决战棋牌

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                          1. 毛泽东政党协商的伦理思想对当代的启迪

                            摘要: 毛泽东在与国民党及各民主党派进行政治协商的过程中,形成了内容丰富的政党协商伦理思想。这一思想既根植于中华五千多年的优秀传统文化和马克思主义政党理论,又催发于毛泽东的成长历程和伟***实践,经历了发端、形成和成熟的过程。作为中国新型政党制度的创
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                              摘要:毛泽东在与国民党及各民主党派进行政治协商的过程中,形成了内容丰富的政党协商伦理思想。这一思想既根植于中华五千多年的优秀传统文化马克思主义决战棋牌政党理论,又催发于毛泽东的成长历程和伟***实践,经历了发端、形成和成熟的过程。作为中国新型政党制度的创立者,毛泽东奠定了公平正义、诚敬谦和、民主平等、廉洁勤政等政党协商伦理思想,为开展协商提供了道德基础和作风保障。深刻理解毛泽东政党协商的伦理思想,对推进新时代政党协商具有重要启示,必须坚持以强国复兴为协商目标,以党际关系平等为协商前提,以道德品行夯实协商基础,以民主作风提升协商实效。

                              关键词:毛泽东; 政党协商; 伦理思想; 民主党派;

                            决战棋牌   Abstract:

                            决战棋牌   As the founder of China's new political party system, Mao Zedong followed certain codes of conduct and norms in the process of political consultation with the Kuomintang and other democratic parties, which contained rich Party ethics. The ethical thoughts of Mao Zedong's party were rooted in the excellent traditional culture of more than 5 000 years of Chinese culture and the ethical thoughts of Marxist party. They also ushered in Mao Zedong's growth process and great revolutionary practice, and experienced the process of origin, formation and maturity. The value orientation, behavior mode, organizational dignity and moral quality of the consultation constitute the party ethics of fairness, justice, sincerity, democracy, equality, honesty, and diligence, and provide moral foundation and style guarantee for developing consultation. A profound understanding of Mao's ethical thoughts has important enlightenment for strengthening the party's consultation in the new era. We must insist on strengthening and rejuvenating the country as the goal of consultation, and taking equal inter-party relation as the premise of the consultation, enhancing moral character as the basis of consultation and improving democratic style as factual effect of consultation.

                              Keyword:

                              Mao Zedong; party consultation; ethical thought; democratic party;

                            毛泽东

                              政党协商是中国共产党同民主党派基于共同的政治目标,就党和国家重大方针政策和重要事务,在决策之前和决策实施之中,直接进行政治协商的重要民主形式[1].它是中国新型政党制度的重要内容,是社会主义决战棋牌协商民主最重要的形式,也是中国共产党提高执政能力的重要途径。毛泽东作为中国新型政党制度的创立者,在与国民党及各民主党派进行政治协商的过程中,遵循一定的行为规范和准则,形成了内涵丰富的政党协商伦理思想,包括公平正义、诚敬谦和、民主平等、廉洁勤政等,是毛泽东处理政党关系的独特标识,成为毛泽东思想的重要组成部分。然而,以往学界很少有涉及毛泽东政党协商伦理思想的研究,这无法凸显毛泽东作为人民领袖独特的人格魅力,也就无法理解毛泽东政党协商思想穿越时空的永恒价值。本文试图对毛泽东政党协商的伦理思想进行梳理和探析,以就教于方家。

                              一、形成理路:毛泽东政党协商伦理思想的来源与脉络

                              (YI)LILUNHESHIJIANDELAIYUAN

                              毛泽东政党协商的伦理思想不是从天上掉下来的,是从对中华五千多年的优秀传统文化和马克思主义的传承发展中得出来的,是从毛泽东个人成长历程和伟***实践中总结出来的,具有深厚的历史渊源、理论基础和现实基础。

                              DIYI,GENZHIYUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUAHEMAKESIZHUYIZHIZHONG。ZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUABODAJINGSHEN,YOUZHEFENGFUDEGUANYUGONGPINGZHENGYI、CHENGJINGQIANHE、MINZHUPINGDENG、LIANJIEQINZHENGDESIXIANGHESHIJIAN,WEIZHENGDANGXIESHANGDELUNLISIXIANGTIGONGLEFENGHOUDEJINGSHENZIYANG。WOGUOGUDAIDE"GONGTIANXIA"HE"TIANXIADATONG"SIXIANGSHIGONGPINGZHENGYIDESIXIANGYUANYUAN;ZHONGGUOSUYOU"LIYIZHIBANG"DEMEICHENG,"CHENGZHIZHE,RENZHIDAOYE""LIZHE,JINGERYIYI""MANZHAOSUN、QIANSHOUYI"DENGGUANNIANZAIWOGUOGENSHENDIGU,CHENGWEICHENGJINGQIANHEDESIXIANGLAIYUAN;"JUNZIHEERBUTONG""HEWEIGUI""JISUOBUYU,WUSHIYUREN"DENGSIXIANGCHENGWEIMINZHUPINGDENGDESIXIANGLAIYUAN;"LIYILIANCHI,GUOZHISIWEI""GONGSHENGMING,LIANSHENGWEI"JIQIANBAINIANLAI"XIUSHENQIJIAZHIGUOPINGTIANXIA"DEGUXUNSHILIANJIEQINZHENGDESIXIANGYANGLIAO。MAOZEDONGFEICHANGZHONGSHIDUICHUANTONGWENHUADEJIQU,《JIANGTANGLU》JILULETAXUEXIGUOWENKEHEXIUSHENKEDEDALIANGYANLUN,RUTUICHONG"WEISHENGMINLIDAO",BINGCHANSHIWEI"XIANGSHENGXIANGYANGXIANGWEIXIANGZHIZHIDAO";RENWEI"SHENGXIAN,DEYEJUQUANZHE""YAOYISHENGDADEZAIYIGEJINGZI";ZHUZHANG"BUHAOLI,ZAOQI,HAODUSHU,QIAN,CIWEILIANGXIGUAN";QIANGDIAO"RENZHIWEIREN,YIXIANSHENGWEIQIXIANG,ERXIAOYILIANCHIJISHENGYAN""LANDUOWANEZHIYUANSOU".MAOZEDONGZUOWEIYIDAIGUOXUEDASHI,BUJINJIANGCHUANTONGWENHUA"GUWEIJINYONG",ERQIE"TUICHENCHUXIN",ZHANGXIANCHUYUCIQIHEDEJIAZHIZHUIQIU。MAKESIZHUYISHIMAOZEDONGZHENGDANGXIESHANGLUNLISIXIANGDELILUNJICHU。MAKESIENGESIZAI《GONGCHANDANGXUANYAN》ZHONGZHICHU:"WUCHANJIEJIDEYUNDONGSHIJUEDADUOSHURENDE、WEIJUEDADUOSHURENMOULIYIDEDULIDEYUNDONG",GONGCHANDANGREN"MEIYOURENHETONGZHENGGEWUCHANJIEJIDELIYIBUTONGDELIYI""DAOCHUDOUNULIZHENGQUQUANSHIJIEDEMINZHUZHENGDANGZHIJIANDETUANJIEHEXIEDIAO,""DAITINEICUNZAIZHEJIEJIHEJIEJIDUILIDEZICHANJIEJIJIUSHEHUIDE,JIANGSHIZHEIYANGYIGELIANHETI,ZAINEILI,MEIGERENDEZIYOUFAZHANSHIYIQIERENDEZIYOUFAZHANDETIAOJIAN。"ZHEIXIEDUIMAOZEDONGYINGXIANGHENDA,TACENGDUIMEIGUOJIZHEAIDEJIA·SINUOSHUOGUO:《GONGCHANDANGXUANYAN》DENGSHU"TEBIESHENDIMINGKEZAIWODEXINZHONG,JIANLIQIWODUIMAKESIZHUYIDEXINYANG"[2](131)。MAOZEDONGZUOWEIWEIDADEMAKESIZHUYIZHE,JICHENGHEFAZHANLEZHEIXIESHANSHUOZHEZHIHUIGUANGMANGDEZHENGDANGLUNLISIXIANG,BINGYUZHONGGUOJUTISHIJIJIEHEQILAI,SHIXIANLEMAKESIZHUYIZHENGDANGXIESHANGLUNLISIXIANGDEZHONGGUOHUA。

                              第二,催发于毛泽东的成长经历和革命实践之中。毛泽东的成长经历是其政党协商伦理思想的内生动力。毛泽东出身在一个富农家里,父亲脾气暴躁、动辄打骂,使他"精神上感到很压抑",他渴望公正平等,常常"公开反抗,保卫自己的权利";想到中国旧小说里没有种田的农民、看到他们或饿死或暴动被杀,"对于他们受到的冤屈,深感不平",因为这些老百姓"象自己家里人那样",这事"影响了我的一生"[2](110-111),立志解救百姓。在湖南一师求学期间,毛泽东深受伦理学大师杨昌济先生的影响,跟他修身治学,高扬伦理意志又强化求实务实精神。毛泽东的革命实践经历是其政党协商伦理思想的外部助力。处在社会动荡、民族危机和社会危机多层重压的半殖民地半封建国家,毛泽东胸怀天下、心忧苍生。他在***时力主组成"联合战线"以反帝反封、救国救民、分清敌友;***失败后认识到"枪杆子里面出政权",注重发动工农群众,并与国民党左派等组织联合;抗日战争立足较稳时即探索民主政权建设,为实现民族独立和人民解放而坚持"团结到底",注重自身的"模范工作"和强调"切忌我党包办一切";解放战争时期为争取国内和平民主协力促成旧政协会议的召开,在和平无望情况下,坚决彻底消灭反动派,倡导召开新政协会议,领导各民主党派共商国是。

                              (ER)XINGCHENGHEFAZHANDEMAILUO

                            决战棋牌   MAOZEDONGZHENGDANGXIESHANGDELUNLISIXIANGSHISUIZHEZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGYUGEDANGPAIYIJIQITASHEHUILILIANGJILIANHEYOUDOUZHENGERTONGBUFAZHANDE,JINGLILEFADUAN、XINGCHENG、CHENGSHUDEGUOCHENG。

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                              二、基本内涵:毛泽东政党协商伦理思想的内容解读

                            决战棋牌   MAOZEDONGZAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHONG,SHIZHONGJIANCHISHISHIQIUSHI、QUANXINWEIMIN、MINZHUJIZHONG、PINGDENGXIESHANG、LIANJIEQINZHENG,CHENGWEIXIESHANGDEKAIMO;TADIANDINGDEGONGPING、ZHENGYI、CHENGJING、QIANHE、MINZHU、PINGDENG、LIANJIE、QINZHENGDEZHENGDANGLUNLI,WEIXIESHANGTIGONGLEDAODEJICHUHEZUOFENGBAOZHANG。

                              (YI)GONGPINGZHENGYI

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                            决战棋牌   MAOZEDONGXIESHANGZHENGYISIXIANGTUCHUTIXIANZAIHEGUOMINDANGDEHEZUOZHONG。DIYICIGUOGONGHEZUOSHIQI,MAOZEDONGWEIJIANLIYIGE"MINZUDULI、MINQUANZIYOU、MINSHENGXINGFUDEGONGPINGDEXINSHEHUI"YUGUOMINDANGGONGTONGFANDIFANFENG。ZHONGRIMINZUMAODUNCHENGWEIGUONEIZHUYAOMAODUNHOU,MAOZEDONGCONGGUOJIAQIANTUHEMINZUDAJUCHUFA,TICHUYUANYURENHEZANTONGKANGRIDEDANGPAITONGZHOUGONGJI、GONGFUGUONAN,BUJINBAOKUOZHENGZHILICHANGXIANGYIDEDISANDANG、GUOJIAQINGNIANDANG、GUOJIASHEHUIDANG、JIUGUOHUIDENG,ERQIEBAOKUOYOUXUEHAISHENCHOUDEGUOMINDANG。ZAITADELINGDAOXIA,GONGCHANDANGJUANQIQIANXIAN、ZANWANGXUECHOU,KAIQILEDIERCIGUOGONGHEZUO,TONGSHISHISHIQIUSHIDICHENGRENGUOMINDANGDANGSHIDEKANGZHANLINGDAODIWEI。ZAIGUOMINDANGDE"ZIDAJINGSHENHEMEIYOUBIYAODEZIWOPIPING"XIA,MAOZEDONGRENGRANZHUZHANG"FANGQIGERENHEXIAOJITUANDESIJIAN"[4](370),JIANCHIJIXUHEZUOKANGRI,BINGQIANGDIAOGONGCHANDANGYAOFUQIZHONGHUAMINZUXINGWANGDEZHONGDAZERENLAI,WEIKANGZHANSHENGLIZUOCHULEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN,CHONGFENZHANGXIANLEMAOZEDONGZHENGDANGXIESHANGDEZHENGYILUNLI,YUJIANGJIESHIGUOMINDANGJITUANDEXIAOJIKANGRI、JIJIFANGONGZHIFEIZHENGYIXINGWEIXINGCHENGLEXIANMINGDEBIZHAO。KANGRIZHANZHENGSHENGLIZHIJI,MAOZEDONGWEILEGUONEIHEPINGYUGUOJIAQIANTUJI,GANMAOSHENGMINGWEIXIANQINFUZHONGQINGYUGUOMINDANGJINXINGLEWEIQISISHIDUOTIANDEXIESHANGTANPAN,ZAIDIPAN、JUNDUI、QIANGZHIDENGMINGANSHIXIANGSHANGZUOLEJIDARANGBUHOU,ZUIZHONGCUCHENGLE《SHUANGSHIXIEDING》DEQIANDING,XIANSHILEGONGCHANDANGDENULIHECHENGYI,JINERTUIDONG1946NIANZAIZHONGQINGJUXINGDEJIUZHENGXIEHUIYIDEDANSHENG,YINQILEGUANGDAZHONGJIANPAIHEGUOJIGUONEIYULUNDETONGQING,TIXIANLEMAOZEDONGSHISHIQIUSHI、XINXIGUOJIA、QUANXINWEIMINDEXIESHANGLICHANGYUJIAZHIDAOXIANG。

                            决战棋牌   (ER)CHENGJINGQIANHE

                              礼贤下士、敬老尊贤、和蔼可亲是毛泽东特有的谦恭品质,他在政党协商中更是表现得淋漓尽致。毛泽东广交党外朋友,积极与他们进行友好交流。延安时期他热情接待来访的民主党派人士,如三次接见李公仆,关怀其"抗日建国教育团"工作的开展;跟梁漱溟八次交谈,时长两个小时以上的就有六次,最长的两次竟通宵达旦;与黄炎培等六名参政员就国事问题举行多次协商;即使对中国青年党这样的右翼民主党派,毛泽东也是高度关怀,叮嘱周恩来、董必武等亲自做他们的工作,并赠送他们延安特产。真诚热忱的行为给党外人士留下了深刻印象,梁漱溟曾高度评价"毛泽东的政治家的风貌和气度,如同老友交谈",使他十分佩服,"终生难忘"[8].

                              毛泽东对党外人士非常敬重,极尽亲和爱护。1948年5月1日,毛泽东致信民革主席李济深、民盟代主席沈钧儒,就召开新政治协商会议的时间、地点、参与党派、实施步骤以及其它各项筹备事宜等进行协商。信中"以上诸点是否恰当,敬请二兄详加考虑,予以指教。……究以何者适宜,统祈赐示"[9],字里行间饱含着共产党领袖毛泽东的真诚、谦虚和对民主党派人士的尊重。1949年9月,81岁高龄的致公党创始人司徒美堂去香山南麓半山腰的毛泽东居所磋商事务,因担心年老体弱的司徒先生难以承受吉普车的颠簸,毛泽东专门嘱咐工作人员备好担架去山脚迎接,在临时找不到担架的情况下,毛泽东便把自己的藤椅给工作人员做成简易轿子。当司徒先生被抬上来后,毛泽东双手挽扶他下轿,司徒先生对这种极高礼遇非常感动,连连拱手致谢

                            决战棋牌   CHENGJINGQIANHEDEXINGWEIFANGSHIYEYOUXIAOCUJINLEXIESHANGZHIDUZHONGLINGDAOQUANZHEIYIHEXINWENTIDEJIEJUE。WEILESHIXIANHEQUEBAODANGDELINGDAO,MAOZEDONGZHUZHANGTONGGUOFAHUIGONGCHANDANGYUANDEXIANFENGMOFANZUOYONG、ZHIDINGDAIBIAOZUIGUANGDARENMINQUNZHONGLIYIDELUXIANFANGZHENZHENGCE、ZHAOGUTONGMENGZHEDELIYIDENGCUOSHILAIDACHENGZHEIYIJUMIAN,ZHEISANGEFANGMIANNEIZAIDIFANYINGLECHENGJINGQIANHEDEXIESHANGLUNLIYAOQIU。MAOZEDONGSHIFENZHONGSHIGONGCHANDANGZISHENMOFANGONGZUODUIXIESHANGDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,RENWEINENGSHUOFUHEJIAOYUDANGWAIRENSHIYISHITAMENYUANYIJIESHOUGONGCHANDANGDEJIANYI。KANGZHANSHIQI,TAQIANGDIAOGONGCHANDANGYUANZAITONGYIZHANXIANZHONGYAOCHENGWEISHIXINGTUANJIEKANGZHANRENWUDEMOFANHEXIEDIAOGEDANGXIANGHUGUANXIDEMOFAN,YISHIJIXINGDONGZUOCHUBIAOLV,ZHANXIANLEBUTONGYUBIEDEDANGPAIDEZUOFENG。ZAIZHIDINGDANGDELUXIANFANGZHENZHENGCESHI,MAOZEDONGZIJUEZHANZAIZUIGUANGDARENMINDELICHANGSHANG,DAIBIAOJUEDADUOSHURENDELIYI;MIANDUIWANGGUOMIEZHONGDEMINZUWEIJI,TAJIANDINGKANGRILUXIANBUDONGYAO,HUIJUQUANMINZUDELILIANG,ZHONGYUQUDELEBAINIANLAIFANJIWAILAIQINLVEDEWEIDASHENGLI;KANGZHANSHENGLIHOUSHUNYINGMINYI,TICHUHEPINGJIANGUOFANGZHEN,ZHUZHANGJIANLIMINZHULIANHEZHENGFU;ZAIGEMINGSHENGLIZHIJI,TAYOUTUANJIEGEDANG、GEPAI、GERENMINTUANTI,LONGZHONGZHAOKAIXINZHENGXIEHUIYI,XIESHANGJIANLILEYIGEDULI、ZIYOU、HEPINGDEXINZHONGGUO。MAOZEDONGFEICHANGZHUZHONGTONGMENGZHEDELIYI,RENWEIZHEISHIWUCHANJIEJIZHENGDANGLINGDAOTONGMENGZHESUOBIXUJUBEIDETIAOJIAN;TAGAOJIEGONGCHANDANGYUANYAOZUNZHONGDANGWAIRENSHIDEZONGJIAOXINYANGHESIXIANGZIYOU,YAOSHIDANGWAIGANBUZAIGONGZUO、XUEXI、WUZHIDENGGEFANGMIANXIANGYOUTONGGONGCHANDANGYUAN"BIXUHEKENENGDEGONGZUOTIAOJIAN"HE"TONGYANGDEXUEXIQUANLI",DEDAO"ZHENZHENGBIXUDEBANGZHU"[10](398)。

                              (SAN)MINZHUPINGDENG

                              MINZHUPINGDENGSHIHEZUOGONGSHIDEJICHU,MAOZEDONGZAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHONGJIANCHIMINZHUXIESHANG、PINGDENGYISHI,ZHANSHILELIANGHAODEXIESHANGZUOFENG。YIFANGMIANSHIZAIJIZHONGZHIDAOXIAJIANCHIMINZHUXIESHANG。KANGZHANZHICHU,MAOZEDONGJIUTICHUZHIYOUJIANCHIMINZHUDEHEZUOHEXIESHANG,CAINENGBAOZHANGZHENZHENGDE、JIANSHIDEKANGRIMINZUTONGYIZHANXIANDEJIANLIJIQIRENWUDEWANCHENG。JIANLI"SANSANZHI"MINZHUZHENGQUANYIDUIKANGGUOMINDANGDEDUCAITONGZHI,ZHICHU"GUOSHISHIGUOJIADEGONGSHI,BUSHIYIDANGYIPAIDESISHI".QIANGDIAOZAIBAOZHENGGONGCHANDANGDEZHENGZHILINGDAOXIA,TONGDANGWAIRENSHISHIXINGMINZHUHEZUODEYUANZE"GUDINGBUYI、YONGYUANBUBIAN".ERYIMINZHULAIHUIDAHUANGYANPEIDEZHOUQILVTIWENGENGSHIZHONGSUOZHOUZHI。ZAISHENYUE"WUYIKOUHAO"SHI,MAOZEDONGJIANGDI23TIAO"ZHONGGUORENMINDELINGXIUMAOZHUXIWANSUI"ZHIJIESHANDIAO,DI24TIAO"ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGWANSUI"GAIWEI"ZHONGHUAMINZUJIEFANGWANSUI",ZHEIYIXINGWEIYUNHANZHEFENGFUDEMINZHUNEIHAN。JIJIANGCHENGWEIZHIZHENGDANGSHI,ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGMEIYOUWANGJIWEIGEMINGFENDOUGUODEMINZHUDANGPAI,MAOZEDONGTUIXINZHIFUDISHUO,DAJIADOUSHIZUOJIAOZHE,YESHITAIJIAOZHE,GONGTONGDEXINYUANSHIZUOHAOXINZHONGGUOZHEIFUJIAOZI。ZUOWEIXINZHENGXIEHUIYIDELINGDAOZHE,TAYAOQIUHUIYIFAYANGMINZHU,BAOZHENGCHANGSUOYUYAN,SHIJIANZHENGMINGHUIYIJIZHONGZHANXIANLEMINZHUXIESHANGJINGSHEN,MINZHUJIANGUOHUIDAIBIAOZHANGNAIQISHUO:"FENZUTAOLUNHEDAHUIBAOGAOLUNFANDIJUXING,BAOZHENGLEDAJIADOUYOUCHONGFENDEFAYANQUAN,ZUODAOLEZHIWUBUYAN,YANWUBUJIN,ZUODAOLEFANFUTAOLUN,BUYANQIXIANG,ZUODAOLEDUOSHUQILEJUEDINGZUOYONG,SHAOSHUXINYUECHENGFU。ZHEICAISHIZHENZHENGDE、CHEDIDEMINZHU。"[11]ZHOUENLAICENGBAXINZHENGXIECHENGLIZHICHUDEMIANDUIMIANXIESHANGZUOWEIXINMINZHUDEYIGEZHONGYAOTEDIANJIAYILUNSHU:"XINMINZHUZHUYIDEYISHIJINGSHENBUZAIYUZUIHOUDEBIAOJUE,ZHUYAOZAIYUSHIQIANDEXIESHANGHEFANFUDETAOLUN。""FANSHIZHONGDADEYIANBUZHISHIZAIHUICHANGTICHU,SHIXIANJIUYINGDANGTICHULAIHUOZAIGEDANWEITAOLUN,XINMINZHUDETEDIANJIUZAICI。"[12](134)

                            决战棋牌   LINGYIFANGMIANSHIJIWEIQIANGDIAOXIESHANGDEPINGDENGXING,KANCHENGPINGDENGXIESHANGDEDIANFAN。ZAI"SANSANZHI"ZHENGQUANZHONG,MAOZEDONGYAOQIUGONGCHANDANGYUANYUDANGWAIRENSHIHEZUOBIXUCAIQUPINGDENGTAIDU,ZHICHU"FANYUWODANGGONGSHIDEDANGWAIRENYUAN,ZAIFALVSHANGSHIYUGONGCHANDANGYUANWANQUANPINGDENGDE"[10](398),BUNENGYINWEIWOYOUJUNDUIHEZHENGQUAN,JIUYIQIEDOUYAOBIERENWUTIAOJIANFUCONG。TABENRENGENGSHISHENTILIXING,ZAIXINZHENGXIECHOUBEIHEZHAOKAIQIJIAN,YITAWEIDAIBIAODEGONGCHANDANGRENDUOCIZHAOJIXIESHANGZUOTANHUI,XUXINTINGQUMINZHUDANGPAIHEWUDANGPAIRENSHIGUANYUXINZHENGFUJIANGCAIQUHEZHONGZHONGYAOZHENGCEDEYIJIANHEJIANYI,BINGJINXINGCHONGFENTAOLUN,BAOZHENGGEFANGLIYISUQIUDEDAOBIAODA。RU1949NIAN9YUE26RILINGCHENSANDIANZHIHANZHOUENLAI,TIXINGYAOZHUYITONGZHINEIXIE"SHANGWEIJIANGHUAERYINGJIANGHUAHUOXIANGJIANGHUADERENMEN,RULINZUN……DENGREN"[13](580-581)JISHIXIEHAOJIANGGAO,YIMIANWULESHIJI。"WUYIKOUHAO"ZHISUOYINENGDEDAOGUANGFANYONGHU,XINZHENGXIEHUIYIZHISUOYINENGSHUNLIZHAOKAIBINGQUDEJUDACHENGJIU,YUMAOZEDONGJIANCHIMINZHUPINGDENGDEXIESHANGZUOFENGYOUZHEMIBUKEFENDEGUANXI。CHENGRUHUQIAOMUSUOZONGJIEDENEIYANG:"ZHAOKAIZHENGXIEHENIDINGJIANGUOGANGLINGDEGUOCHENG,TUCHUTIXIANLEGONGCHANDANGLINGDAOXIADEDANGPAIXIESHANGJINGSHEN。MAOZEDONG、ZHOUENLAIDENGGONGCHANDANGLINGDAORENDAZHIDAYONG、XIONGHUAIDADU,JINENGTICHUWANZHENGZHENGQUEDELIGUOFANGAN,YOUNENGXUXINTINGQUQITADANGPAIHEWUDANGPAIMINZHURENSHIDEYIJIAN,PINGDENGXIESHANGGUOJIADASHI;QITADANGPAIHEWUDANGPAIRENSHIYINENGBENZHEGONGTONGFUZEDEJINGSHEN,JIEZHIJINLV,WEIGUOXIANCE,DADANFABIAOYIJIAN,GANYUJINXINGZHENGLUN,WEIWOGUOZHENGZHISHENGHUOLIUXIALAIYIZHONGBAOGUIDECHUANTONG。"[14]

                              (SI)LIANJIEQINZHENG

                              QINGZHENGLIANJIE、WUSHIQINZHENGSHIMAOZEDONGYIGUANDEDAODEPINXINGHEGONGZUOTAIDU,ZAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHONGTAJIANCHIKAICHENGBUGONG、YISHENZUOZE。MAOZEDONGDUIXIESHANGDEQINGZHENGLIANJIEYAOQIUTIXIANZAIXIESHANGZHUTIHEXIESHANGGUOCHENGYUJIEGUOSHANG。SHOUXIANDUIZUOWEIXIESHANGZHUTIZHIYIDEGONGCHANDANG,MAOZEDONGRENWEIGONGCHANDANGSHIWEIMINZUYURENMINMOULIYIDEZHENGDANG,YINGGAITANBAIWUSI,ZAIGONGZUOZHONGYINGGAIJIANGQIULIANJIE、BUYONGSIREN、DUOZUOGONGZUO、SHAOQUBAOCHOU。TAZHICHUGUOTONGQUYUJIEFANGQUZAILIANJIESHANGDEJUDACHABIE:"LIYONGKANGZHANFAGUONANCAI,GUANLIJISHANGREN,TANWUCHENGFENG,LIANCHISAODI,ZHEISHIGUOMINDANGQUYUDETESEZHIYI。JIANKUFENDOU,YISHENZUOZE,GONGZUOZHIWAI,HAIYAOSHENGCHAN,JIANGLILIANJIE,JINJUETANWU,ZHEISHIZHONGGUOJIEFANGQUDETESEZHIYI。"[15]MINGQUEYAOQIUGUOMINDANGCHENGBANTANGUANWULI,SHIXIANLIANJIEZHENGZHI。QICISHIXIESHANGGUOCHENGYUJIEGUOTIXIANLEQINGZHENGLIANJIE。1944NIANYUGUOMINDANGXIESHANGSHI,MAOZEDONGDUIGUOMINDANGQITULALONGGONGCHANDANGRENQUZHONGQINGZUOGUANER"XISHENGLIANHEZHENGFU,XISHENGMINZHUYUANZEZHEIZHONGLIANJIACHUMAIRENMINDEGOUDANG",BIAOSHI"JUEBUNENGGAN"[16].MAOZEDONGJIANCHIRENRENWEIXIAN,NINGKEZIJIDANGYUANBURENZHI,YEYAORANGMINZHURENSHIRENSHIZHI、ZHANGSHIQUAN。KANGRIGENJUDINEIZHENGFU、CANYIHUI、MINZHONGTUANTIJIQITAJIGUANRENMIANGONGZUORENYUAN,QIBIAOZHUNSHIZANCHENGKANGZHANTUANJIEYUFOUJIBENRENNENGLI、JINGYAN、XUESHIYUGONGZUOJIJIXING,ERBUYIQISHIFOUWEIGONGCHANDANGYUAN。ZAIMAOZEDONGZHEIYISIXIANGDEZHIDAOXIA,ZAIXINZHENGXIEDIYIJIEHUIYIXUANJUDEZHONGYANGRENMINZHENGFURENYUANZUCHENGZHONG,DANGWAIRENSHIWEIYUANZHAN49.2%,FUZHUXIZHAN50%,ZHENGWUYUANFUZONGLIZHAN50%,ZHENGBUWEILINGDAORENZHAN44.1%.

                              MAOZEDONGZAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGGUOCHENGZHONGCHUCHUBIAOXIANCHUWUSHIQINZHENG。WEIFANDUIDIYICIGUOGONGHEZUOZHONGDANGNEIDANGWAIDECUOWUSIXIANG,TASHENRUNONGCUNZUOLEDALIANGDESHIJIDIAOCHAGONGZUO,FABIAOYIXILIEWENZHANGCHANSHUZHONGGUOGEMINGDEDI、WO、YOUYIJINONGMINYUNDONG"HAODEHEN"DENGWENTI,WEIKAIZHANDANGJIXIESHANGTIGONGLELILUNYIJU。WEICUCHENGYIGUOGONGHEZUOWEIZHUDEKANGRIMINZUTONGYIZHANXIAN,CONG1936NIAN5YUE5RIDE《TINGZHANYIHEYIZHIKANGRITONGDIAN》DAOXIANSHIBIANBAOFADEBANNIANDUOSHIJIAN,YIGONGKAIDEMAOZEDONGZHIJIANGJIESHIJIGUOMINDANGXIANGGUANRENSHIDESHUXINJIUDA40YUFENG,KEWEIQINGZHUXINXUE、KOUZAOCHUNJIAO。CHOUBEIXINZHENGXIEHUIYISUIRANZHUYAOYOUZHOUENLAIFUZE,DANMAOZEDONGZUOWEIGONGCHANDANGDELINGDAOREN,ZAIHENDUOSHIQINGSHANGRENGRANQINZICHUMIAN,SHIZISHIZHIZHONGDEFADONGZHE、ZUZHIZHEHELINGDAOZHE。DUIZHONGYAOMINZHURENSHI,MAOZEDONGDUOCIXIEXINHUOZHIDIANXIANGYAO,QINZIDAOCHEZHANYINGJIE。ZAIWENGAOQICAOFANGMIAN,YOUDESHIYOUMAOZEDONGQINZIWANCHENG,RU《ZHONGGUORENMINZHENGZHIXIESHANGHUIYIDIYIJIEQUANTIHUIYIXUANYAN》;YOUDESHIMAOZEDONGQINZIBAGUAN、JINGXINXIUGAI,RU《GONGTONGGANGLING》CAOAN,21TIANSHIJIANXIUGAIGAOBENZHISHAOWUCI。CIWAITAHAIQINZIXIAODUI、DUCUYINSHUA[17].XINZHONGGUOJIANLIHOU,MAOZEDONGRENGFEICHANGZHUYIYUMINZHURENSHIDEJIAOWANG,HUOHUTONGSHUXINYISHANGGUOSHI,HUOLUNCITANSHIYIXUYOUQING,HUOBAIFANGJUCANYISHIGUANXIN。GUANZHUMINZHURENSHIZAIDIFANGZHENGFUZHONGDERENZHIQINGKUANGHEBILI,DUIANPAIBUDEDANGDELIJIZHENGGAI,CHUCHUKEJIANWEICIZUOCHUDEPISHI。DUIZAIGUONEIWAIYOUZHEZHONGDAYINGXIANGDEMINZHURENSHI,MAOZEDONGZONGSHIQINZIGUOWEN、FANFUZHENZHUO、RENZHENQUANHENG,RUDUIYUANGUOMINDANGGAOJIJIANGLINGCHENGQIAN,CONGDUNCUQIYIDAOANPAIZHIWU,XIANHOUNIXIEDIANBAOYUE30FEN。

                              三、现实启示:毛泽东政党协商伦理思想的当代价值

                              ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDEFAZHANJINRULEXINSHIDAI,ZHONGHUAMINZUYINGLAILECONGZHANQILAI、FUQILAIDAOQIANGQILAIDEWEIDAFEIYUE,MAOZEDONGZHENGDANGXIESHANGDELUNLISIXIANGYIRANSHANSHUOZHEGUANGMANG,DUIJIAQIANGWOGUOXINSHIDAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGJUYOUZHONGYAOXIANSHIQISHI。DANGDESHIBADAYILAI,YIXIJINPINGTONGZHIWEIHEXINDEDANGZHONGYANGBAZHENGDANGXIESHANGFANGZAIGEZHONGXIESHANGZHISHOU,CHUTAILE《GUANYUJIAQIANGZHENGDANGXIESHANGDESHISHIYIJIAN》DENGXILIEWENJIAN,WEIXINSHIDAIKAIZHANZHENGDANGXIESHANGTIGONGLEGENBENZUNXUN。

                              (YI)BIXUJIANCHIYIQIANGGUOFUXINGWEIXIESHANGMUBIAO

                            决战棋牌   XIESHANGMUBIAOSHIZHENGDANGXIESHANGDEYICUNZAIDEJIAZHITIXIAN。MAOZEDONGLIZUJIBENGUOQING,JINJINWEIRAO"WEILESHIZHONGHUAMINZUDEDAOJIEFANG,WEILESHIXIANRENMINDETONGZHI,WEILESHIRENMINDEDAOJINGJIDEXINGFU"[3](143)DECHUXINHESHIMING,YIJIANGUOZHIZHENGWEIMUBIAO,YUGEDANGPAIZHANKAIXIESHANG,TONGGUOXIESHANGLAIJIEJUEZHIZHENGDEHEFAXING、GUANGFANXINGHEJIANSHEDEJINPOXING。JINRUXINSHIDAIHOU,WOGUODEZHENGDANGXIESHANGYOUZHEGENGWEIZHONGYAODESHIMING,YAOYIQIANGGUOFUXINGWEIMUBIAO,JIANSHEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO,SHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUDEWEIDAFUXING。

                              XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZHICHU,SHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXINGSHIJINDAIYILAIZHONGHUAMINZUZUIWEIDADEMENGXIANG。ZHONGGUOMENGDAIBIAOZHEZHONGHUAMINZUDEGENBENLIYI,CHENGWEIZHONGHUAMINZUTUANJIEFENDOUDEZUIDAGONGYUESHU。YINCI,XINSHIDAIDEZHENGDANGXIESHANGYAOBUWANGHEZUOCHUXIN,LAOJILISHISHIMING,JIANCHIZHENGQUEDAOXIANG,SHIZHONGYISHIXIANZHONGGUOMENGZHEIYIWEIDAMUBIAOLAITUIJIN。ZUOWEISHEHUIZHUYIXIESHANGMINZHUDESHOUYAOQUDAO,ZHENGDANGXIESHANGYAOLIZUXINDESHIDAITEZHENG,ZHANXIANXINDEZUOWEI,JIANCHIDATUANJIEDALIANHE,JIANCHIDUOYANGXINGYUYIZHIXINGDETONGYI,CUJINGUOJIAMINZHUZHENGZHIHEKEXUEJUECE,SHIXIANGUOJIAZHILINENGLIXIANDAIHUA,WEIQUANMIANJIANCHENGXIAOKANGSHEHUI,KAIQIQUANMIANJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAGUOJIADEXINZHENGCHENGCHIXUGONGXIANLILIANG。BIXUZHICHUDESHI,QIANGGUOFUXINGDEXIESHANGMUBIAOZHIXIANGDESHIGUANGDARENMINQUNZHONGDEGONGTONGLIYI,TIXIANLEGUOJIALIYIHERENMINLIYIDETONGYI。WOMENSHISHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA,MEIYOUQUANTIRENMINDEGONGTONGFUYU,YEJIUTANBUSHANGZHENZHENGDEQIANGGUOFUXING。ZHONGGUOMENGGUIGENDAODISHIRENMINDEMENG,SHISUOYOUZHONGHUAERNVDEGONGTONGMENGXIANG。RENMINDUIMEIHAOSHENGHUODEXIANGWANG,JIUSHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGRENDEFENDOUMUBIAO,YESHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLINGDAOXIAZHENGDANGXIESHANGDETIZHONGYINGYOUZHIYI。YIXIJINPINGTONGZHIWEIHEXINDEDANGZHONGYANGJIANCHIYIRENMINWEIZHONGXINDEFAZHANSIXIANG,MINGQUETICHU"QUANXINQUANYIWEIRENMINFUWU,SHIZHONGDAIBIAOZUIGUANGDARENMINGENBENLIYI,SHIWOMENNENGGOUSHIXINGHEFAZHANXIESHANGMINZHUDEZHONGYAOQIANTIHEJICHU"[18](295)。

                              (ER)BIXUJIANCHIDANGJIGUANXIPINGDENGWEIXIESHANGQIANTI

                              党际平等是平等协商的前提,是毛泽东政党协商中重要的伦理原则。可以说,独立平等的协商主体是政党协商发展的基石,是党际民主的基础,关系到人民民主的有效实现。从合作抗日反蒋到协商建立新中国,从社会主义改造的肝胆相照到中国特色社会主义事业的携手并进,在长期实践中形成的中国特色社会主义民主政治制度,是建立在党际平等基础之上的,同时必须指出,这种民主制度决战棋牌是在平等基础之上的一党执政与多党参政的有机结合,是符合我国国情的历史选择[19].

                              我国的政党制度完全不同于西方的两党制和多党制。西方国家的政党之间虽然也存在协商,但这种协商是出于利益均衡、妥协和共享的需要,带有政党交易性质,其实质是政党对权力和利益的竞争[20].与这种竞争性关系不同,我国的政党关系是一种和谐关系。中国共产党和各民主党派以独立的政党姿态屹立于我国政治舞台,以宪法决战棋牌作为活动的根本准则。在中国共产党的政治领导下,民主党派积极参与政治协商,形成一党执政、多党协商的政治格局,这是民主监督、讲原则的参政,而不是多党执政。促成了参政党协助执政党治国理政、执政党帮助参政党加强自身建设的和谐互动的政党关系[21].在新时代推进政党协商,首先必须毫不动摇地坚持中国共产党的领导,这是顺利开展协商的根本保证。这种领导是对中国共产党政治主张的认同,是对在中国共产党领导下实现其政治意图和政治利益的确认。其次必须毫不动摇地坚持民主党派的独立自主地位,这是协商取得实效的必要条件。只有整合各民主政党的优点,保障它们能平等自主地发挥作用,才能切实体现出参政协商的力量和多党合作的优势。

                              (SAN)BIXUJIANCHIYIDAODEPINXINGHANGSHIXIESHANGJICHU

                              ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGYAOZHANGQIZHIZHENG,CHUYAOYOUZHENGZHISHANGDEHEFAXINGWAI,HAIBIXU"YAOYOUDAODESHANGDEHELIXING",BING"CHENGWEIDAODEDEKAIMO"[22].MAOZEDONGZAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHONGZHANSHIDELIANJIE、WUSHIDENGDAODEPINZHIHEQIANXU、ZHENCHENGDENGRENGEXIUYANG,DIANDINGLEXIESHANGDEDAODEJICHUHERENGEBAOZHANG,QUDELEJUDADEXIESHANGCHENGGUO。KEYISHUO,LIANGHAODEDAODEPINZHISHIKAIZHANZHENGDANGXIESHANGDEJICHU,GAOSHANGDERENGEPINXINGSHITUIJINZHENGDANGXIESHANGDEBAOZHENG。

                            决战棋牌   XINSHIDAIZHENGDANGXIESHANGBIXUJIANCHIYIDAODEPINXINGHANGSHIXIESHANGJICHU。XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIFANFUQIANGDIAOLINGDAOGANBUYAOYI"DE"FUREN、YI"CHENG"JUREN、YI"GONG"XINREN,MINGQUEZHICHU:"LINGDAOGANBUYAOJIANGZHENGDE。ZHENGDESHIZHENGGESHEHUIDAODEJIANSHEDEFENGXIANGBIAO。LIZHENGDE,JIUYAOMINGDADE、SHOUGONGDE、YANSIDE。"MINGDADESHIZHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGZUOWEIZHIZHENGDANG,ZAIGAOHAOZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHONGDANFUZHESHOUYAOZEREN。YAODUIDANGZHONGCHENG,DANGYUANGANBUBIXUQIZHIXIANMINGJIANGZHENGZHI,ZAIDASHIDAFEIMIANQIANBAOCHILICHANGJIANDING,CAIBUZHIYUZAIXIESHANGZHONGSANGSHILICHANG;YAOZHULAOLIXIANGXINNIAN,LIXIANGXINNIANSHIGONGCHANDANGRENJINGSHENSHANGDE"GAI",QUELEZHEIGE"GAI",JIUHUIDERUANGUBING,YOUKENENGZAIXIESHANGZHONGFANYUANZEXINGCUOWU。SHOUGONGDESHIZHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGZAIXIESHANGZHONGQINGZHENGLIANJIE、BUYIQUANMOUSI,JIANJUEFANDUIHECHENGZHIFUBAIXINGWEI。YAOQIANGHUAZONGZHIYISHI,KESHOULIDANGWEIGONG、ZHIZHENGWEIMINLINIAN,XINLISHIKEZHUANGZHE"RENMIN",ZIJUEJIANXINGRENMINDUIMEIHAOSHENGHUODEXIANGWANGJIUSHIWOMENDEFENDOUMUBIAODECHENGNUO,BUBAYUDANGWAIRENSHIDEYOUYIDANGCHENGGERENZIYUAN,ERSHICHUYUDUIRENMINFUZE、WEIDANGFENYOUDEGONGXINTIDANGJIAOZHIYOU、ZHENGYOU,JIANJUEFANGZHIGERENZHUYI、ZONGPAIZHUYI,FANDUIGAOLIANGMIANPAI、ZUOLIANGMIANREN。YANSIDESHIZHILINGDAOGANBUYANGEYUESHUZIJIDECAOSHOUHEXINGWEI,BAOCHIGAOSHANGDEDAODEQINGCAOHEJIANKANGDESHENGHUOQINGQU。FANYINGDAOZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHONG,JIUSHIYAODAIRENQINQIEHEQI,BUSHENGQILINGREN;YISHIXUXINGONGTING,BUCHUYANNIXUN;SHANGLIANGCHENGKENZUNZHONG,BUYISHIYAREN;ZUODAOZHENCHENGXIESHANG、WUSHIXIESHANG。

                              (SI)BIXUJIANCHIYIMINZHUZUOFENGTISHENGXIESHANGSHIXIAO

                              RANGRENMINDANGJIAZUOZHU,SHIMAOZEDONGBISHENGDELIXIANGHEZHUIQIU。MAOZEDONGSHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGMINZHUZUOFENGDECHANGDAOZHEHEJIANXINGZHE,TAWEIWOMENDANGZHIDINGLE"CONGQUNZHONGZHONGLAI,DAOQUNZHONGZHONGQU"DEGENBENGONGZUOLUXIAN。MINZHUZUOFENGSHIMAOZEDONGZHENGDANGLUNLISIXIANGDEZHONGYAONEIRONG,WEIMAOZEDONGZHENGDANGXIESHANGTIGONGLEYOULIDEZUOFENGBAOZHANG,YESHIMAOZEDONGZHENGDANGXIESHANGQUDECHENGGONGDEGUANJIANSUOZAI。

                              XINSHIDAIDEZHENGDANGXIESHANGYAOJIXUFAYANGYOULIANGMINZHUZUOFENG。SHOUXIANYAOZENGQIANGXIESHANGYISHI。MUQIANGONGCHANDANGNEIDUIZHENGDANGXIESHANGCUNZAIYIDINGCHENGDUDESUIYIXING、BIAOMIANHUAHEXINGSHIHUADETAIDUWENTI,YOUDEYINGFULESHI,"XIANGDAOLE""YOUKONGLE"JIUXIESHANG,"MEIXIANGDAO""MEIKONGXIAN"JIUBUXIESHANG;YOUDEXINGSHIZHUYIYANZHONG,CHANGYITONGBAOQINGKUANG、BUSHUGONGZUODAITIXIESHANG。BIXUGAIBIANZHEIZHONGXIANZHUANG,ZENGQIANGXIESHANGYISHI,XIJINPINGZHUTUO"XINSHIDAIDUODANGHEZUOWUTAIJIWEIGUANGKUO,YAOYONGHAOZHENGDANGXIESHANGZHEIGEMINZHUXINGSHIHEZHIDUQUDAO",ZUODAO"YOUSHIDUOSHANGLIANG、YOUSHIHAOSHANGLIANG、YOUSHIHUISHANGLIANG"[23].QICIYAOJIANCHIMINZHUZUOFENG。YAOZUNZHONG、WEIHUHEZHAOGUTONGMENGZHEDELIYI,RENZHENGUANCHEMINZHUXIESHANG。JIANCHISHIQIANXIESHANGYUANZE,YAOZAIZHONGDAJUECECHUTAIQIANGUANGFANZHENGQIUYIJIAN,CHONGFENYUNNIANGXIESHANG;ZAIJUECESHISHIZHONGNAIZHIZAISHISHIHOUDOUYAOBAOCHIGOUTONG,BUDUANWANSHANJUECE[24].JIANCHIQIUTONGCUNYIYUANZE。ZAIDANGJIXIESHANGZHONGJIJIANCHIQIUTONG,YOUZHUZHONGCUNYI,DADAOMINZHUTUANJIE、HEZUOGONGYINGDEMUBIAO。ZHIZHENGDANGYAOXIONGJINTANDANG,ZUNZHONGCHAYIHETILIANGBAORONG,YUNXUBUTONGYIJIANYUGUANDIANDECUNZAIHEBIAODA,DUIMINZHUDANGPAITICHUDEYIJIANHEJIANYIYAORENZHENYANJIU,JISHIFANKUI。DUIYUYUANZEXINGCUOWUBUNENGSHIERBUJIAN,BIXUCAIQUPIPINGJIAOYU、TAOLUNXIESHANGDEFANGFABINGDUCUGAIZHENG,DANBUSHIDAJIBAOFU。YAOZHENGZHISHANGCHONGFENXINREN、GONGZUOSHANGDALIZHICHI、SHENGHUOSHANGGUANXINZHAOGU,SHANYULIANYIJIAOYOU,NULIZUOTONGMENGZHEDEZHIXINPENGYOU,CONGERQIESHITISHENGXIESHANGZHILIANGHEXIAOLV。

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                              李雅兴,伍安.毛泽东政党协商的伦理思想及其现实启示[J].中南大学学报(社会科学版),2020,26(01):144-151. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282096.html   

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