHUZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHISHIZHUANZHUYUTIGAOZIJISUOZHONGYAOCAIDEZHILIANG,ZHONGZHIJISHUBUDUANTIGAO。

            (二)官药局对药材的需求大、品质要求高,从而促进了种植技术的进步

          决战棋牌   BEISONGCHAOTINGZAIYILIAOZHENGCESHANGJIAOQIANDAIBUTONG,GUOJIAFEICHANGZHONGSHIYILIAOSHIYE,DUOCIZUZHIXIUDINGYISHU,BIANZUANLELIANGBUDAXINGYISHU──《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG》《TAIPINGHUIMINHEJIJUFANG》。TONGSHI,DALIANGQIECHIXUDIZHENGLIBENCAOXUEZHEZUO,BINGYUXININGJIUNIAN(1076)JIANLI“TAIYIJUSHUYAOSUO”,GONGKAIXIANGMINZHONGCHUSHOUCHENGYAO,RUYUZAIHUANGHUOJIYILIUXING,HAIHUIANZHAOCHAOTINGZHISHI,MIANFEITIGONGCHENGYAO。DAGUANSANNIAN(1109)YIHOU,GELULUXUSHEZHISHUYAOSUO,“FENZHINEIWAI,FANQISHIJU”[16](P225)。GUANYAOJUSUOYONGSHENGYAOYIBANYOUSANGELAIYUAN:GONGNA、CAIGOUHEHAIWAISHURU[20],QIZHONGTUGONGSHULIANGJUDA。ZHANGRUIXIANZAI《SONGDAIYAOCAICHANDIGAIMAO》YIWENZHONGLIEJULEYUANFENGNIANJIAN23LUTUGONGYAOWUZHONGLEIHESHULIANG,RUGANCAOCONGTANGSHIDE21080KESHANGSHENGDAOSONGSHIDE166400KE,HUANGLIANCONGTANGSHIDE680KESHANGSHENGDAO32000KE[21](P135-138),QISHULIANGJIHUCHAOGUOTANGDAISHUSHIBEI。TUGONGYAOPINJIHUJUEDABUFENBEISONGDAOGUANYAOJUZHIYAO。SUIZHEGUANYAOJUZAIQUANGUODEPUBIANSHELI,SUOXUYAOCAISHULIANGYINGGENGDUO,YOUCIKEJIANGUANYAOJUZHIZUOCHENGYAODUITUGONGYAOCAIDEDALIANGXUQIU。

            SONGDAIYAOCAIDECAIGOUSHUMUYEXIANGDANGKEGUAN。SONGCHAOTINGSHEYOUZHUANMENJIGOUJIGUANLIFUZEJIZHONGSHOUGOUYAOCAISHIWU。RUZONGZEZAIZHENGHECHU,“ZHILAIZHOUYEXIAN,SHIHUBUXIATIJUSIKEMAINIUHUANG,GONGZAIJINGHUIMINHEJIJUHEYAOYONG,DUZEJIRUXINGHUO,ZHOUXIANBAIXINGJINGTUNIUYIQUHUANG”[17](P282)。LAIZHOUNIUHUANGZAIDANGSHIPINZHIZUIJIA,YINCISHINIUHUANGSHOUGOUZHONGXIN。ZHEIZESHILIAOSUIFANYINGLEGUANFUYINWEIJIXUSHOUGOUNIUHUANGERZIRAOBAIXING,DANQUECONGLINGYIFANGMIANFANYINGLEHEJIJUSUOXUYAOCAIXUYAODALIANGCONGMINJIANCAIGOUDESHISHI。GUANFUZAICAIGOUSHI,FEICHANGZHUZHONGYAOCAIDEPINZHI,YAOCAIPINZHIYUEHAODEDIFANG,SHOUGOUSHULIANGJIUYUEDA,ZHEIBIRANHUISHIYAOHUZAIZHONGZHISHITEBIEGUANZHUYAOCAIDEPINZHI,ZAIZHONGZHIJISHUSHANGHUIYOUCHUANGXIN,YIBIANHUODEZHILIANGSHANGCHENGDEYAOCAI,CONGERCUJINLEYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDETIGAO。

            (三)养生风气盛行,社会需要高品质药材,从而对药材种植技术提出更高的要求

          决战棋牌   SONGCHAOJINGJIFADA,YIXUELILUNSHUIPINGTIGAO,SHEHUIDAZHONGDUIYANGSHENGPUBIANGUANZHU。YUTANGRENZHUZHONGFUSHIJINDANBUTONG,SONGRENRENSHIDAOFUSHIJINDANWUYIYUYANGSHENG,ZHUANERJIANGMUGUANGFANGZAICAOMUSHANG。ZHANGSHINAN《YOUHUANJIWEN》ZHONGZAIYIYIREN“LINGRENNENGSHI,JIUFUQINGSHENYIQI”,“SHIDAFUYICIXIANGKUIYI,ZAZHIYINSHIJIANYE”[22](P43)。CHULEZHIJIEFUYAO,SONGRENCHANGCHANGJIANGCAOBENZHIWUYUYINSHIJIEHEQILAI,SHILIAOYANGSHENG。RUBAIHE,“DAO、SHAIHEMIAN,ZUOTANGBING,ZUIYIXUEQI”[23](P23);MAIMENDONG,“CAIGENQUXIN,DAOZHIHEMI,YIYINQIZHONGTANGZHU,AORUYIWEIDU。ZHUZHICIQINEI。WENJIUHUA,WENFU,ZIYIDUOYI”[23](P75);SHANYAO,“RUCHANGMIANSHIZHI,JIASUMI,WEICHUNMIANYOUJING。YIQILI,ZHANGJIROU,JIUFUQINGSHEN,ERMUCONGMING,BUJIYANNIAN”[24](P120)。

            SONGDAIYANGSHENGFENGQISHENGXING,DUIBUYILEIYAOCAIDEXUQIULIANGZENGDA。ZAIRICHANGDESHILIAOZHONG,DUIYAOCAIPINZHIYAOQIUGAO,DUOSHIYONGDAODIYAOCAI,ZHEIZHONGXUQIUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDUIYAOCAIZHONGZHITICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU,SHIYAONONGZAIZHONGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGGENGJIAGUANZHUYAOCAIDEZHILIANG,XIANGFANGSHEFADITIGAOZHONGZHIJISHU,YIBIANCHANCHUGAOPINZHIDEYAOCAI。

            四、结语

          决战棋牌   SONGDAIKEJIJIAOQIANDAIYOULEHENDAFAZHAN,NONGYEZHONGZHIJISHURIQUCHENGSHU。YOUYUSONGDAIJINGJIFADA,YAOCAISHICHANGFANRONG,SHEHUIXUQIULIANGDA,DUIYAOCAIPINZHIYAOQIUGAO,CONGERDUIYAOCAIZAIPEIJISHUTICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU,ZHIJIECUJINLESONGDAIZAIPEIJISHUDEFAZHAN。SONGDAICHUXIANLEYAOCAIDEZHUANYEHUAZAIPEI,YAOCAIZAIPEIYIYURICHANGSHIWUSHENGCHANXIANGTUOLI。ZAIZAIPEIGUOCHENGZHONG,SONGRENFAXIANTUZHI、BOZHONGSHIJI、FEILIAODESHIYONGDOUHUIDUIYAOCAIDEYAOXINGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。JIANZUOFAYUNYONGYUYAOCAIZAIPEI,TIGAOLEYAOCAICHANLIANG。NANSONGSHISUOFAMINGDE“ROUYINFA”YONGYUFULINGDEZHONGZHI,SHICHANCHUDEFULINGGENGWEIYOUZHI。SONGRENYEFAXIAN,JINGGUOJIAJIEDEYAOCAIYAOXINGXIAJIANG,YOUDESHENZHIBUKANRUYAO。ZHEIXIEDOUTIXIANLESONGRENZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHISHANG“YIYAOXINGWEIHEXIN”DESIXIANG。SONGDAIZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIFANGMIANDEJISHUDUOBEIYUAN、MING、QINGLIDAISUOXIQU,DUIZHONGGUODEYAOCAIZHONGZHICHANSHENGLESHENYUANDEYINGXIANG。

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            梁松涛,苏红.论宋代药材种植技术[J].农业考古,2020(01):116-122. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282077.html   

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