决战棋牌

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                                  1. 改革开放至今教育督导制度演进历程与成因

                                    摘 要: 教育督导是国家教育基本制度之一,我国现行教育督导制度是在改革开放后逐渐恢复与发展起来的。从不同维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁路径是不同的。从议程设置维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁有自上而下与自下而上两种路径。从价值取向维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁有
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                                      摘 要: 教育决战棋牌督导是国家教育基本制度之一,我国现行教育督导制度是在改革开放后逐渐恢复与发展起来的。从不同维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁路径是不同的。从议程设置维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁有自上而下与自下而上两种路径。从价值取向维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁有激进性与渐进性两种路径。从举措动因维度来分析,教育督导制度变迁有强制性与诱致性两种路径。改革开放四十多年来,我国教育督导制度变迁在三重维度路径均有发生,每一重维度上的路径变迁皆具有双重性特征,相互补充。影响教育督导制度变迁路径形成的原因多种多样,各种不同原因之间交互作用与交互影响。为消解教育督导制度变迁中存在的阻力,一方面需要进一步提升我国教育督导的行政地位,另一方面需要不断地提升教育督导组织自身持续地自我学习能力。未来我国教育督导制度变迁仍然会在三个维度上发生,每一维度上的变迁皆有相应的适应性要求。

                                      关键词: 教育督导制度; 教育改革; 教育基本制度;

                                      Abstract: As a basic national education system, education supervision in China has experienced stages of recovery and development since the reform and opening-up. The paths of changes in the education supervision may diverse in the analysis from different dimensions. Based on the agenda-setting dimension, there are top-down and bottom-up paths. Based on value-orientation dimension, there are radical and progressive paths. Based on the causal dimension, there are mandatory and induced paths. During over forty years of reform and opening-up, education supervision has experienced changes from all the three dimensions, and each dimension indicates dual but complimentary characteristics. Additionally, there are kinds of causes for education supervision change and they interact with each other. For the purpose of eliminating the resistance of educational supervision change, administrative status of education supervision should be enhanced further. On the other hand, the continuing learning ability of education supervision organizations should be improved. In the future, education supervision change will keep moving forward on the three dimensions and meet the unique needs from each dimension.

                                      Keyword:决战棋牌 education supervision system; education reform; basic education system;

                                      我国教育督导制度始建于西周时期,至今已经有三千余年的历史。古代社会的教育督导主要是一项天子治教与视学活动,其存在一直延续到清代。中华民国时期教育督导成为了教育行政组织的一项重要职能。新中国成立后,教育督导制度也随着教育体系的建立得以建立,但文化决战棋牌***期间被迫中断。1977年在邓小平的指示与倡议下才得到恢复,一直发展至今。1995年的《教育法》将教育督导制度确定为国家的一项基本教育制度,极大地提升了教育督导的法制地位,自此,教育督导制度便成为了我国教育制度体系不可或缺的一个组成部分。教育督导制度四十余年演进与发展的历史,就是一部教育督导职能及其行政地位变迁的历史。深入认识与理解教育督导制度变迁路径形成的原因,对于今后更好地推进我国教育督导制度变革,合理发挥教育督导职能具有非常重要的意义与价值。

                                      一、教育督导制度变迁的基本路径

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                                      (一)自上而下变迁与自下而上变迁

                                      1.自上而下变迁

                                      我国是一个行政体制比较集中的国家。在教育督导制度变迁过程中,政府尤其是中央政府起着非常重要的作用。在我国历史上最先设立的是中央官学视学制度,其后,地方官学的视学制度才得以设立。新中国成立后不论是教育还是其他领域全国上下都是一盘棋,中央政府主导着教育制度的变迁,教育督导制度变迁也是如此。

                                    改革开放至今教育督导制度演进历程与成因

                                      1991NIAN《JIAOYUDUDAOZANXINGGUIDING》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《ZANXINGGUIDING》)BANBUHOU,GESHENGSHIFENFENGENJUZHEIGEWENJIANZHIDINGYUBANBULEBENSHENGSHIDEJIAOYUDUDAOZANXINGGUIDING,CONGERCHUBUXINGCHENGLEQUANGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEJIBENKUANGJIATIXI。CONG1991NIANDAO2012NIANGUOJIACENGMIANDEJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIJIANSHEJIBENCHUYUTINGZHIZHUANGTAI,DIFANGJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIJIANSHE,CHUNINGXIA、HUNAN、SHENZHEN、SHAMENDENGSHAOSHUDEJIGESHENGQUSHI,QITASHENGQUSHIJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIJIANSHEJIBENSHANGYECHUYUTINGZHIZHUANGTAI。2012NIANGUOJIABANBU《JIAOYUDUDAOTIAOLI》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《DUDAOTIAOLI》)YIHOU,GESHENGSHIDOUYICIWEIYIJU,LUXUKAISHIZHIDINGBINGBANBULEBENSHENGSHIDEJIAOYUDUDAOTIAOLI。ZISHANGERXIALUJINGSHIWOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDEYITIAOZHUDAOXINGLUJING。

                                      2.自下而上变迁

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                                      1995NIANSHENZHENSHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUILVXIANZAIQUANGUOTONGGUOYUBANBULE《SHENZHENJINGJITEQUJIAOYUDUDAOTIAOLI》,CIHOU,SHAMENSHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUI(1998NIAN)、NINGXIAHUIZUZIZHIQURENMINDABIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUI(2004NIAN)、HUNANSHENGRENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUI(2012NIAN)DENGLUXUBANBULEBENSHENGSHIDEJIAOYUDUDAOTIAOLI。DIFANGJIAOYUDUDAOTIAOLIDEZHIDINGYUSHISHI,WEIGUOJIAJIAOYUDUDAOTIAOLIDEZHIDINGYUSHISHITIGONGLEKEKAODEJINGYAN。DIFANGZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIJIANSHEDEJINBU,YAOQIUGUOJIAJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIJIANSHEJIAKUAIBUFA,2012NIANZAIZONGJIEYUJIEJIANDIFANGJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIJIANSHEJINGYANJICHUSHANG,GUOWUYUANZHENGSHIBANBUYUSHISHILE《DUDAOTIAOLI》。

                                      在2012年国务院教育督导委员会成立以前,天津市已率先成立了天津市人民政府教育督导委员会。2011年天津市为了落实《规划纲要》,成立了由教育委员会、发展改革委员会、财政局、人事局等政府部门的有关领导组成的天津市人民政府教育督导委员会。次年,国家在充分吸收了天津市人民政府教育督导委员会建设经验的基础上,成立了国务院教育督导委员会,组织架构有很多相同之处。

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                                      (二)激进性变迁与渐进性变迁

                                      1.激进性变迁

                                      在激进性教育督导制度变迁中,制度价值取向发生了很大变化,制度变革进展的速度较快,一般是发生在国家与社会发展的特定时期或政治意志、行政权力强势介入时期。在教育督导制度变迁过程中,一旦有政治意志与行政权力的强势介入,就会很容易呈现出典型的激进性特征。在历史上的王朝以及领导人更替时期,常常就是教育督导制度变迁的激进时期。这种激进性要么会导致教育督导制度的消亡,要么会促进一种具有新的适应性的教育督导制度形成。

                                      1949年11月1日,中央人民政府教育部成立,并在原华北人民政府高等教育委员会研究室、华北人民政府教育部视导室、资料科等几个单位基础上组建了视导司,与民国末期教育督导机构相比存在着较大差异,它是适应新中国教育事业发展需求而建立起来的,是为人民大众服务的。新中国初期设立的教育督导制度沿用了近20年,之后受十年***影响,教育督导制度几近消亡。***结束以后,我国教育督导制度在邓小平的指示与推动下得到了恢复,但行政地位也与建国初期有较大的差异。可以说,从建国初期一直到***结束,是我国教育督导制度变迁振荡比较剧烈的时期。

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                                      2.渐进性变迁

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                                      (三)强制性变迁与诱致性变迁

                                      1.强制性变迁

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                                      2.诱致性变迁

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                                      二、不同维度教育督导制度变迁路径的成因

                                      (一)议程设置维度

                                      教育行政管理制度变迁路径多为自上而下的,而教育督导制度变迁与其他很多教育行政管理制度变迁不同,其变迁路径是自上而下与自下而上的结合,并以自上而下为主,自下而上为辅。

                                      我国是一个教育管理体制相对集中的国家,在一个权力相对集中的管理体制中,下一级地方政府对上一级政府的行政命令与政策具有很强的依赖性,进而会导致地方政府在推进教育督导制度变迁过程中存在着一定的惰性。在相对集中的管理体制中,上一级政府在推进教育督导制度变迁过程中具有很高的活跃性,其典型表现是频繁地制定与颁布一些规章制度决战棋牌以及政策法令,来对下级政府教育管理行为进行规范。同时,上下级政府之间的教育督导行为也具有很高的一致性,下级政府的督导行为多是依据上级政府教育督导政策与指令而产生的。上级政府的教育管理规章制度,甚至是教育管理行为是下级政府教育管理行为及其制度制定的依据与合法性源泉。在推进自上而下教育督导制度变迁过程中,各级政府组织领导人在其中起到了非常重要的作用。“改革项目有各种各样的起源。作为政治抱负,改革会受制于党派之争、政治家个人的特点及政治思想的大气候。”3众所周知,***结束后我国教育督导制度的恢复就是在时任国家领导人邓小平同志指示与推进下建立起来的。2012年国家颁布了《督导条例》,并成立了国务院教育督导委员会。此后,地方各级政府依次成立了人民政府教育督导委员会,并纷纷制定与颁布了本行政区的教育督导条例。

                                    决战棋牌   ZAIXIANGDUIJIZHONGDEXINGZHENGTIZHIZHONG,ZISHANGERXIAJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANCUNZAIZHELIANGFANGMIANWENTI:DIYI,XIAJIZHENGFUTUIJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANZHENGCEYIJUGONGJIDECHIZHIXING。JISHANGJIZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUBUNENGJISHIJIXIAJIZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUJISHIDITIGONGKEKAODEZHENGCEYIJUYUXINGDONGZHILING。DIER,SHANGYIJIZHENGFUTUIJINDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDUIDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANTESHUXUQIUHUIYINGXINGBUGAO。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,GUANLITIZHIYUESHIJIZHONGTONGYI,DIYUWENHUAYUQUYUFAZHANCHAYIYUEDA,SHANGYIJIZHENGFUTUIJINDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDUIDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANTESHUXUQIUSUOJIYUDEHUIYINGXINGJIUHUIYUEDI。ZAIXIANGDUIJIZHONGDEXINGZHENGTIZHIZHONG,JINJINYIKAOSHANGJIZHENGFUJIGOUTUIJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANSHINANYISHIYINGFENFANFUZADEDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANXUQIUDE。YINCI,XIAYIJIZHENGFUWEILEJIBENQUYUJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANTIGONGJISHIDEQIESHIKEKAODEZHIDUBAOZHANG,JIUKENENGHUIXIANYUSHANGJIZHENGFUTUIDONGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUCHUANGXINYUBIANGE。XIAYIJIZHENGFUZAITUIJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUCHUANGXINGUOCHENGZHONGHUIJILEIYIXIEGAIGEJINGYAN,TONGSHIYEHUICHANSHENGYIDINGDESHIFANXIAOYING,YINCI,SHANGJIZHENGFUJIUHUITONGGUOZHAOKAIXIANCHANGHUI、YANTAOHUIDENGXINGSHIYUSHOUDUANJIJIXUANCHUANTUIGUANGXIAJIZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOJINGYAN,BINGYOUKENENGHAIHUIZEJISHISHIDITUIJINBENJIZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEBIANGE,YINERZAIWOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONGXINGCHENGLELINGWAIYIZHONGLUJING,JIZIXIAERSHANGDELUJING。

                                      ZISHANGERXIADEBIANQIANLUJINGZHUYAOSHISHOUWOGUOXIANGDUIJIZHONGDEJIAOYUGUANLITIZHIYINSUYINGXIANGERXINGCHENGDE,ZIXIAERSHANGDEBIANQIANLUJINGZESHIWEIPOJIETIZHISHUFUZAISHIYINGBENQUYUJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANXUQIUGUOCHENGZHONGERXINGCHENGDE。QIANZHESHIZAISHANGJIZHENGFUZHUDAOXIAXINGCHENGDE,HOUZHESHIZAIXIAJIZHENGFUXIANDAOXIAFASHENGDE。GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,WOGUOSUOXINGCHENGDEYIZISHANGERXIAWEIZHU、ZIXIAERSHANGWEIFUDEBIANQIANLUJING,CHONGFENTIXIANLEWOGUOJIAOYUGUANLITIZHIYUJIAOYUSHIYENEIZAIFAZHANZHANGLIDESHUANGZHONGTEDIANYUXUQIU。

                                      (二)价值取向维度

                                      RENDEJIAZHIGUANNIANDEGAIBIANZONGSHIXUYAOYOUYIGEGUOCHENG,JUYOUHENQIANGDEJIANJINXINGTEDIAN。YURENDEJIAZHIGUANNIANBIANQIANBUTONG,ZUOWEIJIAOYUZHENGCEYUJIAOYUZHIDUJIAZHILINIANDEBIANQIAN,JIKENENGSHIJIANJINDE,YEKENENGSHIJIJINDE。YOUYURENHEYIXIANGZHENGCEYUZHIDUZAISHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG,DOUCUNZAIZHELIANXUXINGYUWENDINGXINGYAOQIU,YINCI,ZHEIJIUJUEDINGLEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANHUIXINGCHENGYIJIANJINXINGWEIZHU,JIJINXINGWEIFUDEJIBENGEJU。

                                    决战棋牌   XIANGDUIYUGETIXUANZEERYAN,ZHIDUXUANZEJUYOUGENGGAODEJIHUICHENGBENYUJIHUIXIAOYI,YINWEIZHIDUBUJINJUYOUGUANGFANDEYUESHULI,ERQIEYEJUYOUHENGAODEZHIDUGUANXING。RENHEYIZHONGJUYOUGAOJIHUICHENGBENYUXIAOYIDEZHIDU,QIBIANGEDOUJUYOUHENQIANGDUOXING,YOUQISHIXIANGDUIYUJIJINSHIBIANGEERYANGENGSHIRUCI。DAN,YOUYUZHIDUSUOGUIYUEDEDUIXIANGZONGSHICHUZAIBUDUANDIBIANHUAYUFAZHANZHIZHONGDE,YINCI,ZHIDUZHIXINGYIDUANSHIQIYIHOU,DUIWAIBUXITONGFAZHANBIANHUADEXUQIUJIUHUICHANSHENGYIDINGDEBUSHIYINGXING。ZAIZHEIZHONGQIANTIXIA,YIZHONGZHIDUWEILEGENGHAODISHENGCUNXIAQUJIUXUBUDUANDITISHENGSHIYINGNENGLI,ZHEIGEGUOCHENGSHIJISHANGJIUSHIYIGEJIANJINXINGZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENG。WOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUJIANJINXINGBIANQIANBUJINTIXIANZAILINIAN、RENWUCENGMIAN,ERQIEYETIXIANZAIJIAOYUDUDAOFAZHIDIWEIDENGZHUDUOFANGMIAN。QIXINGCHENGDEGENBENYUANYIN,YIFANGMIANHEQIANSHUDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEYUESHULI、ZHIDUGUANXINGYIJIBIANGEDEGAOJIHUICHENGBENYUGAOJIHUIXIAOYIYOUGUAN,LINGYIFANGMIANYEYUWOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOXINGZHENGZUZHIDIWEIRUOHUAYOUMIQIELIANXI。WOGUOJIAOYUDUDAODIWEIRUOHUAZAI21SHIJIDIYIGESHINIANYIQIANSHIYIGEBUZHENGDESHISHI。2005NIAN9YUE26RI,JIAOYUBUZAIGUANGDONGFOSHANZHAOKAILEQUANGUOJIAOYUDUDAOGONGZUOHUIYI,YUHUIDAIBIAOWEIRAOZHERUHETIGAOJIAOYUDUDAODIWEIWENTIJINXINGLEJILIEDEZHENGLUN:YIBUFENRENRENWEIYOUWEICAINENGYOUWEI;LINGYIBUFENRENRENWEIYOUWEI(ZHEILIDEWEIYUQIANYIGEWEIJIESHIZHIXINGZHENGDIWEI)CAINENGYOUWEI。TAOLUNZHISUOYIRUCIJILIE,ZHUYAOYUANYINZAIYUJIAOYUDUDAOZAIDANGSHITIZHINEIBUXINGZHENGDIWEIDERUOWEI。JIAOYUDUDAOXINGZHENGYUFALVDIWEIDERUOHUA,BIRANHUIZENGJIAQIBIANQIANDENANDU,ZHEISHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUFASHENGJIANJINXINGBIANQIANDELINGYIZHONGYAOYUANYOU。

                                    决战棋牌   BINGFEISHISUOYOUDEWENTITONGGUOJIANJINXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDOUNENGGOUDEDAOYOUXIAOJIEJUEDE。DANGMAODUNJIHUADAOYIDINGCHENGDUSHI,JIJINSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUKENENGHUIFASHENG。“DANGXIANXINGDEJUECEXIANGDUIRENMENSUOXIWANGDELAISHUOBINGBUNENGCHANSHENGLINGRENMANYIDEJIEGUOSHI,CANYURENHUIJIAODACHENGDUDIXIUGAIHUOZHONGSHEGUIZEXITONG,YOUQISHIKAISHISOUXUNHESHIYANSHEJIDAOKUODACELVEQIYONGJIHEWEIDUDEXINJUECEGUIZE。”4GAIGEKAIFANGHOUJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUFASHENGDEJIJINSHIBIANQIANZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANDEYUANYIN:DIYI,FADINGRENWUDEXINZHI。JIAOYUDUDAODEZHONGYAOMUDEYURENWUZHIYIJIUSHIYAOBAOZHANGJIAOYUFALVFAGUIDEDAOYOUXIAODEGUANCHEYUZHIXING,YINCI,DANGFADINGRENWUBEIXINZHIHOUJIJINSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUHUIFASHENG。RUYIWUJIAOYUJUNHENGFAZHANMUBIAOZAI2006NIANBEINARUDAO《YIWUJIAOYUFA》HOU,ZAIGUOJIAYUDIFANGGEJIZHENGFUCENGMIANJUNJIANLIQILECUJINYIWUJIAOYUJUNHENGFAZHANDEDUDAOPINGGUZHIDUYUZERENQUDUXUEZHIDU。DIER,JIAOYUXINGZHENGLINIANDEGENGTI。JIAOYUXINGZHENGLINIANGENGTIZHUYAOFASHENGZAILINGDAOZHIWEIGENGDIEYIJIYIBANGONGGONGXINGZHENGZHIDUZHONGDAGAIGESHIQI。ZAIXINGZHENGGUOCHENGZHONG,XIAJICHULEYAODUIGONGZUOBENSHENFUZEYIWAI,HAIXUYAODUISHANGJIFUZE。JIAOYUDUDAOSHIGONGGONGXINGZHENGDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,DANGGONGGONGXINGZHENGZHIDUFASHENGZHONGDABIANGEYIHOU,NEIME,JIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUYEHUISUIZHIFASHENGZHONGDABIANGE。YINCI,BULUNSHICHUXIANLINGDAOZHIWEIGENGDIE,HAISHIGONGGONGXINGZHENGZHIDUDEZHONGDABIANGEDOUKENENGHUICHANSHENGJIJINXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。DISAN,FAZHANLUJINGDEZIXUN。CHUIZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOTIZHICUNZAIDEYIGEZHONGYAOWENTI,JIUSHIZHIDUSHEJIQUESHAODUIDIFANGJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANXUQIUHUIYINGXING。SUOYI,YIXIEDIFANGJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUWEILENENGGOUGENGHAODIBAOZHANGBENQUYUJIAOYUSHIYEDEFAZHAN,JIANLILEJUYOUCHUANGXINXINGTEZHENGDEJIAOYUDUDAOPINGGUZHIDU,RUSHANGHAIYIXIEQUXIANDEFAZHANXINGDUDAOPINGGUZHIDU,BEIJINGHAIDIANQUDEXUEKEDUDAOPINGGUZHIDUDENGDENG。ZHEIXIANGDUIYUXIANQIANDEJIAOYUDUDAOPINGGUZHIDUERYANJUYOUHENDADETUPOXINGYUCHUANGXINXING,ZAIBAOZHANGDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGQIDAOLEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

                                      (三)举措动因维度

                                    决战棋牌   WOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOTIZHISHICHUIZHIXINGDE,ZAIZHEIZHONGTIZHIZHONGBUTONGCENGJIZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOXINGWEIJUYOUHENGAODEYIZHIXINGYUTONGYIXING。YINCI,ZHIDUBIANQIANGENGDUOQINGKUANGXIASHIZAIQIANGZHIXINGCUOSHIBAOZHANGXIAFASHENGDE。GAIGEKAIFANGYIHOUWOGUOFASHENGDEQIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANYUANYINZHUYAOYOUYIXIALIANGFANGMIAN:(1)GUOJIAJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANRENWUYUXINGSHIQUDONG。JIAOYUDUDAOZHONGXINDEZHUANYIYIJIJIAOYUDUDAOJIBENZHIDUDEJIANLI,JIEYUGUOJIAYIJIDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANRENWUYUXINGSHIYOUGUAN。ZAI20SHIJI80NIANDAIZHONGHOUQIWOGUOYIWUJIAOYUFABANBUYIHOU,PUJIYIWUJIAOYUSHIWOGUOJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANDEYIXIANGGENBENXINGRENWU,YINCI,JIAOYUDUDAOZHINENGDINGWEIZHUYAOSHIDUZHENGERBUSHIDUXUE,ERDANGYIWUJIAOYUPUJIYIHOU,TISHENGZHILIANGYUCUJINGONGPINGCHENGWEILEWOGUOJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOZHUTI,GEJIZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOZHINENGZHONGXINDINGWEIYESUIZHIZHUJIANDICONGDUZHENGZHUANYIDAODUXUEZHONGLAI。JIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANRENWUYUXINGSHIDEZHUANBIAN,JUEDINGLEJIAOYUDUDAOZHINENGDEZHONGXINYESUIZHIFASHENGLEXIANGYINGDEZHUANBIAN。ERZAICUJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHINENGZHONGXINZHUANBIANGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENGFUSUOFAHUIDEZUOYONGZHUYAOSHIQIANGZHIXINGDE,ERFEIYOUZHIXINGDE。KEYIXIANGXIANGRUGUOMEIYOUGEJIZHENGFUDEQIANGZHITUIDONG,NEIME,JIAOYUDUDAOZHINENGDEZHONGXINSHINANYISHIXIANSHUNLIZHUANHUANDE。(2)FALVGUIDINGDEYIZHI。1995NIAN《JIAOYUFA》BANBU,JIANGJIAOYUDUDAOGUIDINGWEIGUOJIADEYIXIANGJIAOYUJIBENZHIDU。2006NIAN《YIWUJIAOYUFA》XIUDINGHOU,JIANGBAOZHANGYIWUJIAOYUJUNHENGFAZHANZUOWEIRENMINZHENGFUJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUDEYIXIANGZHONGYAORENWU。ZHEILIANGBUFALVDEBANBU,WEIWOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANTIGONGLEQIANGYOULIDEBAOZHANG,SHIDEGEJIJIAOYUDUDAOZUZHITIXIJIANSHEDEDAOLEJIDAWANSHANYUJIAQIANG,WEICUJINYIWUJIAOYUJUNHENGFAZHAN,DUDAOZHIDUZAIDIFANGGEJIZHENGFUCENGMIANYEBEIQIANGZHIXINGDIJIANLIQILAI。

                                    决战棋牌   JIAOYUXITONGSHIFENFANFUZADE,JIAOYUBIANGEBENSHENCHONGMANZHEZHUDUODEBUQUEDINGXING。“BIANGEYUEFUZA,NINENGPOSHITAZUODESHIQINGJIUHUIYUSHAO。”5XIANGDUIYUQITALINGYUDEBIANGEERYAN,JIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANSHOUKONGYINSUGENGDUO,QIBIANGEZEGENGWEIFUZA,ZHEIJIUJUEDINGLEBUNENGJIANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANSUOMIANLINDEWENTIJIETONGGUOQIANGZHIXINGLAIJIEJUE,FOUZE,HUINANYISHIYINGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANDEFUZAXINGXUQIU。YINCI,JIBIANSHIZAICHUIZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOTIZHIZHONGYEBIJIANGHUICUNZAIYOUZHIXINGBIANQIANDEFASHENG。GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,DAOZHIWOGUOYOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANFASHENGDEYUANYINZHUYAOYOUYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN:(1)GUOWAIJIAOYUDUDAOGAIGEDEYINGXIANG。20SHIJI90NIANDAIHOUDUIWOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANYINGXIANGBIJIAODADEGUOJIAYIGESHIYINGGUO,LINGYIGESHIFAGUO。YINGGUOSHIXINGDESHIFAZHANXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDU,20SHIJI90NIANDAIWOGUOSHANGHAISHI、GANSUSHENGBUFENDIQUFENBIEYIBUTONGFANGSHICHUANGZAOXINGDIYINRULEYINGGUOFAZHANXINGDUDAOPINGGUZHIDU,MUQIANZHEIZHONGZHIDURENGZAIHENDUODIFANGJIAOYUDUDAOJIGOUZHONGYANYONG。FAGUOSHIXINGDESHIDUXUEFENLEIZHIDU,FAGUODUXUEFENWEIXINGZHENGDUXUEYUXUEKEDUXUELIANGLEI。SHOUFAGUODUXUEFENLEIZHIDUGAIGEYINGXIANG,2015NIANBEIJINGSHIHAIDIANQULVXIANJIANLILEXUEKEDUDAOZHIDU,ZHEIXIEGAIGEJIESHIDIFANGZHENGFUWEILEGENGHAODIBAOZHANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANERZIFATUIJINDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEBIANGE。(2)JIAOYUDUDAOZUZHIZISHENXUEXILIDEGAODI。GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,YOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANFASHENGZAIWOGUONEIXIEZISHENXUEXILIBIJIAOGAODEJIAOYUDUDAOZUZHIZHIZHONG。GAIGEBUJINXUYAOQUANLI,TONGSHIYEXUYAOYONGYOUNENGGOUKEFUYUJIEJUEGAIGEZHONGCENGCHUBUQIONGWENTIDENENGLI,YOUQISHINENGGOUCHIXUTISHENGJIEJUEZHUANYEJISHUWENTIDENENGLI。“JIUJINGNAZHONGXINNIANXITONGZUIZHONGCHENGWEIYUQISHOUYIDEJUJIAODIAN,JINERCHENGWEIYIZHONGXINZHIDU,ZHUYAOQUJUEYUXUEXI、MOFANG、SHIYINGHEDUOXINGRUHEZAIXIANGGUANLINGYUZHIJIANXIANGHUZUOYONG,ZUIZHONGQUYUWENDING。”6GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,WOGUOFAZHANXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANZHUYAOFASHENGZAISHANGHAISHI、TIANJINSHIDENGDEYIXIEQUXIAN,XUEKEDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANFASHENGZAIBEIJINGSHIHAIDIANQU,BULUNSHIBEIJING、SHANGHAI,HAISHITIANJIN,ZHEIXIEJIAOYUDUDAOZUZHIZISHENJIEJUYOUHENGAODEXUEXILI。XUEXILIGAODISHIYINGXIANGBINGBAOZHANGYOUZHIXINGBIANQIANFASHENGJICHENGGONGDEYIGEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN。

                                      三、未来教育督导制度变迁路径的选择

                                    决战棋牌   JIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANXUYAOLIANGGEQIANTITIAOJIAN:QIYI,GUOJIAYUDIFANGLINGDAORENDEZHONGSHI。QIER,JIAOYUDUDAOZISHENDEJIJIZUOWEI、ZHENGDANGZUOWEIYUYOUXIAOZUOWEI。ZAIJIAOYUDUDAOZISHENXINGZHENGDIWEIYIBEIRUOHUADEQIANTIXIA,ZHIYOUZAIBAOZHANGJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGNENGGOUJIJIYOUWEI、ZHENGDANGZUOWEIHEYOUXIAOZUOWEI,CAINENGGOUTISHENGJIAOYUDUDAOXINGZHENGDIWEIYUXINGZHENGQUANWEIXING,CUJINJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEGENGHAODIFAZHAN。ZAIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,LUJINGDEXUANZEZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGHUIJUEDINGZHEBIANQIANDECHENGBAI。

                                      (一)自上而下变迁抑或自下而上变迁

                                      WEILETIGAOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEGUIFANXING、HUIYINGXINGYIJICHUANGXINXING,ZAITUIJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONGJIUXUYAOCAIQUZISHANGERXIAYUZIXIAERSHANGXIANGJIEHEDELUJING。

                                      ZAIZISHANGERXIADEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANZHONG,SHANGCENGZHENGZHIYUXINGZHENGYIZHICONGBIANQIANYICHENGDESHELIYIZHIDAOZHONGJIE,DOUQIZHEZHUDAOXINGZUOYONG。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONGJINGUANYEHUIYOUMINZHONGCANYUYIJIMINZHONGYIZHIFANYINGDAOBIANGEHOUDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUZHIZHONG,DANSHI,NEIJINJINSHIYIZHONGZAIZHENGZHIYUXINGZHENGYIZHIZHUDAOXIATISHENGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANHELIXINGDEMOULVEERYI。RUGUOSHIWEILESHIXIANJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANDEGUIFANXING、TONGYIXING,NEIJIUYINGGAITUIJINZISHANGERXIADEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。ZAIBIANGEKENENGHUIYUDAOTIZHIYINSU、CHUANTONGYINSUQIANGLIEZUZHISHI,XUYAOKUAISUTISHENGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEFADINGXIAOLISHI,JIUSHIYITUIJINZISHANGERXIADEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。

                                      ZISHANGERXIADEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANRONGYICHANSHENGDUIDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANYUJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANXUQIUHUIYINGXINGDEQUESHI。YINCI,WEILETIGAODUIYUDIFANGJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANYIJIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANXUQIUDEHUIYINGXING,JIUXUYAOTUIJINLINGYIZHONGBIANQIANXINGSHI,JIZIXIAERSHANGDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。ZAIZIXIAERSHANGDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANLUJINGZHONG,JIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANGEYICHENGDESHELIBUSHIYOUSHANGJIZHENGFUBUMENDEYIZHITUIJINDE,ERSHIYOUXIAJIZHENGFUBUMENYIZHIHUOSHEHUIGONGZHONGYIZHITUIDONGDE。DAN,JIBIANSHIZAIZIXIAERSHANGDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENGFUBUMENZUOYONGDEFAHUITONGYANGYESHIBUKEHUOQUEDE。YINWEIRENHEJUYOUGONGGONGCHANPINSHUXINGDECHANQUANDEQUELI,DOUBIRANHUIYOUZHENGFUDECANYU7。ZHISHIZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,YICHENGDEZUICHUJIANLIZHEBUSHISHANGJIZHENGFUBUMEN,ERSHIXIAJIZHENGFUBUMENYIJISHEHUIGONGZHONGERYI。JINYIBUSHUO,BIANGEYIZHIDESUQIUSHIZIXIAERSHANGXINGCHENGDE,ERBUSHIZISHANGERXIAQIANGLITUIDONGDE。ZAIZIXIAERSHANGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,CUNZAIZHEDUOGECENGJIDEBIANGEZHOUQI,SHANGYICENGJIDUDAOZHIDUBIANGESHIJIANLIZAIXIAYICENGJIDUDAOZHIDUBIANGEJICHUZHISHANGDE。DANGXUYAOTISHENGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDEHUIYINGXING,YIJIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEZHENGDANGXINGYUHELIXINGSHI,SHIYITUIXINGZIXIAERSHANGDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。

                                      (二)激进性变迁抑或渐进性变迁

                                      “DUIYUXIANCUNDEMOUYIXIANGZHIDUERYAN,RUGUOYUZHIDUIYINGDEFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUDEJILEIHAIZHISHIYIGECHUSHIDEJIEDUAN,JINGJICANYUZHEDUIFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUDEXIDEHAIHENSHAO,NEIMEJIUHUIYOUGENGDUODERENYUANYIJIARUCONGSHIZHIDUCHUANGXINDEDUIWUZHIZHONG,YINCI,ZHIDUBIANQIANJIANGCAIQUJIJINBIANQIANDEXINGSHI。”8JIJINSHIZHIDUBIANQIANYUFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUDEXIDEXINGYOUGUAN,RUGUOFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUJUYOUZHUANHUACHENGZHENGSHIZHIDUDEBIYAO,ERZHIDUGUIYUEDEXIANGGUANLIYIQUNTIZAIFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUSHANGDEXIDEXINGHENDI,NEIME,JIJINSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUHUIFASHENG。JIJINSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANYOULIYUTUIJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDECHUANGXIN,DANZAIZHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGHUIYUDAOHENDADEXINLIRENZHIYUJISHUZHICHIBUZUDEZHANGAI。YINCI,JIJINSHIDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANBUJINXUYAOYOUQIANGZHILIZUOBAOZHANG,HAIXUYAOYOUXIANGYINGDEJISHURUANSHILIZUOZHICHI。JIJINSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJUYOUHENDADEFENGXIANXING,YINCI,RUGUOBIANQIANDEFANGXIANGSHIZHENGQUEDE,NEIME,BIANQIANJIUHUIJIJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEDEFAZHANDAILAIHENDADEZHENGSHOUYI,XIANGFAN,ZEKENENGHUIDAILAIHENDADEFUSHOUYI。YINCI,XIANGDUIYUXINLIRENZHIDEZULIYIJIJISHUZHICHIBUZUWENTIERYAN,ZAIJIJINSHIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,XUANZEZHENGQUEDEBIANQIANFANGXIANGYOUWEIZHONGYAO。

                                      DANGFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUCUNLIANGCHAOGUOYIDINGLINJIEZHISHI,DUIYOUXIAODEZHIDUCUNLIANGJIUHUICHANSHENGJIAOQIANGDEJIANJIEXIAOYING,YUCITONGSHIZHIDUBIANQIANCHENGBENJIUHUIZENGJIA,FEIZHENGSHIZHIDUDELEIJIYUCUNLIANGYUDUO,NEIME,ZHIDUBIANQIANDECHENGBENJIUHUIYUGAO,ZHIDUBIANQIANDECHENGBENYUGAO,CHUANGXINYUBIANQIANDESHOUYIJIUHUIYUSHAO8。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,JIUYINGCAIQUJIANJINDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN,ERBUSHIJIJINDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。JIANJINSHIDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDEFENGXIANYUCHENGBENJIAODI,YOULIYUZENGQIANGZHIDUDEWENDINGXING,DANBULIYUSHIXIANJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUDEGENBENCHUANGXIN。JIUJINGSHICAIQUJIJINHAISHIJIANJINDEJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN,ZHUYAOHEBIANQIANYINGXIANGDEFANWEI、XINGZHI、DUIXIANGJIQIYUQIXIAOYINGYOUGUAN。CONGBIANGESUDUKUAIMANLAIFENXI,ZHIDUSHISHIQUDEXIAOYIYUDI,YUYINGCAIQUJIJINBIANQIANFANGSHI,FOUZE,ZEYICAIQUJIANJINBIANQIANFANGSHI。CONGBIANGEQUDECHENGGONGDEKENENGXINGLAIFENXI,WEILEBAOZHANGBIANGENENGGOUQUDECHENGGONG,ZEYICAIQUJIANJINBIANQIANDEFANGSHI,BUYICAIQUJIJINBIANQIANFANGSHI。CONGBIANGEJIAZHIQUXIANGDEZHUANBIANLAIFENXI,YAOQUBIEDUIDAI。DUANQINEIJIAZHIQUXIANGZHUANBIANJIAODADEYICAIQUJIJINDEBIANQIANFANGSHI,FOUZE,YICAIQUJIANJINBIANQIANFANGSHI。

                                      (三)强制性变迁抑或诱致性变迁

                                      QIANGZHIXINGZHIDUBIANQIANZHUYAOSHIZAIZHENGFUZHUDAOXIAFASHENGDE,YINWEIQITAZUZHIBUJUYOUFADINGQIANGZHIXINGQUANLIYULILIANG。DANJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANBINGFEIRENHESHIHOUDOUSHIQIANGZHIDE。DANGZHIDUYIZHIYUZHIDUCHUANTONGGUANNIANYIJIYISHIXINGTAIXIANGDICHUSHI,QIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUHUIFASHENG。ZAIJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUFASHENGZHONGDABIANQIANDESHIQI,WANGWANGXUYAOZHENGFUQIANGZHIXINGQUANLIYULILIANGLAITUIJIN。QIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANBINGFEIYIDINGSHIBUHELIDE,TADEHELIXINGYUJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUCHUANGXINDEYIYIJIAZHIYOUGUAN。RUGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUSHIQULETADECHUANGXINYIYIYUJIAZHI,NEIME,QIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUHUISHIQUTADEHELIXING。DANGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJUYOUZHANLVECHUANGXINDEYIYIYUJIAZHI,YIJISHOUDAOCHUANTONGDEZHIDUGUANNIANYUYISHIXINGTAIDEQIANGLIEZUZHISHI,NEIME,TUIJINQIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANBUJINSHIBIYAODE,ERQIEYESHIHELIDE。

                                    决战棋牌   ZAIQIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,HENRONGYIDAOZHIXINGZHENGQUANLIDELANYONG,CONGERWEIBEIJIAOYUSHIYEYIJIJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYENEIZAIFAZHANXUQIU。DANGXINGZHENGYIZHIYIJIXINGZHENGQUANLILIYISUQIUTONGJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANNEIZAIXUQIUYULUOJIXIANGYIZHISHI,NEIME,TUIJINQIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUSHIBIYAODE。RANER,ZAIQIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,BINGBUSHIRENHESHIHOUDOUNENGBAOZHANGWAIBUZHUTILIYIYUYIZHIXUQIUTONGJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANDENEIZAILUOJIXIANGYIZHI,YINCI,ZHEIJIUHUICHANSHENGLINGWAIYIZHONGTUIJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANXINGSHIDEXUQIU,JIYOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。ZAIYOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANZHONG,ZHENGFUDEZUOYONGBUSHIQIANGZHIXINGDE,ERSHIZHIDAOXINGDE,TASUOQIDAODEZUOYONGZHUYAOSHIBAOZHANGRENMINQUNZHONGDUIYUJIAOYULIYIYUSHOUJIAOYUQUANLIDESUQIUNENGGOUDEDAOMANZU。ZAIYOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHISHIYUJISHUJINBUYINSUYEQIZHEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。YOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANNENGGOUSHIYINGJIAOYUJIAOXUEGUILVYIJIJIAOYUGAIGE、ZHIDUBIANQIANGUILVYAOQIU,JIANGDIBIANQIANSHIBAIFENGXIANYIJIWEIFANGUILVDEBIANQIANXINGWEIDEFASHENG。DANGJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEFAZHANXUQIULEIJIDAOYIDINGCHENGDU,JIAOYUDUDAOZHISHIYUJISHUJINBUYEDADAOYIDINGSHUIPINGYIHOU,XUYAOTUIJINDESHIYOUZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN,ERFEIQIANGZHIXINGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIAN。ZHEIYANGJIUHUIYOUXIAODIJIANSHAOYUFANGKONGJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDEFENGXIANYUCHENGBEN,TIGAOBIANQIANXIAOYI。

                                      四、结语

                                      2012NIANYIQIAN,WOGUOJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANBUJINCUNZAIZHETIZHINEIDIWEIBUGAODEKUNJING,ERQIE,YECUNZAIZHEZHISHIXING、JISHUXINGYIJIYULUNGUANZHUBUZUDEKUNJING。2012NIANYIHOU,JINGKUANGSUIYOUSUOGAISHAN,DANRENGNANYISHIYINGJIAOYUDUDAOSHIYEDALIFAZHANDEXUQIU。ZAIJINHOUCUJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANGUOCHENGZHONG,BUJINXUYAOJINYIBUTISHENGJIAOYUDUDAODEXINGZHENGYUFAZHIDIWEI,YEXUYAOBAOZHANGYOUCHONGZUDENENGGOUYOUXIAOCUJINJIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANDEZHUANYEZHISHI、JISHUYUSHEHUIYULUNDEGONGJI,ZHUAZHUGUOJIAZHONGDAZHENGCEYUBIANGEFASHENGDESHIJI,FOUZE,JIAOYUDUDAOZHIDUBIANQIANJIUHUISHOUDAOZHONGZHONGZUZHI。

                                      JIAOYUDUDAOZAIBAOZHANGYUCUJINJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGJUYOUHENYANGEDEBIANJIYAOQIU,JIBUNENGBUZUOWEI,YEBUNENGGUODUZUOWEI。TONGSHI,QIZUOYONGDEFAHUIJUYOUHENGAODEFANGXIANGXINGYUZHUANYEXINGYAOQIU,FOUZE,YIDANJIAOYUDUDAOZAIFANGXIANGXINGYUZHUANYEXINGSHANGCHULEWENTI,QIZHIDUBIANQIANDEYIYIYUJIAZHIJIUHUIDAWEISHUAIRUO。JIAOYUDUDAOZAIBAOZHANGYUCUJINJIAOYUSHIYEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGSHIYIBASHUANGRENJIAN,TISHENGQIZHUANYEHUASHUIPING,QUEBAOQIZHENGQUEFANGXIANGYUZUOWEIDEHELIBIANJI,SHIBAOZHANGJIAOYUDUDAOBIANQIANQUDELIANGHAOXIAOYIDEZHONGYAOQIANTI。

                                      注释

                                      1[美]丹尼尔·布罗姆利:《经济利益与经济制度》,陈郁等译,上海:上海人民出版社、上海三联书店,第17页。
                                      2孙钱章:《现代领导方法与艺术》,北京:人民出版社,1998年版,第67页。
                                      3[加]本杰明·莱文:《教育改革——从启动到结果》,项贤明等译,北京:教育科学出版社,2004年版,第187页。
                                      4[日]青木昌彦:《比较制度分析》,周黎安译,上海:上海远东出版社,2001年版,第243页。
                                      5[加拿大]迈克尔·富兰:《变革的力量——透视教育变革》,中央教育科学研究所组译,北京:教育科学出版社,2004年版,第30页。
                                      6[日]青木昌彦:《比较制度分析》,周黎安译,第245页。
                                      7程虹:《制度变迁的周期——一个一般理论及其对中国改革的研究》,北京:人民出版社,2000年版,第12页。
                                      8 卢现祥:《新制度经济学》,北京:北京大学出版社,2007年版,第484页。

                                      苏君阳.改革开放以来我国教育督导制度变迁[J].北京师范大学学报(社会科学版),2020(01):30-37. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:http://gxkelong.com/html/zhlw/20200316/8285399.html   

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