决战棋牌

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                          1. 讨论中美农业合作空间和关系及针对性地建议

                            中美国际关系论文研究热点10篇之第八篇:讨论中美农业合作空间和关系及针对性地建议 摘要 :农业是百业之基,是立国之本,是稳人心、安天下的基础产业。中国是传统农业大国,历来重视粮食生产,是全球最大的农产品生产国、消费国和进口国,但客观地说,目前依然不是农
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                            中美国际关系论文研究热点10篇之第八篇:讨论中美农业合作空间和关系及针对性地建议

                              摘要:农业是百业之基,是立国之本,是稳人心、安天下的基础产业。中国是传统农业大国,历来重视粮食生产,是全球最大的农产品生产国、消费国和进口国,但客观地说,目前依然不是农业强国,与发达国家的现代农业发展水平差距明显。美国是全球农业第一强国、最大的农产品出口国,农业生产方式和生产力水平都属世界发达农业之列。对中美农业情况进行比较分析,讨论中美农业合作空间和关系,有针对性地提出建议,对打造中国农业强国具有重要意义。

                              关键词:决战棋牌中美农业; 贸易关系; 贸易摩擦; 比较研究;

                              2018NIAN,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZUOCHULESHIJIEZHENGMIANLINBAINIANWEIYOUZHIBIANJUHEJINZHUANGUOJIAYINGGAIXINGCHENGDISICIGONGYEGEMINGLIANMENGLIANGDALUNDUAN,GAOWUJIANLINGDIPOUXILEWEILAISHIJIEGEJUDEFAZHANBIANHUAQUSHI。DANGQIAN,MEIOUZHUDAOLENGZHANHOUDESHIJIEZHIXUNENGLIXIANGDUIXIAJIANG,YIZHONGGUOWEIDAIBIAODEXINXINGDAGUOQUNTIXINGJUEQI,ZHONGMEILIANGGEDAGUOGUANXIYIJIZHONGMEIMAOYIMOCABUJINYINGXIANGZHONGMEILIANGGUODEMAOYI、NONGYEDENGFANGMIAN,HAIYINGXIANGZHESHIJIEGEJUDEBIANHUA,CONGZHONGMEINONGYEBIJIAORUSHOU,YANJIUZHONGMEIMAOYIMOCADUIZHONGGUONONGYEHEHEILONGJIANGKENQUDEGAIGEFAZHAN,JUYOUXIANSHIERYOUSHENYUANDEYIYI。

                            中美关系

                              一、中美农业情况比较分析

                              (YI)ZIRANZIYUANTIAOJIAN

                              耕地是农业的基础,美国可耕地面积1.974亿公顷,占世界耕地总面积的13.15%,是世界上耕地面积最大的国家,水资源2.97万亿立方米。中国可耕地面积1.282亿公顷,耕地面积世界第四,水资源2.8万亿立方米。从土地面积上看,尽管中国比美国的总耕地面积少,中国仍是耕地面积大国。但考虑到人口因素,美国人均耕地0.7公顷,人均水资源1.08万立方米;中国人均耕地0.1公顷,人均水资源0.23万立方米,差距巨大。我国农业的基本情况就是人口众多、人均耕地少、水资源短缺,实际上中国现有的水土资源是很难满足中国人口的粮食需求的。中国以占世界6%的淡水资源、9%的耕地,解决了占世界21%人口的吃饭问题,从这一点看,中国农业取得了卓越的成就。但在农业生产效率上,美国以2%的农业人口养活3亿多人口,成为全球首屈一指的农产品出口大国,粮食出口量占世界粮食出口总量的一半[1].中国人民大学重阳金融研究决战棋牌院执行院长、中美人文交流研究中心执行主任认为,美国GDP占世界经济总量份额从2008年的23.3%上升到2017年的24.8%,其间有小幅震荡,但稍有上升。中国GDP占世界经济总量份额由7.3%上升到15%,快速崛起,2010年超过日本,跃升为世界第二大经济体,短短7年后GDP已是日本的近3倍,中国国力离美国仍存在明显差距,只是这种差距并非全面性的,而是局部性地呈现渐进式的缩小趋势。

                              (ER)NONGYEKEJIHUA

                              农业现代化是提高农业劳动生产率、土地产出率及资源利用率的根本动力,农业的发展过程中体现了现代化、规模化和产业化的发展方向。中国农业机械化水平不断提高,耕作环节机械化率相对较高,但播种、收获环节的机械化率还是较低,2017年农作物综合机械化率66%,机耕率为81%(粮油作物机耕率稳定在90%以上),机播率和机收率分别为52%和53%.世界上农业先进国家都有较高的农业机械化水平,美国早已不仅在粮食作物上,在棉花、大豆、烟草等品种上都实现了耕种收全程全面机械化,农业机械与计算机决战棋牌、卫星遥感等技术结合,达到了高度自动化和精确化[2].据统计,2015年中国玉米、稻谷、小麦、大豆、棉花等主要农产品亩均总成本分别比美国高出56.1%、20.8%、210.4%、38.4%、222.8%.中国农业已迈入"高成本"时代,农业成本全面超越美国,虽然黑龙江垦区等区域大型国有农场的农业现代化达到了发达国家水平,但总体上农业生产效率与基础竞争力还是低于美国。

                            决战棋牌   (SAN)NONGYEGUIMOHUA

                              中国经济增长较快,对农业投入也很大。实际上,中国具备实现农业现代化的物质基础和技术手段。但是由于很难实现规模化生产,一定程度上限制了中国不能全面使用世界先进的设备,迅速提升农业现代化。中国是一个人口大国,国情复杂,两千多年来,中国农业一直延续着小农经营模式,以个体、个户为主,人均耕地不到世界人均水平的40%.由于人多地少、土地分散,导致不能完全大规模的机械化。中国农业的根本制度是家庭承包经营制度,把农户确立为农业经营的主体,赋予农民长期而有保障的土地使用权和经营自主权,充分调动了农民的生产积极性。但中国农业要大规模提高农产品产量和质量,小规模经营具有局限性。据统计,中国从事农业的人口是美国的90倍,中国农业劳动力平均经营耕地面积为9.24亩,美国为957.47亩,是中国的103.6倍。美国农业在建国后,一直延续着农场主的经营模式,以大规模经营为主,约70%以上的耕地都是以大面积连片分布的方式集中在大平原和内陆低原,适合农业机械化生产,并且以农业产业带的方式布局全国,大规模的机械化生产大大提高了美国农业的生产效率。

                              (SI)NONGYECHANYEHUA

                              ZAIMIANLINZIRANFENGXIANHESHICHANGFENGXIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,NONGYEZHONGZHILIRUNKONGJIANYOUXIAN,NONGYELIRUNDEJUDAKONGJIANZAICHANYELIANHOUDUAN,SHENGCHAN、JIAGONG、XIAOSHOUDENGHUANJIE。ZAIZHONGGUO,NONGMINDANJIADUHUDEFENSANJINGYINGYUDASHICHANGDEMAODUNRIYITUCHU。ZHONGGUONONGYECHANYEHUACHENGDUYUFADAGUOJIAXIANGBICUNZAIYIDINGCHAJU,JINGUANYOUZHONGLIANG、ZHONGCHULIANG、BEIDAHUANGDENGYIXIEYOUXIUDEDAXINGNONGYEQIYEJITUAN,DANHAIMEIYOUXINGCHENGZHENZHENGDESHIJIEJIDALIANGSHANG。ZAIMEIGUONONGYECHANYEHUAGUOCHENGZHONGZHANJUZHUDAODIWEIDESHIMEIGUODAXINGNONGCHANPINJIAGONGHEXIAOSHOUQIYE。QUANQIUSIDALIANGSHANGKONGZHILEQUANSHIJIE80%DELIANGSHIJIAOYILIANG,YONGYOUMINGXIANDEDINGJIAQUAN,QIZHONG,MEIGUOJIUYOUADM、BANGJIHEJIAJIGONGSI3JIA,SHISHIJIESHANGPAIMINGQIANSANWEIDELIANGSHIJIAGONG、CHUYUNHEQUANQIULIANGYOUMAOYIDECHAODAXINGKUAGUOGONGSI;QUANQIUSHIDASHIPINJIAGONGQIYEZHONG,MEIGUOYOU6JIA,RUKAFUHETAISENGONGSI;QUANQIUSHIDASHIWULINGSHOUSHANG,MEIGUOYOU5JIA,WOERMAPAIMINGSHIJIEDIYI;MENGSHANDOUGONGSISHIQUANQIUDIYIDAZHONGZIGONGSI,KONGZHILEQUANQIUGUWUYUSHUCAIZHONGZI23%~41%DEFENE,ZAIZHUANJIYINZHONGZISHICHANGSHANGSHILONGDUANJUTOU,QUANQIU90%YISHANGDENONGZUOWUZHUANJIYINZHONGZISHIYONGTADEZHUANLIJISHU,2018NIANTABEIDEGUONONGHUAZHIZAOJUTOUBAIERGONGSISHOUGOU。MEIGUOYIJIANQUANDENONGYETIXIBANONGYECHANQIAN、CHANZHONG、CHANHOUGEGEHUANJIEZUCHENGWEIYIGETONGYIDENONGYEZONGHETI,CHONGFENSHIXIANLECHANYEHUAJINGYING,PEIYUCHULEYIDAPISHIJIELIANGSHANG,LAOLAOZHANJULENONGYECHANYELIANGAODUAN,ZHICHENGLEQIZAISHIJIENONGYEZHONGDEQIANGSHIDIWEI。

                              二、中美农业贸易关系及贸易摩擦的影响

                              目前,中美竞争合作的基本格局中,中美竞争占上风。随着美国的贸易保护主义思潮和"逆全球化"的兴起,"民粹主义"和"强人政治"一定程度上导致中美农业合作的不确定性,随着"一带一路"和"人类命运共同体"战略的持续发展,新型大国关系正在形成中,对中美农业关系及其贸易摩擦不确定性将长期存在,但"中国声音"的"定盘星"作用将逐渐上升。

                              (YI)ZHONGMEINONGYEYIJINGXINGCHENGJINMIDEHEZUOGUANXI

                              ZHONGGUODUISHIJIEYIWEIZHE14YIRENKOUDESHICHANG,YIGEJUDADE、BUKETIDAIDESHICHANG。2017NIANWOGUOLIANGSHIJINKOUZONGLIANGDA1.25YIDUN,SHIMINGFUQISHIDELIANGSHIJINKOUDAGUO。MEIGUONONGCHANPINCHANLIANGDA,ERMEIGUORENKOUSHAO,GUONEISHICHANGDUINONGCHANPINDEXUQIULIANGDI,DAOZHICHUXIANSHICHANGGUOSHENG,YINCIXUYAOZAIGUOJISHICHANGSHANGXUNZHAOCHUKOU,JUYOUCHUKOUDEBIYAOXING,DUIYUGUOSHENGDENONGYECHANNENGXUEJIANNONGYERENKOUHECHIXUBUZHUDOUSHIBUXIANSHIHEBUNENGZHANGJIUDE。ZHENGSHIYINWEIMEIGUODUIZHONGGUONONGYESHANGDEYOUSHI,NONGYESHENGCHANCHENGBENBIZHONGGUODI,NONGYESHENGCHANLISHUIPINGGAO,YINCI,ZAISHICHANGGUILVZUOYONGXIAYOULECHUKOUZHONGGUODEKENENG。ZHONGGUORENKOUDUO,SHICHANGXUQIULIANGDA,ZHEIJIMEIGUONONGCHANPINTIGONGLEJUDADESHICHANGKONGJIAN,QUANMIANXIAOHUALEMEIGUONONGCHANPINDEGUOSHENGCHANNENG,ZHONGMEINONGYECHAJUJIMEIGUONONGYETIGONGLEJIHUI,SHIZHONGMEIXINGCHENGLEJINMIDEHEZUOGUANXI。ZHONGYANGNONGBANFUZHUREN、NONGYENONGCUNBUFUBUZHANGHANJUNZAIHUIYINGZHONGMEIMAOYIMOCAZHONGDENONGYEJIAODIANWENTISHIBIAOSHI,ZHONGMEILIANGGUONONGYEZIYUANBINGFUBUTONG,NONGCHANPINMAOYIJUYOUHENQIANGDEHUBUXING。ZHONGGUOSHISHIJIESHANGZUIDADENONGCHANPINJINKOUGUO,MEIGUOSHISHIJIESHANGZUIDADENONGCHANPINCHUKOUGUO,ZHONGMEISHUANGFANGJIAQIANGNONGCHANPINMAOYIHEZUOYOULIYUCUJINLIANGGUONONGYEFAZHAN。

                              SHANGWUBUZAI《GUANYUZHONGMEIJINGMAOGUANXIDEYANJIUBAOGAO》ZHICHU,ZHONGMEILIANGGUOFAZHANWANQUANKEYIXIANGFUXIANGCHENG、XIANGHUCUJIN,SHUANGFANGWANQUANNENGGOUJIXUCHENGWEIHULIGONGYINGDEJINGJIHUOBAN。ZHONGGUOSHIMEIGUOZUIDADEMAOYIHUOBAN,SHIMEIGUODISANDACHUKOUSHICHANG,MEIGUOCHUKOUSHANGPINDAOZHONGGUOCONG2001NIANDAO2017NIANZENGJIALE577%,MEIGUOCHUKOUZHONGGUODIERDAPINLEISHINONGCHANPIN,ZHONGGUOSHIMEIGUONONGCHANPINDIERDACHUKOUSHICHANG,DISANDAJINKOULAIYUANGUO[3].2017NIANMEIGUONONGCHANPINCHUKOUZHONGGUO200YIMEIYUAN,DADOUDADAO120YIMEIYUAN,CONGZHONGGUOJINKOUNONGCHANPIN45YI,SHUNCHA155YI。ZAIGUOQUSHINIANLI,MEIGUODUIZHONGGUODENONGCHANPINCHUKOUZENGZHANGCHAOGUO200%,DUIZHONGGUONONGCHANPINMAOYICHIXUDAESHUNCHA。GUOJIATONGJIJUJUZHANGNINGJIZHEBIAOSHI,CONGZHANGQIFAZHANQUSHIKAN,SHIJIEJINGJIFAZHANDEQUANQIUHUAQUSHIMEIYOUGAIBIAN,ZHONGGUOJINGJISHENDURONGRUSHIJIEJINGJI,ZHONGMEIHUOWUMAOYIECHAOGUO6300YIMEIYUAN,HULIGONGYINGDEBENZHIBUHUIGAIBIAN,HEZUOXUQIUQIANLISHIFENJUDA。

                            决战棋牌   (ER)ZHONGMEIMAOYIMOCADUIZHONGMEINONGYECHANSHENGDEZHONGDAWEIHAIHEZHANGQIYINGXIANG

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                            决战棋牌   ZAICHANLIANGCHONGJISHANG,MEIGUODADOUCHANLIANGXIAJIANG11%~15%.BAXIDADOUCHANLIANGZENGJIA9%~15%.ZHONGGUODADOUCHANLIANGZENGZHANG3%~5%.MEIGUOGAOLIANGCHANLIANGXIAJIANG4%.MEIGUOHEZHONGGUODEYOUCAIZICHANLIANGZENGJIA,BAXICHANLIANGXIAJIANG。ZAIJIAGECHONGJISHANG,MEIGUODADOUSHENGCHANSHANGJIAGEXIAJIANGYUE4%,MEIGUOHEZHONGGUODADUOSHUQITANONGCHANPINJIAGEBIANHUAHENXIAO。BAXIDESUOYOUNONGCHANPINJIAGEDOUYOUSUOSHANGZHANG,YOUXIEZEXIANGDUIJIAODA(2%~5%)。

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                              经济学家使用经济福利的概念来描述一个国家或地区经济福祉的变化[7].在经济福利上,美国经济福利每年下降22~29亿美元,中国的经济福利每年也减少17~34亿美元。巴西的经济福利每年增加15~28亿美元。南美洲每年的经济福利增加了7~14亿美元。所有其他国家都经历了经济福利的集体增长,但全球经济福利每年下降12~18亿美元。

                              ZONGSHANG,MAOYIMOCAHUIDUIMEIGUONONGYECHANSHENGJIAODACHONGJI,DANDUIZHONGGUOYEHUIYOUYIDINGFUMIANYINGXIANG,KEYISHUOSHUANGFANGDOUHUISHISHUJIA,ERBAXI、AGENTING、XINXILAN、AODALIYA、OUMENGDENGNONGYEDAGUOJIANGCONGZHONGHUOYI。

                              三、对策建议

                            决战棋牌   WOGUONONGYEMIANLINDEXIANSHIWENTISHINONGYESHENGCHANJINGYINGSHUIPINGHENONGYEFADAGUOJIACUNZAIYIDINGCHAJU,NONGYEZONGHESHENGCHANCHENGBENGAO、SHENGCHANXIAOLVDI,DUIGUOWAINONGCHANPINJINKOUYOUYIDINGYILAIXING,TEBIESHIDADOU。NONGYESHIJICHUXINGCHANYE,LIANGSHIANQUANSHIGUANGUOJIAWENDING。CHULIHAOZHONGMEINONGYEJINGZHENGHEZUOWENTIDEGUANJIANSHIZUOHAOZHONGGUOZIJIDESHIQING,"ZHONGGUORENYAOBAFANWANDUANZAIZIJISHOULI,ERQIEYAOZHUANGZIJIDELIANGSHI。"TONGSHIYAOJIADANONGYEGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGELIDU,ZAILIANGSHICHANNENGGONGJIDELIANGHEZHILIANGGEFANGMIANSHIXIANXINDETUPO。

                            决战棋牌   (YI)JIJIYINGDUIWTOGAIGEHESHIJIEZHUYAOJINGJITIGUANYUNONGYEFANGMIANDEHEZUOYUJINGZHENG

                              MUQIAN,ZAIMEIGUODETUIDONGXIA,OUMENG、RIBEN、JIANADA、HANGUODENGMEIGUODEMENGYOUZHENGZAILIANSHOUTUIDONGSHIJIEMAOYIZUZHI(WTO)GUIZETIXIDEGAIGE。WEIXIANGYINGMEIGUODEGAIGECHANGYI,OUMENGZHENGSHIGONGBULEYIFENTIWEI《SHIJIEMAOYIZUZHIXIANDAIHUA》(WTOModernisation)DEGAINIANXINGWENJIAN(conceptpaper),XITONGTICHULEOUMENGSHEJIDEWTOGAIGEFANGAN,BINGJIHUAYUNXUJIANGMEIGUODADOUYONGYUZHICHENGOUZHOUSHENGWURANLIAO,CIJUWUYIJIANGJINYIBUTUISHENGMEIGUODADOUDUIOUCHUKOU。OUFANGHAIJIANJUEFANDUIJIANGNONGCHANPINNARUKUADAXIYANGZIMAOXIEDINGTANPAN。MEIOURIZEJIUQUANQIUMAOYIZHIXUFABULEDIWUFENLIANHESHENGMING,SANFANGBUZHANGSHENRUTAOLUNLEJIEJUEQITAGUOJIA"FEISHICHANGDAOXIANGZHENGCEHEZUOFAWENTI"DEGONGTONGMUBIAO。WOGUOQINGHUADAXUEZHONGMEIGUANXIYANJIUZHONGXINGAOJIYANJIUYUANZHOUSHIJIANFENXICHENG,WEILAIGENGDADEKUNNANZAIWTOGAIGEZHEIYANGSHEJIQUANQIUXINGMAOYIGUIZEBIANGEDETIAOZHANSHANG,"WOCHENGZHIWEI'RINEIWAHUIHE'".MIANDUIYANJUNDEGUOJIXINGSHIYUTIAOZHAN,ZHONGMEIDOUSHIQUANQIUJIAZHILIANSHANGDEZHUYAOHUOYIZHE[8],WOGUOYINGJIAQIANGGUANYUNONGYEFANGMIANDEHEZUOYUJINGZHENG,JINKUAIZHANGWOGUOJINONGCHANPINDINGJIAQUAN,TISHENGGUOJIHUAYUQUANHEYINGXIANGLI,BINGYANJIUZHIDINGCHUGENGJIAGONGPINGHELIDEQUANQIUJIAZHILIANGUIZEHEBIAOZHUN,YINGZAOYOULIYUQUANQIUJIAZHILIANPENGBOFAZHANDEWAIBUHUANJING。JUTIKEYICONGSANFANGMIANRUSHOU,YISHITIGAONONGCHANPINDEZHILIANGHEKEJIHANLIANG[9],YOUHUANONGCHANPINCHUKOUJIEGOU,CUJINNONGCHANPINSHENJIAGONGCHANYEFAZHANJINONGCHANPINPINZHIHEANQUANXINGDETIGAO。ERSHISHISHICHUKOUSHICHANGDUOYUANHUACELVE,DAPOMAOYIBILEI,JINYIBUYOUHUAMAOYIJIEGOU。SANSHIZAIQUEBAOLIANGSHIANQUANWEIHEXINDENONGYECHANYEANQUANQIANTIXIA,FANGYANSHIJIEJINXINGNONGYEZIYUANQUANQIUHUAPEIZHI,JIAQIANGYU"YIDAIYILU"YANXIANGUOJIADUOFANGHEZUO[10],BUQIWOGUONONGYEDUANBAN。

                              (ER)SHENHUANONGYEGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE

                            决战棋牌   DANGQIANWOGUOLIANGSHILINGYUZHUYAOMAODUNSHIJIEGOUXINGMAODUN,LIANGSHIGONGJITIXIYUXUQIUJIEGOUBUSHIYINGSHINONGCHANPINYUANLIAODUIWAIYILAIXINGGAO。JIAQIANGNONGYEGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,BAOZHENGNONGCHANPINYOUXIAOGONGJISHULIANGCHONGZU,PINZHONGHEZHILIANGQIHEXIAOFEIZHEXUYAO,JIANCHENGJIEGOUHELI、FUYOUXIAOLV、BAOZHANGYOULIDENONGCHANPINGONGJITIXI。JIADAQUKUCUN、JIANGCHENGBEN、BUDUANBANLIDU,DIAOZHENGZHONGZHIJIEGOU,TUIDONGLIANGJINGSITONGCHOU、ZHONGYANGJIAYITI、YIERSANCHANYERONGHEFAZHAN,ZENGQIANGNONGYEKECHIXUFAZHANDEHOUJING。TIGAODADOUZHONGZHIMIANJIHEZONGCHANLIANG,NONGJINONGYIJIEHESHIXINGGUIMOHUAZHONGZHI,PEIYUSHIHEMIZHIHEJIXIEHUAZAIPEIDEDADOUPINZHONG,PINZHONGYUCUOSHIXIANGJIEHE,ZENGCHAN、TIZHI、ZENGXIAO。

                            决战棋牌   (SAN)QUANMIANTUIJINNONGYEXIANDAIHUA

                              XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAIKAOCHAHEILONGJIANGSHIZHICHU"ZHONGGUOXIANDAIHUALIBUKAINONGYEXIANDAIHUA,NONGYEYAOZHENXING,JIUYAOCHASHANGKEJIDECHIBANG,JIUYAOKAOYOUXIUDERENCAI、XIANJINDESHEBEI、YUCHANYEFAZHANXIANGSHIYINGDEYUANQU。"NONGYENONGCUNBUBUZHANGHANZHANGFUZAITUIJINNONGYEXIANDAIHUAFANGMIANBIAOSHI,YAOYIGOUJIANXIANDAINONGYECHANYETIXI、SHENGCHANTIXI、JINGYINGTIXIWEIZHUASHOU,JIAKUAITUIJINNONGYEXIANDAIHUA。SHIDUKUODAJINGYINGGUIMO,TIGAONONGYESHENGCHANXIAOLV,TISHENGNONGYEJIXIEHUA、XINXIHUA、ZHINENGHUA,DAMIANJITUIGUANGYOULIANGPINZHONG、NONGYEJIXIE、SHESHINONGYE。TIGAONONGYEGUIMOHUAJINGYING,DALIFAZHANNONGMINHEZUOSHE、ZHUANYENONGHU、QIYEGONGSIYIJIZHENGFUFUWUZUZHI,ZHICHIYOUTIAOJIANDENONGHULIUZHUANTUDIJINGYINGQUAN,TUIJINDUOZHONGXINGSHIDENONGYEJINGYINGFANGSHICHUANGXIN。JIAQIANGNONGYEJICHUSHESHIJIANSHE,GAISHANSHENGCHANTIAOJIAN,TIGAONONGYEKANGZAINENGLI。ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANNONGCUNFAZHANYANJIUSUOYANJIUYUANLIGUOXIANGZAIJIEDU2018NIANZHONGYANGNONGCUNGONGZUOZHONGZHICHU,MAIXIANGNONGYEXIANDAIHUA,YAOJIAKUAIGOUJIANSANDATIXI,JIJIPEIYUJIATINGNONGCHANG、NONGMINZHUANYEHEZUOSHEDENGXINXINGJINGYINGZHUTI,ZOUZHILIANGXINGNONGHELVSEXINGNONGDAOLU,ZENGJIAYOUZHILVSENONGCHANPINGONGJI。

                              (SI)ZHASHITUIJINNONGYEJINGWAIKAIFA

                              TONGCHOULIYONGHAOGUONEIGUOWAILIANGZHONGZIYUAN、LIANGGESHICHANG,ZHUBUJIANSHAODUIGUOWAINONGCHANPINJINKOUDEYILAI。GOUJIANNONGYEDUIWAIKAIFANGXINGEJU,GULINONGYEQIYEZOUCHUQU,PEIYUJUYOUGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDEDALIANGSHANGHENONGYEQIYEJITUAN,CANYUQUANQIULIANGSHIANQUANZHILIHENONGYEMAOYIGUIZEZHIDING。YISHENONGDAXINGQIYEWEIHEXIN,YOUHUAZHENGHEGEZHONGZIYUAN,TUIDONGQIYE"ZOUCHUQU"JIANLIJINGWAINONGYESHENGCHANHEJIAGONGJIDI,ZHUBUGOUJIANQIWENDINGDEHAIWAILIANGSHIZHONGZHIJIDI、CHUMUCHANPINJIDI、YUYEYANGZHIJIDI,YIJIWANSHANDESHANGMAOWULIUYUNSHUTIXI。TEBIESHIYU"YIDAIYILU"ZHENGCEXIANGJIEHE,JIAQIANGYUYANXIANGUOJIADENONGYEHEZUO。LINGYIFANGMIAN,TONGGUOJIAQIANGNONGYEGUOJIHEZUO,ZAIQUANMIANKAIFANGDEGEJUXIA,ZHIJIEJIANGWOGUONONGYETUIXIANGQUANQIUJINGZHENGDEQIANYAN,DAOBIGUONEINONGYEZHUANXINGSHENGJI。

                              (WU)PEIYUNONGYELINGYUHANGMU

                              MUQIANWOGUONONGYECANYUGUOJIJINGZHENGZUIZHUYAODERENWUSHIDAZAONONGYELINGYUHANGMU,PEIYUDAXINGNONGYEQIYE,BINGDAIDONGNONGYECHANYEHUAJINGYING。QUANLIZHICHIBEIDAHUANGJITUAN、ZHONGLIANGJITUAN、SHOUNONGJITUAN、GUANGMINGJITUANDENGDAZAONONGYELINGYUHANGMU,JIANSHEXIANDAINONGYEDEDAJIDI、DAQIYE、DACHANYE,PEIYUJUYOUGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDEXIANDAINONGYEQIYEJITUAN。YIDAXINGNONGYEQIYEWEIHEXIN,ZHENGHEXINXI、JISHU、ZIJINHEYINGXIAODENGGEZHONGZIYUAN,CUCHENGNONGYECHANGONGXIAO、NONGGONGSHANGYITIHUAJINGYING,TIGAONONGYEZONGHEJINGZHENGLIHESHENGCHANXIAOLV,ZHIJIETUIDONGNONGYECHANYEHUADEDAFAZHAN。WEIRAONONGYEDESHENGCHAN,JIANQUANCONGSHANGYOUDAOXIAYOUDEYITIAOWANZHENGDEXIANDAINONGYECHANYELIAN,KUODASHENGCHANGUIMO,JIAQIANGNONGFUSHIPINDEJINGSHENJIAGONG,TIGAONONGCHANPINFUJIAZHI,XINGCHENGPANGDADECHANYEJIQUN,JIJIKAITUOGUONEIHEGUOJISHICHANG。

                              参考文献
                              [1]陶爱祥。中美农业发展水平对比研究[J].世界农业,201(28):26-29.
                              [2]王曦,帅传敏。中美农业贸易的互补性研究[J].经济问题,201(04):81-84.
                              [3]原瑞玲,张雯丽,王慧敏,翟雪玲。中国与美国农业投资合作及发展方向研究[J].经济研究参考,201(731):61-63.
                              [4]覃诚,刘合光,周珂等。中美农产品贸易发展演变与展望[J].世界农业,201(812):37-44.
                              [5]Taheripour F.,X.Zhao,W.E.Tyner.The Impact of Considering Land Intensification and Updated Data on Biofuels Land Use Change and Emissions Estimates[J].Biotechnology for Biofuels,2017(10):191.
                              [6]Taheripour F.,W.E.Tyner.Impacts of Possible Chinese 25%Tariff on U.S.Soybeans and Other Agricultural Commodities[J].Choices,2018,33(2):1-7.
                              [7]Hillberry,R.H.,M.A.Anderson,E.J.Balistreri,and A.K.Fox.Taste Parametersas Model Residuals:Assessing the"Fit"of an Armington Trade M[J].Review of International Economics,2005,1(35):973-984.
                              [8]尹伟华。全球价值链视角下中美农业双边贸易分解分析[J].世界经济研究,201(86):3-11.
                              [9]韩灵梅。基于产品产业内贸易实证分析的农业贸易策略探究--以中美2002-2012年贸易数据为例[J].世界农业,201(47):121-124.
                            决战棋牌   [10]罗浩轩,郑晔。中美贸易摩擦下我国农业产业安全深层次困境及破解思路[J].西部论坛,2018(12)。

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