决战棋牌

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                  • 海涅《西里西亚的纺织工人》与杜甫《兵车行》对比

                    摘 要: 爱国主义往往允许多种的表达方式,社会批评便是其中重要的一种,社会批评就像一个指南针,准确指出社会弊病所在。本文以诗歌分析作为理论基础,分别分析了海涅和杜甫的两首社会批评的诗歌,然后从五个方面对这两首诗进行了比较,旨在找出两位诗人之间的相同点和不同
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                      摘 要:决战棋牌 爱国主义往往允许多种的表达方式,社会批评便是其中重要的一种,社会批评就像一个指南针,准确指出社会弊病所在。本文以诗歌分析作为理论基础,分别分析了海涅和杜甫的两首社会批评的诗歌,然后从五个方面对这两首诗进行了比较,旨在找出两位诗人之间的相同点和不同点。在形式和表达技巧上,两位诗人的诗有着不同之处;因为两位诗人所处时代的不同,使得他们诗歌的根本目的不同;从诗歌写作的背景和内容上来说这两首诗具有相似之处;但最大的相同点便是他们都用批评这一方式表达了他们的爱国主义。

                      关键词: 决战棋牌诗歌; 社会批评; 爱国主义; 海涅; 杜甫;

                      一、引言

                      ZHONGGUOYOUYIJUSUYU:LIANGYAOKUKOULIYUBING,ZHONGYANNIERLIYUXING。ZHEIJUHUAKEYIHENQUEQIEDIMIAOSHUDEGUOSHIRENHAINIEYUZHONGGUOSHIRENDUFUDEJIAGUOQINGHUAI。HENZHANGSHIJIANYILAIHAINIEDOUSHIYIWEIBEISHOUZHENGYIDESHIREN。ERZHONGGUOSHIRENDUFU,YOUYUTAZAISHIZHONGCHANGCHANGMIAOXIESHEHUISHISHI,RENMENJIANGTADESHIPIANYUWEI“SHISHI”。SHEHUIPIPINGSHILIANGWEISHIRENZUOPINDEBIAOZHIXINGTEXING,ERQIEYEXIANGWOMENZHANSHILE,SHIRENRUHEYONGYIZHONGBUTONGXUNCHANGDEFANGSHIBIAODEDUIZUGUODEREAI。JIANGZIJIDUIZUGUOSHENQIEDEREAITONGGUOPIPINGLAIBIAODA,SHIYIZHONGYOUYISIDEXIANXIANG。YUDANCHUNSONGYANGZUGUODEZUOPINXIANGBI,ZHEIZHONGBIAODAFANGSHIGENGJUYOUCHUANTOULI。ERQIESHEHUIPIPINGLEISHIPIANZHONGWANGWANGBAOHANLEHENDUOYUDANGSHISHEHUIQINGKUANGYOUGUANDEXINXI,CONGZHEIGEJIAODULAIKAN,FENXICILEISHIPIANYEHUIDAILAIHENDUODESHOUHUO。SHIGEDEBEIJINGDUISHIGEDELIJIESHIFEICHANGZHONGYAODE,BINGQIEYUSHIGEDENEIRONGXIANGGUANLIAN。BUTONGDEBEIJINGHUICUISHENGBUTONGDENEIRONG,SUOYIBEIJINGYECHUYUBIJIAOZHILIE。ZHIHOUBENWENDEZUIHOUYIBUFENHUIJIANGZHEI2SHOUSHIDEGONGTONGDIANYUBUTONGDIANJINXINGZONGJIE。

                      二、概念理析:“爱国主义”

                    决战棋牌   “AIGUOZHUYI”BIAODADESHIDUIZUGUODEREAIYIJIYUZUGUODEBUKEFENGEXING。ZAIDUDENGCIDIANYUWEIJIBAIKESHANGSHIZHEIYANGDINGYIDE:“AIGUOZHUYI”ZHIDESHIDUIZUGUOZHIAI。

                      “AIGUOZHUYI”GAINIANDEHEXINSHIAIYUXIANGLIANXING。ZHEIZHONGAIYUXIANGLIANXINGKEYIYONGDUOZHONGFANGSHIDEDAOBIAODA。AIYUPIPINGSHISHEHUIFAZHANDELIANGZHONGDONGLI。YOUSHIPIPINGZAIQIZHONGHUIBIDANCHUNDEAIBANYANGENGWEIZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。AIYUPIPINGZHEILIANGGEGAINIANKANQILAISHIXIANGFANDE,DANSHIJISHANGPIPINGYESHIBIAODAAIDEYIZHONGFANGSHI。TONGGUOPIPINGLAIBIAODAZUGUOZHIAISHIAIGUOZHUYIDEYIZHONGZHONGYAOXINGSHI,ERQIETONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIAZHEIZHONGBIAODAAIDEFANGSHIHUILAIDEGENGYOULI。

                      三、海涅社会批评诗的分析阐释

                    决战棋牌   ZAI《XILIXIYADEFANGZHIGONGREN》YISHIZHONGYOUYIGEDIYIRENCHENG“WO”,ZHEIGEDIYIRENCHENGZAISHIDEKAITOUJIANGFANGZHIGONGRENDEWAIBIAOJINXINGLEMIAOXIE。DANSHIZHONGJIEXIALAIDEAIYUANYUZUZHOUDOUJIEYOUFANGZHIGONGRENZHIKOUJINXINGLEBIAODA。

                    决战棋牌   ZHEISHOUSHIJIEGOUGONGZHENG,YOU5DUANZUCHENG,BINGQIEMEIDUANYOU5XING。WUDAIBIAOLERENLEIBENSHEN(SHINVERNANSANDEJIEHETI),SUOYISHUOWUCHANGCHANGYURENLEIXIANGLIANXI。ERZHEISHOUSHIJIECIBIAODADEYISISHIZHEISHIRENLEIDEKUNAN。

                      本诗的第一段从描写纺织工人的外貌开始。“fletschen”(第2行)这个词一般用来描写狗龇牙咧嘴向对方示威的样子,一般不用来描写人。这个词的使用一方面表达出了纺织工人生活的困境,另一方面也表达出他们的愤怒,一触即发。 这使得本诗的开头就有了一种昏暗残酷的气氛。本诗的前两句“Im düstern Auge keine Tr?ne,/sie sitzen am Webstuhl und fletschen die Z?hne”会使得读者发问,为什么纺织工人的眼里没有泪水。对此的解释是当一个人在极度悲伤的情况下留了过多的泪,那他就再没有泪水可以流了。或者另一种解释是,流泪并没有用,我们只能依靠自己的力量起来反抗。第二种解释恰好符合本诗的主题。而纺织工人眼睛的黑暗也是太多生活困苦留下的痕迹。本段接下来的两行阐明的本诗的主题,即诅咒德国。本诗中每一段的最后一句都是相同的。

                    海涅《西里西亚的纺织工人》与杜甫《兵车行》对比

                      ZUIHOUYIDUAN“emsig Tag und Nacht”ZHEIYIBIAODAFANGSHIYECHANMINGLEFANGZHIGONGRENMENDUOMEPOQIEXIANGYAOYINGJIEYIGEXINDEDEGUODEDAOLAI。BENDUANDEYIHOU3XINGYUSHOUDUANDEZUIHOU3XINGGOUCHENGLEYIGEKUANGJIA,JIANGZHONGJIANDE3DUANKUANGZAILIMIANGOUCHENGYIGEZHENGTI。DEGUOZAISHIZHONGSHIYONG“NI”ERBUSHI“NIN”JINXINGCHENGHUDE。TONGGUOZHEIZHONGCHULISHIDEDEGUOBUZAISHIYIGEGAOGAOZAISHANGDEGAINIAN,ERCHENGWEIFANGZHIGONGRENKEYIJINXINGPINPINGDEDUIXIANG。FANGZHIGONGRENDEYUANWANGSUIZHESHIDEFAZHANYIBUYIBUBIANDEMINGXI,CHUANGJIANXINDEGUODEYUANWANGCAIBEIBIAODACHULAI。

                    决战棋牌   BENSHIDEMEIYIDUANDOUSHIYIXIANGTONGDENEIRONGJIEWEI,JI“Wir weben, wir weben!”。CIWAIBENSHIYIFANGZHIGONGRENZUOWEIZHUJIAO,YESHITADAISHANGLEYIZHONGSHENMICHAOZIRANDESECAI。YINWEIZAITONGHUA 《SHUIMEIREN》ZHONGYEYOUYIGENVWUZAIZHIBUJIQIANJINXINGFANGZHIBINGJUEDINGLESHUIMEIRENDEMINGYUN。BENSHIZHONGZUICHANGYUNYONGDEYIXIANG“weben”JIQISHUYUZHEIYICICHANGDECIHUIDOUZHIXIANGLEMINGYUNNVSHEN。ERFANGZHIGONGRENSUOZUODEJUEDINGYESHIMINGYUNSHIRAN。BENSHIDEYUNLVJIEGOUSHIaabbcSHI。TONGGUOMEIDUANZHONGZUIHOUYIJUDEBUDUANZHONGFU,JICIWEI“en”DEBUDUANZHONGFU,YEBIAODAHEJIAQIANGCHULEFANGZHIGONGRENXINNIANDEJUEJUE。ZONGTISHANGLAISHUO,BENSHITICHANGFANGZHIGONGRENJINXINGFANKANG。XIWANGCHUANGZAOYIGEXINDEDEGUOYUXINDEZHIXU。

                      四、分析阐释杜甫的诗歌《兵车行》

                    决战棋牌   《BINGCHEXING》YISHIDETIMUJIUYIJINGXIANGWOMENSHUOMINGLESHIDECHANGJING。SHIBINGMENYAOWAICHUDAZHANG,YUQINRENMENGAOBIE。BENSHIZHUYAOMIAOXIELEZHEIYIBEITONGDELIBIECHANGMIAN。

                    决战棋牌   BENSHIZHONGYEYOUYIGEDIYIRENCHENGWO,ZAISHIDEKAITOUYOU“WO”ZHIKOUMIAOHUILESHIGEDEFASHENGCHANGJING,JIQINRENXIANGBIE。RENMINDEKUNANYUKONGSUZHUYAOSHITONGGUOLIANGGESHIBINGHEYIGEXINGRENDEDUIHUABIAODACHULAIDE。

                      SHIDEKAITOUMIAOSHULESHIBINGSHANGLUDEQINGXING:ZHANCHEXIAOXIAO,ZHANMASIMING。SHIBINGMENBEIZHEGONGHEJIAN。SUZAOLEBEISHANGDELIBIEQIFEN。

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                      “ZHANGZHESUIYOUWEN,YIBINGGANSHENHEN?”ZHEILIYONGDESHIFANWENJU,YONGLAIJIAQIANGYUQI。LAISHUOMINGDANGSHIRENMINDEGANNUBUGANYAN,YIJITONGZHIZHEDECANBAO。

                      ZAIFENXIWANBENSHIDENEIRONGZHIHOU,XIANZAIWOMENLAIKANYIXIABENSHIDEXINGSHI。ZHEISHOUSHISHIYISHOUGUTISHI。GUTISHIDEYISIBUZUNXUNTEBIEYANGEDEGUIZE,ZUOZHEKEYIZIYOUFAHUI。YIBANLAISHUOGUTISHIMEIJUYOU7GEZI,DANSHIZHEIYIGUIZEYEMEIYOUBEIYANGEZUNSHOU.CONGYAYUNDEJIAODUJIANGGUTISHIJIAOXINTISHILAISHUOYOUJIAODADEZIYOUDU。YUWUYANGUTISHIXIANGBI,QIYANGUTISHITONGCHANGYANEIYUN,DANSHIZAIBENSHIZHONGYEYOULIWAI。BENSHIDEDI5、6JU (tian bian),7, 8, 9, 10 JU(yi qi xi ji),12,13JU (zu, chu)HE14,15JU(hao, cao) SHITONGGUOWEIYUNXIANGHULIANXIZAIYIQI,ZUCHENGYIGEZHENGTIDE。CIWAIBENSHIZHONGZHANGJUDUANJUJIAOTISHIYONG,CONGERBIAODACHUDIYIRENCENGWOQIANGLIEDIQINGGANQIFU。

                      五、对比分析

                      HAINIE《XILIXIYADEFANGZHIGONGREN》YISHIJIEGOUGONGZHENG。DUFUDE《BINGCHEXING》WEIJIUTISHI,MEIYOUTAIDUOXINGSHISHANGDEYAOQIU,SUIRANMEIYOUYANGEZUNSHOU,DANHAISHIFUHELEYIBANGUTISHIDEXIEZUOGUILV。SUOYICONGZHEIFANGMIANSHANGLAISHUO,HAINIEHEDUFUDOUMEIYOUTAIDUOXINGSHISHANGDECHUANGXIN,ERSHIZUNSHOULESHIGEDEYIBANXIEZUOGUILV。

                    决战棋牌   CONGNEIRONGSHANGLAISHUO,《XILIXIYADEFANGZHIGONGREN》MIAOXIEDESHIZAICANBAOTONGZHIXIASHENGCUNDEFANGZHIGONGREN,BINGQIEXIWANGTUIFANTAMENDETONGZHI,JIANLIXINDEDEGUO。DUFUDE《BINGCHEXING》 MIAOXIEDESHILIBIECHANGMIAN,YESHIZAICANBAOTONGZHIXIAQIUSHENGDERENMIN,DUIDANGSHIDETONGZHIJINXINGLEYANLIDEPIPING。CONGZHEIYIDIANLAISHUO,LIANGSHOUSHIZAINEIRONGSHANGYEJIWEIXIANGSI。

                      CONGBIAODAFANGSHISHANGLAISHUO,HAINIESHIGEZHONGDUOYONGZHONGFULAIBIAODAGONGRENDEJUEJUE。ERDUFUSHIZHONGZEDUOCAIYONGKUAZHANGDEBIAOXIANSHOUFA,LAIBIAODARENMINZAOSHOUDETONGKU,YIJIJIEGUFENGJIN,LAIPIPANDANGSHIDETONGZHIZHE。

                      CONGSHIDEXIEZUOBEIJINGSHANG,HAINIE《XILIXIYADEFANGZHIGONGREN》YISHIXIEYU1844NIAN。TONGNIANDE6YUE4HAODAO6YUE6HAOSHIFANGZHIGONGRENDEQIYI。ERZHEISHOUSHIXIEYU7YUE10RI。YOUCIKEYIKANCHUFANGZHIGONGRENQIYISHIZHEISHOUSHIDEXIEZUOBEIJING。

                      最后我们来比较一下作者的意图。海涅生活在从君主制到共和国的过渡时期。“从《西里西亚的纺织工人》一诗中我们可以看到海涅是拥护工人起义,并且将当时的政治制度看作是一切苦难的根源。与此相反,杜甫生活在唐代,是中国封建制度的鼎盛时期之一。而且他深受儒家哲学的影响,并不提倡起义,而是想通过进谏来影响当时的统治者。从这方面讲两位是人的意图是非常不同的,以为是想通过推翻当前的统治来建立一个新的国家,另一个是想改良国家的政治。但是从另一个层面,两者都是出于对祖国的热爱,希望国家能够得到更好的发展而写的社会批评诗,从这一点,两者又是非常相似。

                      参考文献

                      [1]陈少松.古诗词文吟诵.第三版.北京:社会科学文献出版社,2002.
                      [2]司马光.资治通鉴.北京:中华书局,2013.
                      [3]萧涤非.杜甫研究.修订版.济南:齐鲁书社,1980.

                      葛淑君.杜甫和海涅社会批评诗的比较[J].大众文艺,2020(05):27-28. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200314/8282113.html   

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