决战棋牌

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              • 我国主办银行制度实践与完善建议

                摘 要: 日本、德国主办银行制度是典型的代表,在一定时期内对保障企业融资,促进经济发展发挥了积极作用。本文归纳了日本、德国主办银行制度的形成路径和共同特征,结合主办银行制度在我国的实践情况,系统分析了主办银行制度在缓解信息不对称和逆向选择问题、激励相
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                  摘 要: 日本、德国主办银行制度是典型的代表,在一定时期内对保障企业融资,促进经济发展发挥了积极作用。本文归纳了日本、德国主办银行制度的形成路径和共同特征,结合主办银行制度在我国的实践情况,系统分析了主办银行制度在缓解信息不对称和逆向选择问题、激励相容机制促使稳定银企关系形成等方面的作用机理,并提出在民营、小微企业领域探索推进主办银行制度的可行路径。

                  关键词:决战棋牌 主办银行制度; 信息不对称; 小微企业;

                  CONGGEGUOQINGKUANGKAN,ZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUBUJUPUBIANXING,SHIZAITEDINGDELISHITIAOJIAN、JINGJIZHIDUHEJINRONGHUANJINGXIASUOXINGCHENGYINQI、YINYIN、YINZHENGGUANXIDEZONGCHENG,QIZHONGYINQIGUANXISHIZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUDEHEXIN,BAOHANLEZHAIQUANZHAIWUHEGONGSIZHILILIANGGECENGCIDENEIRONG。RIBENHEDEGUOSHIZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUDEDIANXINGDAIBIAO,WOGUOYECENGZAISHANGSHIJIMOZHENDUIGUOQIGAIGETUIXINGZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUSHIDIAN。DANGQIAN,ZAISHICHANGJINGJITIXIBUDUANSHENHUADEBEIJINGXIATUIDONGZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUMIANLINXINDEHUANJINGHETIAOZHAN。JIANYUZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUZAIJIEYUEXINXI、JIAOYICHENGBENDENGFANGMIANDEYOUSHI,TICHUZAIMINYING、XIAOWEIQIYELINGYUTANSUOZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUSHIKEXINGDELUJING。

                  一、日本、德国主办银行制度的实践

                  1. 日本主办银行制度的形成和发展。

                决战棋牌   ERZHANSHIQI,RIBENTONGGUOJIANGDAIKUANJIZHONGHEYOUGUANLIYINXINGTONGYIFAFANGDEFANGSHI,BAOZHENGJUNXUSHENGCHANDEZIJINXUYAO。ZHANHOUWEIMANZUJINGJIHUIFUDEJUDAZIJINXUQIU,JIXUBAOCHILEZHEIZHONGDAIKUANFANGSHI,GUANLIYINXINGYECHENGWEIWEIYIJIANDUQIYEDEYINXING,QIDIWEIDEDAOQIANGHUA。YUCITONGSHI,RIBENGUPIAODAZHONGHUADETUIXINGHEYUNXUYINXINGCHIYOUGUPIAOHEZHENGQUANFALINGDEBANBUSHIDEYINXINGCHENGWEIQIYEZUIDADEGUDONG,ZAICIJICHUSHANGRIBENZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUZHUBUXINGCHENG。ZAIZHEIZHONGDUJUTESEDEYINQIGUANXIXIA,RIBENYIYINXINGWEIZHONGXINJIANLILEZHUDUORUSANLING、SANHE、SANJINGDENGDAQIYEJITUAN,DADATIGAOLERIBENQIYEJINGZHENGLI,DUIQIERZHANHOUJINGJIGAOSUZENGZHANGFAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。DANRIBENSHANGSHIJI90NIANDAIJINGJIPAOMOHOU,CHIYOUQIYEGUPIAODEYINXINGBULIANGZHAIQUANBUDUANZENGDUO,QIYEGUQUANFANDAOCHENGWEIYINXINGDEFUDAN,PAOSHOUGUPIAOCHENGWEIZHONGDUOYINXINGDEXUANZE。CHUANTONGZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUCHUXIANLEMINGXIANBIANHUA。

                  2. 德国主办银行制度的两种实现形式。

                  DEGUOYINXINGSHIXINGDESHI“QUANNENGYINXING”DEJINGYINGMOSHI,JIYINXINGYEWUHETOUZIYEWUYUYISHEN。ZAIZHEIYIMOSHIXIA,YINQIGUANXIYICUNFANGSHIHEYICUNCHENGDUQUJUEYUYINXING、QIYE、TOUZIREN、TOUZIGONGSISIZHEZHIJIANDELIANJIEJIZHI。ZHUYAOYOULIANGZHONGFANGSHI:YISHIYINXINGZHIJIECANYUTOUZIGONGSIDEGONGSIZHILIXINGSHI。ZAIDEGUO,TOUZIGONGSIGUQUANYOUYIJIAHUOJIJIAYINXINGCHIYOU,LIANGZHEZHIJIANCUNZAIGUQUANGUANXI,ERTOUZIRENHETOUZIGONGSIZHIJIANSHIQIYUEGUANXI,YINCIYINXINGYOUQUANZHIJIECANYUTOUZIGONGSIDEJINGYINGGUANLI。SHENZHIMUYINXINGDEGUANLIRENYUANZHIJIEDANRENTOUZIGONGSIDEGAOCENGGUANLIRENYUAN。ERSHIGUPIAODAILIDEXINGSHI。DEGUODE《TOUZIYINXINGFA》MINGQUELETOUZIGONGSINENGGOUYIQISUOCHIYOUDEGUPIAODAIBIAOQUANZAIGUDONGHUISHANGTOUPIAO,YINXINGKEYILIYONGQISUOKONGGUDETOUZIGONGSIGUPIAODAIBIAOQUANZAIGUDONGHUISHANGTOUPIAOBIAOJUE。

                  3. 日本和德国主办银行制度的实现过程和形式有所不同,但它们具备共同的特征。

                  一是主办银行成为企业最主要的贷款供给者。主办银行贷款比例最高,为企业合理融资提供支持,并为企业提供开立基本支付结算账户、债券承销、投行业务等多元化金融服务,由此,银企之间形成长期、稳定的综合性交易关系。二是主办银行采用相机治理的方式对企业进行控制。通常主办银行是企业的大股东,与企业存在密切的产权关联。正常情况下,企业由经理人进行经营管理,银行不干涉日常经营,只通过派遣董事、监事等方式对企业的资金流向、财务状况和经营行为进行监测和监督。当企业出现财务困难时,银行依靠其债权人和大股东的身份实现对企业的完全控制,采用调整管理层、资金注入、债务延期等方式帮助企业度过难关。三是主办银行制度是银企、银银、银政关系的综合。银企关系体现为银企长期博弈形成了稳定的债权债务关系和综合性交易关系。银银关系表现为主办银行并非是企业的唯一贷款人,在主办银行不能满足企业融资需要时应帮助企业协调其他银行发放银团贷款。银政关系体现监管部门对银行垄断经营的保护和引导,以及为鼓励银行加大对企业的融资支持所出台的优惠政策。

                我国主办银行制度实践与完善建议

                  二、我国主办银行制度的实践及面临的新形势

                  1996年,为推进国企改革,解决企业从多家银行套取资金、恶意逃废债等问题,人民银行制定《主办银行管理决战棋牌暂行办法》,主要对300家国企试点主办银行制度。在当时银企双方现代企业制度不健全以及缺少资本纽带的条件下,试行主办银行制度难以达到期望的效果。随着银行、企业市场化改革的深入推进,产权清晰、权责明确的现代企业制度的不断健全,主办银行制度的作用条件逐步具备,但也应看到我国现行法律法规下银行通过持有非金融企业的股权参与企业治理并不可行。应该在强化债权人作为重要利益相关者参与公司治理的制度设计下,将主办银行制度发展成为促进银企长期、稳定合作的一种资金供给机制。同时,在当前市场经济体制和直接融资渠道不断完善的环境下,国有企业、大企业多元化融资能力增强,金融服务满足程度较高。相比之下,多数小微企业难以达到直接融资门槛,对银行依赖程度较高,但受多种因素影响,其间接融资需求满足度不足,成为整个金融服务的薄弱环节。其中,信息不对称和银企互信不足问题导致银行信息搜寻成本增加,对银企交易行为的风险控制能力不足,而主办银行制度在节约信息和交易成本方面具有巨大优势。因此,对于银企信息不对称问题突出的民营、小微企业来说,主办银行制度具有很大作用空间。事实上,部分省份已开展了积极探索。如湖北在新型农业经营主体领域运用了主办银行制度,强调主办银行关系的确定和金融服务能力提升。山东以小微企业为突破领域,出台了政策,细化了制度设计,为缓解小微企业融资难、融资贵提供了一条渠道。

                  三、主办银行制度的作用机理

                  1. 通过债权人监督机制缓解银企信息不对称和逆向选择问题。

                  QIYERONGZIGUOCHENGZHONG,WANGWANGHUIXUANZEYINZANGDUIZIJIBULIDEXINXI,ERYINXINGZUOWEIWAIBURENNANYIZHANGWOQIYESHENGCHAN、XIAOSHOU、CAIWUDENGXINXI,WUFAZUOCHUZHUNQUEDEFENGXIANPINGGUHEDINGJIA,DAOZHINIXIANGXUANZEWENTI。ERZAIZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUXIA,YINXINGZUOWEIZHAIQUANRENCANYUQIYEGONGSIZHILI、CONGQIYESOUXUNXINXIDEXIAOGUOMINGXIANTIGAO,YOUXIAOHUANJIELEYINQIXINXIBUDUICHENGHENIXIANGXUANZEWENTI。CIWAI,ZHUBANYINXINGHEGUANXIQIYEQIANDINGYIXILIEJUYOUFALVXIAOLIDEHEZUOXIEYI,TIQIANYUEDINGSHUANGFANGXINXIPILUDEPINLVHENEIRONG,YOUZHUYUHUANJIEXINXIBUDUICHENGBINGZENGQIANGYINQIZHIJIANDEHEZUOGUANXI。

                  2. 通过激励相容机制促使银企形成长期、稳定的合作。

                  YINQIHEZUODENANDIANZAIYUQIYEJINGYINGZHUANGKUANGJIAOHAOSHI,RONGZIQUDAOGUANG,QIYEQUESHAOYUYINXINGJIANLI“YIDUIYI”WENDINGHEZUOGUANXIDEJIJIXING。QIYEJINGYINGZHUANGKUANGBUHAOSHI,YINXINGZAIXINDAIFENGXIANFANGFANYALIXIADESHUNZHOUQIXINGWEIHUIDAOZHIQIYERONGZIXUQIUYUYINXINGZIJINGONGJIDETUOJIE。ZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUKEYITONGGUOYIXILIEDEZHIDUSHEJIDUIYINQIHEZUODEBORUOHUANJIEXINGCHENGZHIDUYUESHU,RUZHUBANYINXINGHEQIYEDEHEZUOGUANXIYIDANQUELI,QIYEDEZHIFUJIESUAN、ZHAIQUANFAXINGDENGZONGHEXINGJINRONGXUQIUJIANGZHUYAOYOUZHUBANYINXINGLAITIGONG,QIYEDABUFENCUNKUANYEYINGCUNFANGYUZHUBANYINXING。ZHUBANYINXINGYIJUQIYECAIWUHEJINGYINGXINXI,JISHIDEJINXINGCAIWUFUDAO,GUIFANQIYEJINGYINGGUANLI,BIMIANQIYECHUXIANCAIWUWEIJI,CHUXIANWEIJISHIDANFUYIDINGJIUZHUZEREN,JIJISHENCHUYUANSHOU。

                  3. 通过信用培育增强银行信用风险控制能力。

                决战棋牌   ZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUTONGGUOSHENHUAYINQIHEZUODEZHIDUSHEJI,BANGZHUYINXINGGENGHAOJIANCEQIYEDECHANGZHAI、YINGLIJILIUDONGXINGZHUANGKUANG,PEIYUYINQIHUXINGUANXI,TONGSHIZENGQIANGYINXINGDUIQIYEZONGTIFUZHAISHUIPINGDEDONGTAIKONGZHINENGLI,JIANGDILEXINDAIFENGXIAN,RUOHUALEDUIDIYADANBAODEGUODUYILAI,TISHENGLEGUANXIXINGXINDAIFUWUSHUIPING。ZAIMINYING、XIAOWEIQIYELINGYUYINRUZHUBANYINXINGZHIDU,YOUZHUYUJINRONGJIGOUYOUHUAJINRONGZIYUANPEIZHI,JIANGGENGDUOZIYUANTOUXIANGZHONGDIANLINGYUHEBORUOHUANJIE。

                  四、完善主办银行制度的建议

                  ZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUZUOYONGDEFAHUIGUANJIANZAIYUJIANLISHICHANGHUA、KECHIXUDEYUNXINGJIZHIYIJISHIDANGWAIBUZHENGCEDEYINDAOZHICHI。

                  1. 按照市场化原则构建主办银行关系。

                决战棋牌   “SHICHANGZHUDAO、SHUANGXIANGXUANZE”SHIZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUJIANLIDEJIBENYUANZE。JINRONGJIGOUYOUGEZIDEYEWUTESE,YEYOUGEZISHUXIDELINGYUHEXINGYE。ERQIYEYOUGEZIYEWULIANXIMIQIEDEYINXING,YINGYISHICHANGWEIDAOXIANG,ZIZHUZIYUANZUCHENGQIYEHEZHUBANYINXINGDEHEZUOGUANXI。ZHENGFUBUMENFAHUIXUANCHUAN、CHANGDAO、ZHIDUZHIDING、YOUHUAZHENGCEHUANJINGDEZUOYONG,YINDAOYINQIJIANLIZHUBANXINGGUANXI。

                  2. 强化银企之间权责对等关系。

                  ZHUBANYINXINGZHIDUSHIYINQIZHIJIANZHANGQIBOYIXINGCHENGDEYIZHONGJIAOYIGUANXI。ZHEIZHONGJIAOYIGUANXIDECUNZAIYILAIYUYINQISHUANGFANGGONGTONGDEXUQIU,XIANRANQUANZEBUDUIDENGDEZHIDUANPAIBIRANJIANGDISHUANGFANGCANYUDEJIJIXING,BULIYULIANGZHEJIAOYIGUANXIDEWEICHI。QIYEHUODEYOUXIANRONGZIQUAN、ZONGHEXINGJINRONGFUWUQUANDENGQUANLIDETONGSHI,YINGCHENGDANZAIZHUBANYINXINGKAILIJIBENJIESUANZHANGHU、JIANGCAIWUBAOBIAOJIAOYOUZHUBANYINXINGSHENCHADENGYIWU。YINXINGHUODEDICHENGBENQIYECUNKUAN、DUIQIYERICHANGJINGYINGHECAIWUXINXIJIANDUQUAN、XIANGJIKONGZHIQUANDENGQUANLIDETONGSHI,CHENGDANDUIXIANRUWEIJIDEQIYEDEJIUZHUZEREN,DUIQIYEDEZHENGDUNGAIZUTIGONGZIJINZHICHI,JIFAQIYEFAZHANQIANNENGDUGUONANGUAN。

                  3. 细化制度设计,化解银企合作难点。

                  ZHIDUSHEJIDEHEXINZAIYUYINGYONGJILIYUESHUJIZHIZENGQIANGYINQIXINYONGGUANXI、SHENHUAYINXINGHEZUOXINGWEI。YINGSHIDANGYANZHANGYINQIHEZUOXIEYIQIXIAN,BIANYUMANZUFUHEQIYEZHONGZHANGQITOUZIHESHENGCHANJIHUADERONGZIXUQIU,TISHENGQIYECANYUJIJIXING。YINGGENJUQIYEZICHANFUZEQINGKUANG、CAIWUJINGYINGQINGKUANGJIXIEYIQIQIYETOUZIJIHUA,MINGQUEXIEYIQIZUIGAOSHOUXINEDU、QIYEWEIJISHIDEJIUZHUZERENHEZUIGAOJIUZHUE,TIQIANSUODINGZHUBANYINXINGZUIDAKENENGSUNSHI,HUANJIEYINXINGDUIZAIQIYECAIWUWEIJIQICHENGDANGUODUOZERENDEDANYOU。TONGSHI,WANSHANFALVFAGUITIXI、CAISHUIFUCHIZHENGCE、HUOBIXINDAIZHENGCEDENGPEITAOZHENGCE。

                  楚晓光.主办银行制度国内外实践及启示[J].辽宁经济,2020(02):14-16. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200316/8285386.html   

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