决战棋牌

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                1. 国内外教育督导制度现况与启迪

                  摘 要: 学前教育作为基础教育的重要阶段,日益受到人们的广泛关注。学前教育督导评估作为一项改进学校管理和教学服务质量,提升教师教学水平的工作,其主要目的在于为幼儿提供良好的成长环境,使其健康发展。我国学前教育督导评估工作起步较晚,因此通过对国内外教育督导研
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                    摘 要: 学前教育作为基础教育的重要阶段,日益受到人们的广泛关注。学前教育督导评估作为一项改进学校管理和教学服务质量,提升教师教学水平的工作,其主要目的在于为幼儿提供良好的成长环境,使其健康发展。我国学前教育督导评估工作起步较晚,因此通过对国内外教育督导研究现状的探讨,发现我国在督导方面的不足,借鉴国外的一些成功经验,谈谈对我国学前教育督导工作的一些启示。

                    关键词:决战棋牌 学前教育; 教育督导; 现状; 启示;

                  决战棋牌   JIAOYUDUDAOSHIWOGUOJIAOYUTIXIZHONGDEZHONGYAOYIHUAN。ANZHAOGUOJIAFALVGUIDING,YIFAJINXINGCIXIANGGONGZUO,SHISHIJIAOYUDUDAOYOUXIAOGUANCHEZHIXING,CONGERHUHANGJIAOYUSHIYEYOUXIAN、GONGPINGERYOUZHILIANGFAZHANDEGENBENQIANTI。JIAOYUDUDAOZUOWEIJUYOUXINGZHENGXING、FADINGXING、ZHUANYEXING、QUANWEIXINGDENGTEZHENGDE,YITIGAOJIAOYUZHILIANG,TUIDONGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANWEIZUIZHONGMUDEDEHUODONG,ZAIDANGQIANZHUZHONGXUEQIANJIAOYUZHILIANGDEZHONGYAOJIEDUANYUELAIYUESHOUZHONGSHI[1]。ERYING、MEI、FA、RIDENGGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUJIANLIDELISHIJIAOJIU、JIAOWANSHAN,YINERYOUXUDUOZHIDEJIEJIANZHICHU。

                    一、国内外教育督导现状研究

                    (一)对督导机构的研究

                    1.国内研究现状

                    PENGHONGBINZHICHU,MUQIANWOGUOSHENGJIDUDAOJIGOUDAZHIYOU“HESHUBANGONG”“DAIGUAN”“NEISHE”“XIASHUDANWEI”“XIANGDUIDULI”WUZHONGXINGSHI[2]。WOGUODEDUDAOJIGOUSHANGWEIWANQUANDULI,ZHEIBUJINJINSHISHUNYING《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010—2020NIAN)》YAOQIU “JIANLIXIANGDUIDULIDEJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOU,DULIXINGSHIDUDAOZHINENG……JIANLIDUDAOJIANCHAJIEGUOGONGGAOZHIDUHEXIANQIZHENGGAIZHIDU”DEJIEGUO,YEYUGAIJIGOUWANQUANDULIXUHAOFEIGENGDUODEZIYUANYOUGUAN,YINCITABUJIANYIDUDAOJIGOUWANQUANDULI[3]。

                  决战棋牌   LIZHENRENWEI,YAOGUIFANDUDAOJIGOUDESHEZHI,JIUYAODUIJIAOYUDUDAOPINGGUGONGZUOJINXINGFENLEI,YOUGEFENBUMENCHENGJIEDUIYINGDEGONGZUO。TONGSHI,YAOJISHEHUIPINGJIAJIGOUSHEDINGZHUNRUMENJIAN,JIANKONGQIFUWUGUOCHENG,BINGDUIQIJINXINGDINGQIRENDING[4],CONGERSHIDUDAOJIGOUGENGJUZHENDUIXINGHEGENGJIAZHUANYEHUA。

                    ZHOUHAITAO、ZHUYUCHENGRENWEI,BIXUTUIDONGJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUBAOCHIXIANGDUIDULIXING,KEJIANGBUFENGAOZHUANYEXING、GAOJISHUXINGDEZHINENGFENLIJISHEHUIZUZHI[5]231—232。ZHEIJISHIGENJUWOGUOGUOQING,YESHIGENJUGUOJIFAZHANSHITAIDECHUDEJIELUN。

                    HEXIUCHAORENWEI,JIAOYUDUDAOYAOSHENRUTUIJINJIAOYU“GUANBANPING”FENLI,ZUO“GUAN”DEJIANDUZHE、“BAN”DEZHIDAOZHE、“PING”DEZUZHIZHE[6]。ZHEIYEYAOWOMENMINGQUEZHENGFU、XUEXIAO、SHEHUISANZHEZHIJIANJIXIANGHUCUJIN,YOUXIANGHUZHIYUEDEGUANXI,ERZHEISANGEZHUTIDEZHINENGYURENWURENGXUMINGQUE。ZHEIXUYAOYIJUGUOJIAFALVGUIDING,JIAZHIDISANFANGZHUANYEJIGOUDEJIANDU,ZAIYIHOUDEDUDAOSHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGBUDUANWANSHANHESHENHUA。

                    ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,JIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUBAOCHIXIANGDUIDULIXINGGENGFUHEWOGUOGUOQING,ZENGSHEGENGZHUANYEGAOXIAODEDISANFANGJIGOUYESHIPOQIEXUQIU。

                    2.国外研究现状

                    英国在学前教育督导方面的发展较为成熟,其专门机构——教育、儿童服务和技能标准局的评估对象包括所有的私立、志愿性、独立学校,还有针对0—5岁儿童设立的早期教育机构(Ofsted,2012)。另外的社会第三方督导机构——独立学校督导团的主要职能是对独立学校进行督导评价[7]。

                  国内外教育督导制度现况与启迪

                    MEIGUOZHENGFUDUDAOJIGOUSHISHILIANBANG、ZHOUHEDIFANGSANJIJIAOYUDUDAO,YIDIFANGFENQUANWEIQIZHONGYAOTEZHENG,ZHENGFUDUIJIAOYUBUFUGUANLIZEREN,ZHIFUZECHENGDANLIANBANGZHUBANZHOUYIJICHENGBANDETEBIEJIAOYUXIANGMUDEQUANBUHUOBUFENKUANXIANG。YINCI,ZHOUYIJICHENGDANZHEZHENGGEJIAOYUSHIYEDEZHUYAOZEREN,QIJIAOYUDUDAOBUMENYEQIDAOHONGGUANDUDAODEZUOYONG。DIFANGJIAOYUXINGZHENGJIGOUCHENGXUEQU,SHEJIAOYUWEIYUANHUI,HUOCHENGXUEQUDONGSHIHUI,YIJUEDINGXUEQUJIAOYUJINGFEIHEJIAOSHIGONGZI[8]84。

                  决战棋牌   FAGUOTONGYANGSHELILESANJIJIAOYUDUDAOTIXI:ZHONGYANG、XUEQUHESHENGSANJI。CONGXINGZHENGLISHUSHANGKAN,SHIFENWEIZHONGYANGHEDIFANGLIANGGECENGCI。ZHONGYANGYIJISHEYOUZONGDUDAOJU,XUEQUYIJI,XUEQUJIAOYUTINGSHEYOUDUDAOCHU,SHENGYIJI,SHENGJIAOYUJUSHEYOUDUDAOZU[8]74。

                    日本的教育督导体制可用“两类三级”进行划分。“两类”是指教育督导人员分为文部省的视学官和地方教委的指导主事。“三级”是指文部省、都道府县、市町村三级督导层级。文部省的主要任务是对全国的中小教育和高等教育进行统筹协调,都道府县的主要任务是负责视导道府县的中小学教育,市町村的主要任务是负责该地区的教育视导工作[9]。

                    (二)对督导内容的研究

                    1.国内研究现状

                  决战棋牌   LIZHENRENWEI,JIAOYUDUDAONEIRONGBAOKUODUZHENG、DUXUEHEJIANCEPINGGUSANBUFEN,JIDUIJIAOYUXINGZHENGZHIFAHEJIAOXUEHUODONGJINXINGJIANDUHEZHIDAO,BINGDUIJIAOYUZHILIANGJINXINGJIANCEPINGGU[4]。DANTARENWEIZHANGQIDEZHENGFUZHUDAOSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANGESUDUCHIHUAN,ZAIJIAOYUXINGZHENGZHIFAFANGMIANGUANCHELIDUXIAO,BINGQIEHUSHIDUIJIAOYUZHEFAXIANWENTIDEZHUANYEXINGZHIDAO,PINGGUBIAOZHUNWEIKAOLVDUDAODUIXIANGDEGEXINGHUAFAZHAN。DUICI,TATICHUYIXIAGAIJINYIJIAN:YIDUXUEWEIZHONGDIAN,GUANCHELUOSHIJIAOYUXINGZHENGZHIFA,DAZAOZHUANYEDUDAOTUANDUI,ZHUZHONGXUESHENGGEXINGHUAFAZHAN。

                  决战棋牌   ZHOUHAITAOZHICHU,XIANDAIJIAOYUDUDAOZHUYAOSHIWEIRAO“DUZHENG”“DUJIAO”“DUXUE”HE “PINGGUJIANCE”ZHEISIBUFENZHANKAIDE。RANERDUDAOGONGZUOZAIZHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAIYIXIEXIANZHEWENTI,RUJIAOYUXINGZHENGBUMENBAYIXIEBENYINGZIJILUOSHIDECHANGGUIXINGGONGZUO,ZHIJIEZHUANJIAJIDUDAOBUMEN,SHUANGFANGZAIBUFENGONGZUODEZHIXINGHEJIANDUFANGMIANCHANSHENGLEHUNXIAO,YINERBUNENGZUIDAXIANDUDIFAHUIJIAOYUDUDAODEGONGNENG[5]232。TARENWEIDANGQIANRENGCUNZAI“ZHONGDUQINGDAO”DEWENTI,YINCIXUJIAQIANGZHIDAOXINGDEFUWUGONGZUO。

                    高山艳认为,督导内容涵盖学校管理、课堂教学、招生学籍、课程设置、学生评价等,督导的真正意义在于对学校的教学、课程、文化建设等提出专业化建议并指导其加以完善,最终提高教学质量[10]75。

                    TIANGUANGZERENWEI,YAOJINGENSHIDAIDEBUFA,FUYUJIAOYUDUDAONEIRONGYISHIDAITEXING。WEIRAOBUTONGSHIQIYAOFUYUJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANBUTONGDEDINGYIHEYAOQIUZHEIYIZHONGXINSIXIANG,DUDAOBUMENZAICAIDINGPINGGUBIAOZHUNHEFANGANSHI,YAOTIEHESHIJIFAZHANXUQIU,CONGERSHULIGONGZUOZHONGDEZHONGNANDIANLAIZHIDINGNENGGOUSHIXIANDE、KEXINGXINGGAO、KECAOZUOXINGQIANGDEBIAOZHUN、FANGFAHEZHUNZE[11]。

                    ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,WOGUODEDUDAOGONGZUOZHENGYOUDUZHENGXIANGDUXUEKAOLONG,TONGSHIYEGENGZHUZHONGZHUANYEXINGZHIDAO,YUSHIJUJIN。

                    2.国外研究现状

                  决战棋牌   YINGGUOJIAOYUDUDAODENEIRONGBAOKUOBEIDUDAOXUEXIAODADAOJIAOYUBIAOZHUNDECHENGDU、BEIDUDAOXUEXIAOJIAOYUDEZHILIANG、BEIDUDAOXUEXIAODELINGDAOHEGUANLIZHILIANGJIXUESHENGZAIJINGSHEN、DAODE、SHEHUIHEWENHUAFANGMIANDEFAZHANQINGKUANG[8]70。CIWAI,JINNIANLAIGENGJIAGUANZHUKECHENGGAIGEYIJIZHIQIANZHUANYEPEIYANG。

                  决战棋牌   MEIGUOJIAOYUDUDAOFANWEIJIBENSHANGKEFENWEILIANGGEBUFEN:YISHIDUDAOPINGGUKETANGJIAOXUE,ERSHIDUIJIAOSHIJINXINGDUDAO。ZONGHELAIKAN,MEIGUODEJIAOYUDUDAOZHENGTISHANGZHUZHONGDESHIBANGZHUJIAOSHITISHENGQIZHUANYESUYANG、NENGLIYIJIZONGHESUZHI[12]。

                  决战棋牌   FAGUOJIAOYUDUDAODENEIRONGDAZHIKEFENWEIXINGZHENGFANGMIANDEDUDAOHEJIAOYUJIQITAFANGMIANDEDUDAO。QIZHONGXINGZHENGFANGMIANBAOKUODUIJIAOYUBU、XUEQU、GONGLIXUEXIAODENGJIGOUDEYANJIUHEPINGGU,YIJIYANJIUGUOJIADEJIAOYUZHIDUDENG。JIAOYUJIQITAFANGMIANDENEIRONGZHIDUIJIAOYUTIZHIDEPINGJIA,DUIJIAOSHIJIAOXUEZHILIANGDEPINGJIAJIJIAOSHIZHAOPINDENG[8]76—77。

                    RIBENJIAOYUDUDAODECENGJIBAOKUOZHONGYANG、DIFANGLIANGFANGMIAN。ZHONGYANGDEWENBUSHENGSHIXUEGUANZHUYAOFUZESHEZHIJIAOYUJIGOU,GUANLIXIANGGUANGONGZUO,SHIDIKAOCHA,JINXINGHONGGUANDIAOKONGHEZHIDAO。DIFANGDEZHIDAOZHUSHIFUZESANGEFANGMIAN:JIAOWEISHIWUJUDEGONGZUO、XUEXIAOJIAOYUSHIJIDEDUDAOHEZUZHIJINXIU[13]。

                    (三)对督导人员的研究

                    1.国内研究现状

                    DUDAODUIWUYURENYUANDEZHUANYEHUASHIZHONGSHIWOMENZHUIQIUDEMUBIAO。GAOSHANYANZHICHU,DUDAODUIWUZHUANYEHUASHI:(1)JIAOYUDUDAODEGONGZUONEIRONGJIDUIXIANG;(2)DUDAOZHINENGYOUDUZHENGZHUANXIANGDUXUE,DUDAOXIANGCHANGTAIHUA、SHENRUHUAFAZHAN;(3)SHULIDUDAODUIWUZHUANYEQUANWEI、TISHENGDUDAOSHIXIAODEJIBENSUQIU。TAYECHANSHILEJIAOWEIQUANMIANDEDUDAODUIWUXIANZHUANGYUWENTI:(1)“YIHUALIANGDUOLIANGSHAO”DEDUXUEDUIWUJIEGOUKENENGZUAIDUXUEDUIWUZHUANYEHUAFAZHAN,JI:NIANLINGZHENGTIPIANGAO、TUIXIUXIAOZHANGSHUJIDUO,YIXIANYOUXIUJIAOSHISHAO、JIANZHIDUXUEDUO,ZHUANZHIDUXUESHAO;(2)QUESHAOTONGYIDEDUXUEZHUNRUBIAOZHUN;(3)DUDAONEIRONGFENFANFUZA,QUESHAODUIYINGDEPINGPANBIAOZHUN;(4)DUXUEZHUANYEZIZHUQUANBUCHONGFEN;(5)DUXUEZHUANYEZHISHI、NENGLIBORUO;(6)QUESHAODUXUEZHUANYEJISHUZHIWUZHIDU;(7)ZHIQIANPEIYANG、ZHIHOUPEIXUNQUESHI。TONGSHIJICHUYIXIEDUICE:(1)TIGAOJIAOYUDUDAOTUANDUIDEPINRENYAOQIU:NIANQINGHUA、ZHUANZHIHUA、XUEKEHUA;(2)TANSUOJIANLIDUXUEZHIYEZIGEHEZHUANYEJISHUZHIWUZHIDU;(3)JINYIBUJIANQUANJIAOYUDUDAOJIZHI④JIANQUANDUXUEPEIYANGPEIXUNTIXI[10]74—79。

                    ZUJINGJINGZHICHU,WOGUODUXUEDABUFENMEIYOUDUIJIAOYUJIGOUJINXINGQIANGZHIXINGDUDAODEQUANLIYUNENGLI。ZHEIBUJINYUQIHUISHOUDAOJIAOYUXINGZHENGBUMENDEYINGXIANGYOUGUAN,YEYUDABUFENDUXUEDOUDANRENXIAOZHANG、YUANZHANGDENGXINGZHENGZHIWUYOUGUAN。BINGQIEDUXUEYEBUNENGZHIJIECANYUXIANGGUANZHENGCE、FALVDEJUECE、CAIDING。SUIRANGUOJIAZHENDUIDUXUEDEZHUNRUBIAOZHUN、YAOQIUDENGCHUTAILEYIXIEZHENGCEJIFAGUI,DANYIBUFENRENBINGWEIDADAOGAIBIAOZHUN,ZHEIYEYUWOGUOXIANJIEDUANDUDAODUIWUZHILIANGYOUGUAN,WOGUODUIYUDUDAORENYUANDESHULIANGYUZHILIANGXUQIULIANGDADEWENTIJIDAIJIEJUE。MUQIAN,WOGUODEJIAOYUDUDAODADOUYILINSHIJIANCHAHUOTUJIJIANCHADEFANGSHIJINXING,ERBUSHIJINXINGRICHANGHUOCHANGGUIXINGDEGONGZUO,YINCIXUYAOBUDUANJIADADUDAOGONGZUODEBIZHONG,ZHENGSHIDUDAODEZHONGYAOXING,CUJINDUDAOCHANGGUIHUA,SHIQIGENGYOUXIAODIFUWUYUJIAOYUTIXI[14]。

                    MENGXIAODONGRENWEI,ZERENDUXUEYAOMINGQUEZIJIDEJIAOSEDINGWEI:YIYAOCHENGWEIXUEXIAOGUANLIDE“HEZUOFANG”,ERYAOCHENGWEICHULIGUANXIDE“XIEDIAOFANG”,SANYAOCHENGWEIXUEXIAOFAZHANDE“TUIJIEFANG”。TARENWEIDUDAONEIRONGDEXUANQUYAOJUYOUZHENDUIXING,YAOGUANZHUCHANGGUI、XIJIE,TONGYIDUCHANEIRONGSHIQIKETONGJI、KELIANGHUA。DUDAOJIESHUHOUZERENDUXUEYAOJISHIXIANGXUEXIAO、DUDAOKEJINXINGFANKUI。ZERENDUXUEKEYOUZHENDUIXINGDITICHUJIANSHEXINGYIJIAN,ZHENGQUDUOFANGLIANDONG[15]。

                    2.国外研究现状

                    英国对其教育督导人员——督学的聘任要求非常高,可以用“面面俱到”来形容,督学不但要有丰富的专业知识和较高的专业水平,而且还应对自己本专业以外的其他教育问题有浓厚的探究欲望。除此之外,督学在教学方面也要积累足够的经验并具备卓越的教学表现,另外督学的道德品质、文学素养功底、社会适应的本领等方面也都要有出色的表现。选拔过程同样是非常严格的:面试、口头答辩、培训、见习是每名候选人员必须经历的过程,如果有任何一方面达不到国家标准这名候选人都不能继续参加应聘。而通过面试的督学,都要参加严格的培训并通过标准同样严苛的审核,各项全部合格的人员才能正式进入督导团队。国家在督学在任期间也会对其进行不断的评价和考量,其目的在于提高督学的专业能力和自身发展水平[16]。

                  决战棋牌   MEIGUODEJIAOYUDUDAORENYUANFENLIANGZHONG,JIJIAOYUXINGZHENGRENYUANJIANRENDUXUEHEZHUANZHIDUXUERENYUAN。JIANRENDUXUEBAOKUOXUEJIAN、FUXUEJIANHEXIAOZHANGDENG,GEZHOUYIBANHUIXIASHEZHUANZHIDUDAOYUANDAITIQIKAIZHANGONGZUO。ZHIYOUJUBEIZUGOUDEZHUANYEZHISHI、JIAOXUEJINGYANHENENGLICAINENGCHENGWEIJIANZHIDUDAORENYUAN,DANJUTIYAOQIUGENJUQIZHIZEGEBUXIANGTONG。TONGYANGDUIYUZHUANZHIDUDAORENYUANZHUNRUZIGEDEYAOQIUYEBUXIANGTONG,DANDATISHANGDOUWEIRAOXUELI、JINGYAN、ZHUANYEHENIANLINGZHEIJIBUFEN。CHUCIZHIWAI,XUANBAGUOCHENGHAIYAOJIEHEZHUANZHIDUDAORENYUANDEZHISHIJIEGOU、ZHINENGSHUIPINGHEXINGGETEZHENGDEQINGKUANGERDING[17]。

                  决战棋牌   FAGUODUIGEJIDUDAORENYUANPINYONGFANGSHIBUTONG:ZONGDUXUEYISHENYIDEFANGSHIXUANBA,QIZHONGSHOUXIANKAOCHAHOUXUANRENDEJINGLI、ZIGE、XINGGETEDIAN、GONGZUONENGLIYUYEWUSHUIPINGDENG,HEGEHOUZAITONGGUOFUSHENDERENYUANCHENGWEIZHENGSHIDEZONGDUXUE;DUDAORENYUANYISHENYI+SHIXIDEFANGSHIXUANBA,SHENQINGRENYUANBIXUNADAOGUOJIABOSHIXUEWEIHUOZUIGAODEJIAOSHIZIGE,HUOJUYOUXUESHIXUEWEIDESHENGYIJIDUDAO,CENGDANRENGUOGUOMINJIAOYUSHENGDUXUE、SHIFANXUEXIAOHUOGAOZHONGDEXIAOZHANG、DAXUELIDEJIANGSHIHUOJIAOSHOUZHONGDEYIZHONG,TONGGUOCHUXUAN、SHENYI,ZAIJINGLILIANGNIANSHIXIYUCEPINGFANGNENGZHUANZHENG;GUOMINJIAOYUSHENGDUXUEYIKAOSHI+PEIXUN+SHIXIDEFANGSHIXUANBA,BEIXUANRENYUANYAOJUBEIJIAOYUJIAOXUEWENTIDEFENXI、JIEJUESHIJIWENTINENGLIJILINCHANGYINGBIANNENGLI,ZAIJINGGUOLIANGNIANPEIXUNHEYINIANSHIXIZHENGSHICHENGWEIDUXUE[18]。

                  决战棋牌   RIBENQIANGDIAODUDAORENYUANDEZHUANYEXING,JIZHUZHONGXUANZEDUIXIANGDUIJIAOYUDEJIANYIHEZHIDAONENGLI。DUDAORENYUANYIBANSHICONGDAXUEYIWAIDEGONGLIXUEXIAOJIAOSHI、XINGZHENGRENYUANDUIWUZHONGJINXINGXUANBA,DUIYUTAMENDEYAOQIUSHIYAOYOUFENGFUDEXUESHIYULIANGHAODEGEXINGTEZHENGHEPINZHI。LINGWAI,SHULIANZHANGWOGEXIANGFALVFAGUI、GUANLIJINENGHEXUEXIAOGONGZUOTEDIAN,SUISHIGUANZHUXIANDAISHEHUIHEJIAOYUDEDONGTAIJIQUSHI、GENGXINPINGGUJIAOYUGONGZUODEFANGSHIFANGFADENGDOUSHIDUDAORENYUANBIXUJUBEIDENENGLI[19]。

                    二、对我国学前教育督导工作的启示

                    (一)督导机构独立于政府部门,与第三方机构合作密切

                    MUQIAN,WOGUODEJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUZHIYOUZHONGYANGYIJIHEDADUOSHUSHENGDULIYUZHENGFUBUMEN,SHOUZHENGFUZHIJIELINGDAO,SHI、XIANLIANGJIRENGYIFUYUJIAOYUBUMEN[9]242—244。ZHEIZHONGDUDAOJIGOUYOUYURONGYISHOUDAOJIAOYUBUMENDEYINGXIANGHEXIANZHI,CONGERDAOZHIQIGONGNENGDEBUDAOLIANGHAODEFAHUI,SHENZHIXINGTONGXUSHE。SUOYIYAOBUDUANTUIJINHESHENHUAXIAJIDUDAOJIGOUDEXIANGDUIDULI,ERZUIYOUXIAODESHOUDUANJIUSHITONGGUOGUOJIALIFALAISHIXIAN,YINCIGEDIYAOANZHAOGUOJIAJIAOYUDUDAODEDAFANGXIANG,JIANJUEGUANCHELUOSHIGUOJIAZHENGCE、JINGSHENHEZHENGGAIFANGAN。

                    WOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOGONGZUONEIRONGFANZA,YINCIJIDISANFANGJIGOUTIGONGLEHENDADEFAZHANKONGJIAN。GUOJIAYINGDALITICHANGDISANFANGJIGOUDESHELIYUFAZHAN,BINGSHELIMINGQUE、BIAOZHUNYANGEDEZHUNRUZHIDU,ZHENGQUJIANSHEYIPIGAOZHILIANG、ZHUANYEHUADEDISANFANGDUDAODUIWU,YUZHENGFUBUMENDEDUDAOJIGOULIANGHAOPEIHE,XINGCHENGYIGUJIANDUHELI。

                    (二)督导内容以督学为重,从重评价转为重服务、重反馈

                    DANGQIANWOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHONG“DUZHENG”,DANZHEIYESHIFUHEWOGUOGUOQINGHELISHIXUYAODEZHENGQUEXUANZE[8]238—240。YINGZHENGQUEKANDAIZHEIYIWENTI,SUIZHEWOGUOJIAOYUGENGJIAGUIFANHUADEFAZHAN,BINGXIQUGUOWAIJIAOYUDUDAODECHENGGONGJINGYAN,WOGUODUDAOGONGZUODEZHONGXINYEHUIZHUJIANZHUANYIZHI“DUXUE”FANGMIAN。

                    XUEQIANJIAOYUJIGOUBUDUANFAZHAN,TAMENDUIYUZHUANYEZHIDAODEXUQIURIYIZENGJIA,YINCIJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUYAODUIBEIDUDAODANWEIJIAQIANGZHIDAO,BAFAXIANDEWENTIJISHIFANKUIJIBEIDUDAOJIGOU,DUCUBINGGENZONGQIGAIJIN。TONGSHI,JIANGDUDAOJIEGUOJISHIFANKUIJISHANGJIBUMEN,BINGXIANGSHEHUIGONGKAI。

                    DUDAOSHIYEYINGZHUZHONGNEIRONGDESHIYINGXINGYULINGHUOXING,ZHENDUIBUTONGDUDAODUIXIANGLINGHUOYINGBIAN,JICHUSHIHEQIFAZHANDEZHIDAOYUFANKUIYIJIAN。

                    (三)督导队伍专业化

                  决战棋牌   DANGQIANWOGUODUIYUDUDAORENYUANDEXUANPINHAIMEIYOUJUTIHUADEBIAOZHUN,ZHENGTIZHUANYESHUIPINGBUGAO。GENJUFADAGUOJIADECHENGGONGJINGYAN,WOGUOYEYAOJIANLIGAOBIAOZHUN、ZHUANYEHUADEZHUNRUZHIDU,BINGJIYUQIXIANGYINGDEDIWEIYUDAIYU,FUYUQIYIDINGDEQIANGZHIXINGQUANLIHEJUEZENENGLI。

                  决战棋牌   DUDAORENYUANCHULEJUYOUGAOXUELI,HAIYINGJUYOUMINRUIDEXINXISHOUJINENGLI,XIANGYINGDEGUANLI、ZHIDAO、PINGGUNENGLI,HAIYAOYOUJIAOQIANGDEGOUTONG、SHIBIE、YINGBIANNENGLI,LIANGHAODEXINGGETEZHENGHEZIWOFAZHANYUTISHENGDEYISHI。DUIYUDUDAORENYUANDEPEIXUNHEGUANLIYESHITISHENGDUDAODUIWUZHUANYEHUASHUIPINGDEZHONGYAOBUFEN。

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                  决战棋牌   [19]沈卫理.教育督导概论[M].大连:辽宁师范大学出版社,1996:130.

                    张颖,李姬.国内外教育督导研究现状及其启示[J].黑龙江教师发展学院学报,2020,39(01):13-15. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200316/8285393.html   

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