决战棋牌

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                        1. 中美经贸关系的发展困境及合理对策

                          中美国际关系论文研究热点10篇之第五篇:中美经贸关系的发展困境及合理对策 摘要: 随着中国经济实力的不断增强,美国的世界霸主地位受到了极大的挑战,中美经贸关系也随之陷入了一定的发展困境,巨额贸易差额、知识产权争执等问题便是典型的表现。而在当下这个实现中
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                          中美国际关系论文研究热点10篇之第五篇:中美经贸关系的发展困境及合理对策

                            摘要:随着中国经济决战棋牌实力的不断增强,美国的世界霸主地位受到了极大的挑战,中美经贸关系也随之陷入了一定的发展困境,巨额贸易差额、知识产权争执等问题便是典型的表现。而在当下这个实现中国经济腾飞的关键阶段,有效应对两国经贸关系的发展困境也有着极高的现实价值。文章就中美经贸关系的发展困境出发,从贸易统计口径、国家政策等方面深刻剖析了困境产生的原因,从而提出了一系列摆脱贸易困境的合理对策。

                            关键词:中美经贸关系; 发展困境; 对策;

                            在经济全球化不断深入发展的今天,国际贸易也在世界格局中愈发呈现着举足轻重的作用。对中美这两个世界贸易强国而言,彼此稳定的经贸关系不但对贸易双方而且更对世界经济的稳定发展都将产生巨大而深远的积极影响。但自2018年3月以来,中美经贸关系发展波澜再起:2018年3月23日美国宣告将对从中国进口的600亿美元商品征收关税,并且将限制中国公司在美国的投资并购活动;同年4月美国总统特朗普又宣布依据"301调查",额外对1000亿美元中国进口商品加征关税。尽管经过八个多月的争端发展,中美贸易战已进入放缓状态,但两国之间的经贸关系依旧是阴晴不定,雾里看花,存在着巨大的不确定性。

                          中美关系

                            一、中美经贸关系的发展困境表现

                            (YI)ZHONGGUOMAOYISHUNCHAJUGAOBUXIA

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                            (ER)ZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUSHANGZHENGZHIBUXIA

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                          决战棋牌   TU1 ZHONGMEIMAOYICHAEBIANHUAQUSHITU(DANWEI:10YIMEIYUAN)

                          决战棋牌   SHUJULAIYUAN:GENJUZHONGGUOHAIGUANZONGSHUGONGBUDESHUJUJISUAN

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                          决战棋牌   (SAN)ZHONGGUOCHANYEJIEGOUXIANGGAODUANPANSHENGYUMEIGUODEKONGHUANG

                            历史上美国一直坚持对我国的技术管制和限制对华出口高科技产品。2015年美国政府对本国企业向中国出口超级计算机有关技术发布禁令;2018年8月13日,美国通过法案进一步加强了对高技术产品的出口限制,其对中国加征关税的500亿美元商品主要集中在高端产业领域,其中多数涉及"中国制造2025"中的高科技产品。应该来说:美国为了维护自己的国际霸权地位,严格限制高新技术产品对发展中国家的出口,这种限制使得设限方国际贸易收支不平衡持续扩大,而受限方则遭遇各种各样的贸易壁垒,最终往往导致两国贸易摩擦加剧,冲突也愈加激烈。总而言之,美国在通过国际贸易谋取经济利益的同时,也采取一系列措施遏制他国的科技发展。在我国积极实施"中国制造2025"计划的今天,如何有效应对美国贸易壁垒,加强两国高技术产业合作,则也成为了我国高端产业发展所面临的重大挑战。

                          决战棋牌   (SI)ZHONGGUOSHILISHANGSHENGYUMEIGUODEDANYOU

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                            二、中美经贸关系发展困境产生的原因分析

                            (YI)MAOYITONGJIKOUJINGBUTONG

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                            从计价方式看,中国货物出口统计采用的是离岸价(FOB,free on board),美国货物进口统计采用的是船边交货(FAS,free alongside ship)和到岸价(CIF,cost insurance and freight)两种价格,即中方采用的贸易术语中买卖双方责任划分点的时间早于美方。转口贸易中会发生加价行为,中间商在一些货物离开中国关境后购买该批货物并进行加工,之后将涵盖加工增值额部分的货物转卖给美国。加工贸易货物价格中增加的加工增值部分虚增了中方对美方的出口货物金额。同时对货物在香港进行转口贸易后产生的加价,中美双方的统计方式存在差异,美国仍旧将经过香港转口贸易增值后的货物价值计入中国大陆对美出口额。从旅行项目中所包含的货物看,在对进口货物进行统计时,我国将旅行项目中包括的大量货物计入服务贸易进口,导致我国货物贸易进口额在一定程度上被低估,减少了中国对外,尤其是对美的货物贸易进口额。美国是中国公民外出购物、旅行、留学的重要目的地,服务贸易数据中夹杂了货物贸易数额,低估了中国从美国的货物进口。从服务贸易数据看,中美两国经济发展程度和经济结构差异较大,相较而言,美国在服务贸易方面存在比较优势,因国内产业空心化在货物贸易方面存在比较劣势,即美对华在货物贸易方面的逆差大部分可通过服务贸易方面的顺差抵消,以此减轻两国贸易不平衡状态。在中国的经济结构中,制造业占据极其重要的地位,而在美国的经济结构中,服务业是其支柱产业。美国企业在教育决战棋牌、金融、软件、信息、影视等高附加值服务中具有明显的竞争力,而随着中国逐步降低外资企业在其国内服务业的准入门槛,美国对中国的服务贸易顺差或将进一步扩大。但值得注意的是,统计误差论显示,在统计中美贸易量时,大多数情况下服务贸易数据并未被加入,这就导致了中美贸易差额虚增。

                          决战棋牌   (ER)MEIXIANZHIDUIHUACHUKOUGAOKEJICHANPIN

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                            三、中国摆脱中美经贸关系发展困境的对策

                          决战棋牌   (YI)FANGKUANSHICHANGZHUNRU,FAZHANGAOZHILIANGJINGJI

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                          决战棋牌   SHUJULAIYUAN:GUOJIATONGJIJU,ZHONGGUOTONGJINIANJIAN

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                          决战棋牌   (SAN)ZHONGSHIBINGWANSHANZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU,YINGZAOQIYELIANGXINGFAZHANHUANJING

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                            我国应在现有的基础上进一步完善知识产权相关的法律法规,依法保护企业合法知识产权,毋庸置疑地认真查处各种形式的侵权事件、严厉打击不正当竞争和破坏市场竞争规则的行为。以强有力的法律制度来保障重点技术领域创新成果,例如新一代信息技术、高端装备制造、生物医药、新能源汽车等,努力营造新兴企业良性发展环境。此外,国务院于2018年11月首次提出"知识产权证券化",意味着知识产权一旦"证券化",自身的价值就会提高。证券化会给知识产权提供"流动性"溢价,而且公司也可以用"知识产权"进行募资,赋予知识产权当下的"变现价值".

                          决战棋牌   (SI)JIJISHISHIZHIZAOQIANGGUOZHANLVE,JIANCHI"YIDAIYILU"

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                            参考文献
                            [1]冯伟业,卫平。中美贸易知识产权摩擦研究--以"337调查"为例[J].中国经济问题,2017(02)。
                            [2]张守文。中美贸易知识产权争端的现状及对策研究--基于中兴通讯的案例分析[J].新金融,2018(06)。
                            [3]李贤森。中美贸易争端中美国的规锁政策与中国的应对策略[J].现代管理科学,2018(12)。
                            [4]何兴强。中国加入世贸组织以来的中美知识产权争端[J].美国研究,2008(02)。
                            [5]于翠萍,蔡雅静。中美出口贸易现状及结构比较分析[J].市场周刊,2018(09)。
                            [6]周金凯,孙娜。历史对比视角下美国对华"301调查"的博弈分析[J].上海对外经贸大学学报,2018(04)。
                            [7]陈继勇。中美贸易战的背景、原因、本质及中国对策[J].武汉大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2018(05)。

                          点击查看>>中美国际关系论文(推荐10篇)其他文章
                            曾辛媛,李宇扬,王沛郦.中美经贸关系的发展困境与出路分析[J].中国集体经济,2019(32):13-16. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282102.html   

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